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"A good book it like a good name— better than riches.' 



Improvement Era. 



J» ORGAN OF J» 

Young Men's Mutual Improvement 
associations- 



Volume III. 



PUBLISHED BY THE GENERAL BOARD* 



Edited by 
JOSEPH P. SMITH and EDWARD H. ANDERSON. 

HEBER J. GRANT and THOMAS HUU,, Managers. 



Salt Lake City, 
i 899-1900. 



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\)S3^769^ 



HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

CHARLES ELLIOTT PLRXiNS 
MEMORIAL COLLECTION 



The Glofy of God Is Intelligence* 



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Improvement Era, VoL III* 



INDEX TO SUBJECTS: 



PAGE. 

Acts of Special Providence in 
Missionary Experience.... 30, 171 

Advice to Writers 153 

Always Tell Mother 899 

American Port in China, An... 231 
Anecdotes, Collection of 65, 260, 

263,421,424, 426 
Annual M.I. A.Conference,The 634 
Annual Conference of the Im- 
provement Associations, The 

693. 707. 788 
Answers to Manual Questions 236 
Answers to Questions 393, 394* 

553. 556, 557» 956 

Are we Americans?.. 933 

Apostle Lyman's Mission to 

the Indians 510 

Aspirations of Youth 509 

Be Happy, My Boy 273 

Be Not Discouraged 428 

Be, Therefore, Loving 22 

Boer Envoys, and the Relation- 
ship Between England and 

America, The 616 

Boer War, The...._. 860 

Book of Mormon, The Original 

Manuscript of the 61 

Book Review: 

Church Chronology 145 

Life of David W. Patten 478 

Missouri Persecutions 947 

Mormons and M or monism... 477 
Sketches of Missionary Life 238 

Topical Bible, The 478 

Y. M. M. I. A. and Mission- 
ary Hymn and Tone Book 145 

Brigham Young Academy Ex- 
ploring Expedition 543, 937 

Brilliants 443 

British and the Boers, The 37 

Building 858 

Burns, Spiritual Side of. 1 65 

Business Training 658 

Business View of the Word of 

Wisdom 143 

Can We Forget? 481 



PAGE. 

Causes Leading up to the Re- 
formation 280, 338 

Caution Against Debt 622 

Census. The Twelfth 598 

Children Restored to Health... 171 
China, The Revolution in.. 734, 

»53» 927 

Chinese Education 756 

Christ Crucified? On What Day 

Was 89 

Collection Day for the General 

Improvement Fund 152 

Collection of Anecdotes: 
Brother's Definition of Gross 

Darkness, A 426 

Incident of the Camp, An.... 263 

Introduction 65 

Memories of the Past — Re- 
flections on the Fall of Nau- 

voo 424 

There is a Life Beyond 42 1 

Was it Theft? 260 

Consolation 109 

Contrast, A 347 

Corianton 760, 835 

Cupid Interviewed M 348 

Cultivation of Literary Style, 
The M 313 

Death of Chief Washakie 472 

Death of President Franklin 

Dewey Richards 230 

Determined Doer, The 613 

Don't Send My Boy Where 

Your Girl Can't Go 26 

Deference for Sacred Places.... 305 

Editor's Table: 

Airships 946 

American Port in China, An 231 

Anarchy 937 

Annual Conference of the Im- 

?rovement Associations, 
he 693 

Boer Envoys, and the Rela- 
tionship Between England 

and America 616 

Boer War, The 860 

Brigham Young Academy 
Exploring Expedition 543, 937 



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J 



IV 



INDEX TO SUBJECTS. 



PAOK. 

Business View of the Word 

of Wisdom, A 143 

Death of Chief Washakie 472 

Death of President Franklin 

Dewey Richards 230 

Destruction of Galveston 939 

Historic Parallels 703 

How are vou Going to Vote? 943 
"Inspired Translation," The 388 

Lord Russell 941 

Ministers and Money 861 

Ministers and Saltair, The... 782 

Mission Work 471 

Missouri Persecutions 937 

Morality Alone is Insufficient 

for Salvation 778 

Movements in the Religious 

World „ 626 

New Edition of "Succession," 

A 701 

Only Surviving Son of Sid- 
ney Rigrion, The 697 

Original Manuscript of the 

Book of Mormon, The.. 61, 389 
Prayers and Work for the 

Dead 698 

Question on Tithing, A 233 

Reynolds' Chart of Nephite 

and Lamanite History 629 

Roberts' Case, The 307 

Scofield Mine Disaster, The 620 

Seek Wisdom 864 

South African War, The 776 

Talks to Young Men: 

Caution Against Debt 622 

Deference for Sacred Places 305 

Hints on Presiding 386 

Regard for the Priesthood 540 
Visit of Cuban Teachers, The 784 
Ecumenical Conference, Some 

Figures from the 597 

Elder's Return, An 32 

Era as a Text Book, The 72 

Estimate of the Scandinavian 

Jubilee, An 747 

Events of the Month, 79, 155, 
239»3i6, 397.479. 558.636,717, 797, 
876, 957 
Every Progressive President 

Should Answer, Yes 78 

Evil Spirits Rebuked 30 

Experiences in the Life of Pres- 
ident Wilford Woodruff... 161, 359 
Expulsion from Missouri, The 529 

Fatherhood of God, The 595 

First Mission to the Lamanites 10 



PAGE. 

First Vision, The 682 

Flowers for the Dead ; Love for 

the Living 486 

Forgiveness 362 

For the Salvation of S0UIS..329, 412 

Friendly Handclasp, The 275 

Friendship, Love and Truth.... 926 

General Conference, Y. M. M. 

I. A 476 

Gentleman and a Scholar, A... 767 

Gibson, Walter M 395 

Gift of Tongues and Prophecy, 

The 30 

Give Yourself. 47° 

God's Kin- 746 

Gospel Studies: 

Reality and Significance of 

Heaven and Hell, The 198 

Gross Darkness, A Brother's 

Definition of 426 

Harvest Time 87 

Healing, Two Cases of. 33 

Helaman 571 

Helen Keller 896 

He Liveth Long Who Liveth 

Well 843 

Hints on Presiding- 3&6 

His Inspiration.. 174 

Historic Parallels 703 

History ot Religions, The Paris 

Congress of the 69 

Holy Ghost, The Mission and 

Necessity of the 116 

Hop-picking in Kent 611 

Humble Devotion vs. Military 

Glory- .". 300 

How I Became a " Mormon" ... 23 
How I Obtained a Testimony of 

the Gospel 493 

How Shall We Preach? no 

Important Instructions to Mu- 
tual Improvement Workers.. 548 

Incident of the Camp, An 263 

Independence Day in Mexico.. 645 
Indians, Apostle Lyman's Mis- 
sion to the 510 

Inhabitants of Samoa, Their 
Social Life and Customs. The 44 

In Lighter Mood 71, 148, 

235» 3". 547» 631, 706, 786, 

867, 951 
"Inspired Translation," The... 388 
Instructions to Missionaries.. ... 1 26 

In the Andes- 857 

In the Stillness 95 



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INDEX TO SUBJECTS. 



PAGE. 

Is it the Dawn of the Millen- 
nium? 9 X 4 

Jesus and Joseph— History Re- 
peating Itself 721 

Joseph Smith from a Philo- 
sophic Point of View 38 

Kingdom of Heaven, The -401, 496 
Kruger, An Opinion of Paul... 724 

Labor, The Nobility of. 81 

Lamanites, First Mission to the 10 

Learning to Sing 886 

Let Each Man Learn to Know 

Himself 299 

Letters from Missionaries: 

A Dream 614 

Honor Your Parents 518 

Way Cleared, The 679 

Purity 517 

Who Will Join this Cause ?... 680 

Word of Wisdom 614 

Life and Labors of Sidney Rig- 
don, The 

....97, 218, 265, 350, 458, 487, 579 

Life oi Davtd W. Patten 478 

Light, Truth and Love 932 

Lighter Mood, In 71, 148, 

235.3"»547i63i»7° 6 ,786,867, 949 
Liquid Air, and some of the 

Extravagant Claims Made for 

It 51 

Little Things 34 

Loving Words 185 

Magic Word, The 733 

Make Good Use of God's Gifts 

to You 383 

Man, Nature and Origin of, 
from the Standpoint of Rev- 
elation and Reason 816 

Manual, 1 900-1 901 477 

Manuscript Found , The 

241, 377, 451 

Memories of the Past 424 

Method of Roll Call, A- 149 

Methods and Motives of Science, 

The 250 

Ministers and Money- 861 

Ministers and Saltair, The 782 

Mission and Necessity of the 

Holy Ghost, The 116 

Missionaries, Instructions to ... 126 
Missionaries, Their Preparation 

and Labor, The 75 

Missionary Labor 715 



Mission Work 471 

M. I. Work in San Francisco- 315 
Mohammed and the Saracens.. 503 
Morality Alone is Insufficient 

for Salvation 778 

Mormons and Mormonism 477 

Mother's Dues- 770 

Movements in the Religious 

World 626 

Mutual Improvement Speakers' 

Contest, The 

632, 666, 673, 683, 741, 829 

My Kingdom 259 

My Prayer- 208 

Nature and Origin ot Man, from 
the Standpoint of Revelation 

and Reason 816 

Nature's Testimony 114 

Necessity of Officers'. Meetings 151 
Nephite's Commandments to 
his Three Sons, A: 

Corianton 760, 835 

Helaman 571 

Shiblon - 653 

New Edition of " Succession," 

A 701 

Nobility of Labor , The 81 

Notes 146, 234, 310, 

390,475. 545.630, 704, 785» 865, 949 

Only Surviving Son of Sidney 

Rigdon, The 696 

On What Day was Christ Cru- 
cified?- 89 

Opinion of Paul Kruger, An... 724 

Organization 384 

Original Manuscript of the 

Book of Mormon, The 61, 389 

Origin of Some Popular War 

Songs 328 

Our Work: 

Advice to Writers 153 

Annual M. I. A. Conference, 

The 634, 707, 788 

Answers to Manual Questions 236 
Answers to Questions: 
Can a Teacher Ordain a 

Teacher? 956 

Concerning Zion 394 

Form of the Lord's Prayer 393 
Number of Gospel Dispen- 
sations 394 

Official Name of the 

Church, The 556 

Order of Ordaining an 
Elder 393 



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vi 



INDEX TO SUBJECTS. 



PAGE. 

Prophecy of Zechariah Con- 
cerning Joseph Smith, 

The 553 

Setting an Elder Apart as a 

Teacher- 557 

Sword of La ban, The 557 

Who Fixes the Tithing 

Prices? 393 

Call for Officers' Stake Con- 
ventions — Piogram of In- 
structions, A 870 

Collection Days for the Gen- 
eral Improvement Fund... 152 
Close of the Third Volume... 955 
Cultivation of Literary Taste, 

The 313 

Era as a Text Book, The... 72 

Era Free, The 956 

Every Progressive President 

Should Answer, Yes 78 

General Conference Y. M. M. 

I. A. 476 

Important Instructions to 
Mutual Improvement 

Workers- 548 

Local Missionary Work 952 

Manual 1 900-1 901 477 

Method of Roll Call, A- 149 

Missionaries, Their Prepara- 
tion and Labor, The 75 

Missionary Labor 715 

M. I. Work in San Francisco 315 
Mutual Improvement Speak- 
ers' Contest, The- 632 

Necessity of Officers' Meet- 
ings, The 151 

Printed Invitations to Attend 

the First Meeting 73 

Rebate on the Era, A 151 

Title of Officers 476 

Y. M. M. I. A. Convention... 954 
Paris Congress of the History 

of Religions, The 69 

Philosophy of Trial, The 741 

Pilgrims- 815 

Pilgrims: The Pioneers, The... 641 

Pioneer Monument The 881 

Poetry: 

Always Tell Mother 899 

Aspirations oi Youth- 509* 

Be Happy, My Boy- 273 

Be, Therefore, Loving 22 

Brilliants 443 

Building- 858 

Consolation 109 

Contrast, A 347 

Cupid Interviewed - 348 



PAG*. 

Determined Doer, The 613 

Don't Send my Boy Where 

your Girl Can't go 26 

Flowers for the Dead ; Love 

for the Living 486 

Friendship, Love and Truth 926 

God's Kin - 746 

Harvest Time 87 

He Liveth Long who Liveth 

Well 843 

Independence Day in Mexico 645 

In the Andes 857 

In the Stillness 95 

Let Each Man Learn to Know 

Himself - 299 

Light, Truth and Love 932 

LovingWords 185 

Magic Word, The 733 

My Kingdom 259 

My Prayer- 208 

Nature's Testimony 114 

Pilgrims- 815 

Point of View, The 918 

Procrastination 125 

Reverie, A 9 

Scofield Mine Disaster, The- 661 
Send a Prayer to Heaven-... 594 * 

Silence a Sin 755 

Sometime - 533 

Star of Bethlehem, The 587 

Sunshine and Shadow of Life 538 
Through Christ and Repent- 
ance are ye Saved 436 

Utah, Star of the West 678 

Voice of Spring, The- 495 

We are not Here to Sigh .... 189 

Whisperings of Nature 895 

Why Don't You Laugh? 217 

Pioneer Monument, The 881 

Point of View, The 9 18 

Powder and the Bullet, The-... 395 
Prayers and Work for the Dead 698 

Preach? How Shall We no 

Printed Invitations to Attend 

the First Meeting 73 

Procrastination 125 

Prophecy, The Gift of Tongues 

and - 3° 

Prophecy, The Spirit of 32 

Question on Tithing, A 233 

Questions, Answers to 393, 394, 553 

Reality and Significance of 

Heaven and Hell, The 198 

Rebate on the Era, A 151 

Reflections on the Fall of Nau- 
voo 424 



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INDEX TO SUBJECTS. 



mx 



PAGE. 

Reformation, Causes Leading 

up to the 4 280,338 

Regard for the Priesthood 540 

Religion on Samoa 174* 395 

Religions, The Paris Congress 

of the History of. , 69 

Respect for Self. 603 

Returned Elder, The 27 

Revelation by Works and Word 335 

Reverie, A- 9 

Revolution in China, The 734, 

»53» 927 
Reynolds' Chart of Nephite 

and Lamanite History 629 

Richards. Death of President 

Franklin Dewey M 230 

Ride on the Locomotive of the 

•• Empire State Express." A 407 
Rigdon, The Life and Labors 

of Sidney 

.....97, 218, 265, 350, 458. 487» 579 
Rigdon, The Only Surviving 

Son of Sidney 696 

Roar of the Cataract, The 647 

Salmon River Mission, The 801, 900 

Salvation Diversified 662 

Samoa, Religion on 175 

Samoa, The Inhabitants of, 
Their Social Life and Cus- 
toms ...~ 44 

Scandinavian Jubilee, An Es- 
timate of the 747 

Science, The Methods and Mo- 
tives of. 250 

Scofield Mine Disaster, The 620, 661 

Seek Wisdom 864 

Send a Prayer to Heaven 594 

Seventh Day and Sabbath, The 276 

Shiblon 653 

Shiz, the Headless.. 588 

Silence a Sin 755 

Silent Forces 437 

Smith, Joseph, from a Philo- 
sophic View 38 

Some Figures from the Ecu- 
menical Conference 597 

Sometime - 523 

South African War, The 

...134,209, 284, 37o»463, 532, 776 
Speakers' Contest, The: 
Expulsion from Missouri, 

The 829 

First, Vision, The 683 

Joseph Smith — His Mission 

and Persecution 673 

Philosophy of Trial, The... 741 
Thou Shalt Not 666 



PAGE. 

Spirit of Prophecy, The « 32 

Spiritual Side of Burns 165 

Stake Conventions, A Call for 

Officers' 870 

Star of Bethlehem, The 587 

Statistical Report of the Y. M. 

M. I. A. for the Year Ending 

April 30, 1900 712 

Stonehenge 590 

Stratford-on-Avon 687 

"Succession," A New Edition 

of 701 

Sunshine and Shadow of Life.. 538 

Theology in Education: 
Place of Theology in the Do- 
main of Human Learning 

-••••; 321,444 

Theology as a Branch of 

Study 525, 604 

Theology in Our Church 

Schools 844 

There is a Life Beyond 421 

"Thou Shalt Have no Other 

Gods before Me" 919 

Thou Shalt Not 666 

Through Christ and Repent- 
ance are Ye Saved 436 

Tithing, A Question on 233 

Tithing— A Young Man's Ex- 
perience 772 

Title of Officers ,.. 476 

To Him That Overcometh 121 

Tongues and Prophecy, The 

Gift of 30 

Topical Bible, The 478 

Trip South with President 
Young in 1870, A...293, 363, 431 

Twelfth Census, The 598 

Two Cases of Healing 33 

Utah, Star of the West 678 

Visit of Cuban Teachers, The 784 
Voice of Spring, The 495 

Walks and Talks with Unbe- 
lievers 186 

Was it Theft? 260 

We are not Here to Sigh 189 

We Walk by Faith 561 

What Can We Know? 521 

Whisperings of Nature 895 

Why Don't You Laugh? 217 

Woodruff, Experiences in the 
Life of President Wilford... 

161, 359 

Word of Wisdom, A Business 
View of the 143 



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INDEX TO AUTHORS. 



PAGE. PAGE. 

Work and Keep Your Promises 190 Young, A Trip South with 

President, in 1870... 293, 363, 431 

" Yankee Doodle" 34 Zionist Movement, The 1 

INDEX TO AUTHORS. 



Adams, Samuel L 421 

Alcott, Louisa M 259 

Alder, Lydia D 611, 919 

Anderson, Edward H. 510,598, 870 
Anderson, Nephi...27, 109, 329, 

412,641. 933 

Berrv, C. G 687 

Bluth, John V 801, 900 

Bonar, Horatius 843 

Brown, Mark C 673 

Burton, Wm. W 539 

Bush, Charles C 661 

Butterworth, Hezekiah 857 

Carlquist, Carl Hjalmar 641 

Clayton, W. P 614 

Clawson, Spencer 881 

Cluff, W. W 428 

Connelly, Daniel ... 772 

Crockett, Fred. W 116 

Davis, D. E 658 

Done, Willard 321, 444, 525, 604 

Grant, HeberJ 81, 190,300, 886 

Hall, Mosiah 756 

Hill, Geo. E 407 

Howells, Thos. J 829 

Hull, Thomas.,79, 126, 155, 239, 
316, 397» 479, 636, 7<>7» 717. 

788, 797, 870, 876, 957 

Islaub, Geo. H 171 

Jaques, John... .10, 97, 218, 265, 

350, 458, 487, 558, 579 
Jensen, Junius C 33 

Kempe, Christopher 1 517 

Kimball, J. Golden 870 

Lauritzen, Annie G 436, 678 

Lauritzen, J. M 895 

Lee, W. 44. 175 

Lesueur, James W 679 

Little, Malcom 724 

Lyman, Richard R 632 

Maeser, Karl G 23 

Mangum, Lester 280, 338 

Montgomery, James 509 

Morton, Wm. A 493 

Naisbitt, H. W 9, no, 437, 662, 926 



Nelson, N. L 198, 844 

Nibley C. W 165 

Nicholson, John 816 

Orton, Joseph 32 

Paul, J. H 401, 496 

Pearson, Sarah E 87, 486, 645 

Princess Amelia 347 

Randall, Harley P 518 

Reynolds, George 588 

Richards, L. L. Greene 858, 932 

Richards, Samuel W 384 

Roberts, B. H 570, 653, 760 

Robinson, Ezra C 30 

Rogers, D. J 614 

Savage, C. R 293,363, 431 

Shepherd, Warren 503 

Sjodahl, J. M 747 

Sloan, W.J 260, 666 

Smith, Jesse N 424 

Smith, Joseph F... 61, 241, 305, 

377.386, 451 » 54o, 622 

Spencer, John T 276 

Stewart, Lewis 95 

Stoney, J. H 614 

Talmage, James E 53, 250, 481 

Tanner, J. M...I, 134, 209, 284, 

37o, 463,532,734,853, 927 

Taylor, Alma 682 

Taylor, Frank Y 870 

Walker, C. L 426, 594 

Ward, J. H 186, 523, 914 

Watkins, Chas. F 89 

Webster, Daniel 603 

Whalen, Sara 263, 647, 896 

White, Henry Kirke 587 

Whitney, O. F 348 

Whittier, John G 208 

Widtsoe, John A 561 

Wilcox, Ella Wheeler 746 

Woodruff, Abraham 161, 359 

Woodruff, Lloyd J14 

Wootton, A...35, 123, 274, 335, 

521, 595 733 
Workman, J. L 680 

Young, Levi Edgar 38, 767 

Young, Richard W 721, 918 



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IMPROVEMENT ERA. 



Vol. ffl. NOVEMBER, 1899. No. 1. 



THE ZIONIST MOVEMENT. 

BY DR. J. M. TANNER, PRESIDENT OF THE STATE AGRICULTURAL 
COLLEGE, LOGAN. 



Within the past three years, annual conferences have been 
held at Basle by eminent Jews throughout the world, who have had 
in view the restoration of the Jewish race to national life. These 
conferences are creating yearly more interest in the question 
of the return of the Jews to the home of their ancestors. More 
than forty years ago the movement toward Palestine began. 
Among the first to return to the home of their fathers were the 
Asiatic Jews, chiefly those speaking the Arabic language. They 
came from as far East as China, but mostly from Persia and the 
valley of the Mesopotamia. These early home-comers had little or 
no thought of colonization when they entered Palestine, but had 
been enthused with the idea that somehow or other it was a sacred 
duty to return to Jerusalem to die. On the western slope of the 
Mount of Olives they purchased burial places, some at fabulous 
prices. They were zealous to be buried within the shades of the 
walls which enclosed Mount Moriah, the spot where their sacred 
temple once stood. As early as fifteen years ago, this slope was 



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2 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

fairly well covered by modest slabs of rock that simply marked the 
final resting places of home-wandering Jews. Little by little the 
population of Jerusalem was thus increased and other places, 
sacred to the memory of the Jews, were sought out, and Jews went 
there to live and die. 

The places next to Jerusalem most favored in Jewish thought 
were Tiberias, on the seashore, and Safed, a small town in the 
hills of northern Galilee. Some of these Jews had limited incomes, 
barely sufficient to maintain a scanty existence, while others were 
in a destitute condition. Thus located in the land of their ances- 
tors and afflicted by various degrees of poverty, they made strong 
appeals to their wealthy brethren in Europe and America. Some- 
times these appeals fell unheeded, but stories of their sufferings 
and devotion soon awakened interest in the wealthier Jews whose 
alms ameliorated the sufferings of members of their race who 
apparently preferred to die of starvation, in the land of sacred and 
cherished memory, than to live in ease and comfort on any other 
spot of the earth. The restrictions of the Turkish government had 
been partially removed, and thus one by one the Jews wandered 
back either as pilgrims to Jerusalem, or with the avowed intention 
of spending their remaining days about this sacred city. The 
pilgrims left their alms, bought souvenirs, rendered what aid they 
could, and carried the story of their suffering brethren to their 
homes. And thus began the awakening of modern Israel. In that 
awakening, too, the idea that the country might be reclaimed, also 
began to take root. There were rich valleys and broad plains that 
offered a reward for honest labor. 

In the meantime, the condition of the Jews in Russia and 
Roumania became a matter of deep concern to their more fortunate 
brethren of western Europe, and Baron Hirsch, who always had 
the interest of his unfortunate race at heart, began the establish- 
ment of a fund looking to the colonization of the Jews in foreign 
countries. The new colonization was intended as an escape from 
the arbitrary decrees of the czar, and Baron Hirsch began now to 
look about the world for some suitable place where his brethren 
could secure a livelihood by engaging in agricultural pursuits. 
Investigations were made both in the western and eastern hemis- 
pheres, and the spot which commended itself at that time most 



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THE ZIONIST MOVEMENT. 3 

favorably to the consideration of those who were about to 
establish these new colonies was the Argentine Republic. This 
new land was a long way distant from the center of Jewish life. 
Many of the orthodox Jews, who had been accustomed to make 
pilgrimages to the Holy Land, felt that the establishment of the 
Jewish nation in the Argentine Republic meant the deportation of 
the race farther and farther from the land they loved best. The 
effort met with strong opposition. It created an opposing faction, 
who, although they did not offer Palestine as a place for coloniza- 
tion, felt that the Argentine Republic was too far from home. It 
was away from the busy marts, from those centers of civilization 
which offered progressive Jews the best opportunities, and the 
argument then often offered against the colonization of that coun- 
try was that it committed the Jews to an exclusively agricultural 
life. They had been merchants, and if not merchants, peddlers. 
They had carried on a business of one kind or another in a large 
or a small way. They were willing to abandon that life in part, 
but they had stronger inclinations for mechanical and industrial 
pursuits, for manufacturing of various kinds, than they had for 
agriculture. 

The efforts met with less and less encouragement. The Jews 
were unwilling to go there, even though the most encouraging 
promises were held out. Finally the efforts of Baron Hirsch 
created a rivalry among his rich brethren, and Baron Rothschild 
began the establishment of Jewish colonies in Palestine. For each 
family the latter built a small brick house, consisting of two or 
three rooms. Each member of the family received the use of the 
house and the land for a specified number of years, and a stipend 
of so much per month for each member of the family. Jews were 
invited thither from Roumania and southern Russia. A half dozen 
colonies thus began in the valley of the Esdrsalon, but the most of 
them were located in the large plains of Sharon which skirt the 
shores of the Mediterranean. In the beginning these efforts 
seemed almost hopeless. The writer remembers visiting the colo- 
nies in the year 1886-7. The colonists had but little idea of pioneer 
or agricultural life. They would sometimes leave the farm in the 
middle of the day, go into their homes, clear aside the little furni- 
ture that afforded them small conveniences, start up the fiddle and 



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4 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

begin the dance. There was a lack of thrift and a spirit of idle- 
ness all around, and it really appeared as if the efforts of coloniz- 
ing the Holy Land must be entirely futile. 

But these discouraging features of colonial life were not 
regarded as insurmountable obstacles. Little by little the Jews 
found wealth in the soil. Men took courage from neighbors' suc- 
cesses; splendid vineyards were planted, and it was found that the 
land was possessed of latent wealth. Other colonies were estab- 
lished. But the Turkish government afforded little opportunity 
for trade with the outside world. It was difficult to transport the 
products of the soil. There were no markets abroad. These 
economical problems soon began to attract the attention of the 
more thoughtful and business-like Jews throughout Europe. They 
felt that if commercial schools could be established, if factories 
could be built, and some suitable relationship established between 
the Jew in the Holy Land and the Jew abroad, business might 
thrive in Palestine as it had thrived centuries ago. 

At bottom, then, this recent Zionist movement is largely one 
of an economic character. It is also one that has forced itself 
upon the minds of thoughtful Jews by reason of the development 
that is now going on throughout Asia. Those who have followed 
the march of events in Asia Minor, who have witnessed the building 
of new railroads, who have seen what is likely to occur when the 
trans-Siberian railroad shall be finished, who look upon the partition 
of China as a foregone conclusion, who marvel at the wonderful 
developments of the Japanese race, need not be surprised that the 
Jews thought that Asia was to be redeemed, that the ancient seat 
of religion and civilization was again to come into prominence, that 
its rich soils, with the treasures of its mountains, were all to offer 
their abundance in response to the efforts and ingenuity of man. 
The Mediterranean, which had become almost as much deserted as 
the great Sahara, is now increasing its commerce and ships are 
traversing it in all directions, and it is clearly seen that Palestine 
must be, in some measure, in modern times what she was in the 
past — the great highway between the East and the West. 

The idea, therefore, of a return to the Holy Land has its 
historic justification. It has found its gradual development in the 
movements of the past forty years. It is also an economic one, for 



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THE ZIONIST MOVEMENT. 5 

it offers great inducements for the future. And there is still 
another reason for this idea which is now taking growth in the 
Zionist movement. During the last century there has been a 
gradual development of liberty for the Jews throughout all 
Europe — Russia and Roumania excepted — and even in Russia there 
has been a growth of power, and in Europe there has been among 
the Jews an intellectual development that has created feelings of 
national pride. The Jew begins to feel his power, his place, and 
his influence in the world as he has not felt them for more than 
two centuries. He is an important factor in politics as well as in 
commerce. The Jewish schools, within the last thirty years, have 
turned out some of the most brilliant and promising scholars of the 
world; and with the feeling of this power comes the thought of its 
exercise. I speak chiefly of the orthodox Jew who has no idea 
that his race can ever become assimilated with other races, or 
that his habits and religion will ever so change that he can take on 
the characteristics of other races. The Jews have never so united 
as to become a partisan factor in national politics. In America 
there is no Jewish vote. They do not consolidate in Europe to 
achieve any race advantages or national purpose. They are 
constantly overshadowed by the fear of anti-semitism. They prefer 
to surrender their privileges or forego their political rights rather 
than to venture upon a career which they feel sure must result in 
the strongest race prejudice, prejudice that may be as direful to 
the Jew as it has been calamitous in the past. They have the 
power, they feel it; how and where shall it be exercised? Not in a 
Jewish faction in other countries; that is really impossible. It must 
be exercised where the Jew himself constitutes the great majority, 
where the Jewish idea is the prevailing one; and there is no coun- 
try in the world, which the Jew can look upon, that affords as excel- 
lent an opportunity for working out the manifest destiny of his 
race, as he now sees it, as Palestine. 

So that within the last ten years new ambitions, new eco- 
nomic questions, religious rivalry, and race communion, have all 
conspired to create a feeling in favor of the Holy Land. Dr. 
Hertzl, an eminent journalist of Vienna, was one of the first to 
fully grip the situation. He wrote a pamphlet on the subject. 
However, at first the appeal was little noticed, but it soon created 



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6 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

an intense interest among the Jews. In 1897, a conference of 
those in favor of this movement was called to meet in Basle, 
Switzerland. It faced strong opposition, especially among the 
leading Rabbis of England and America. The commercial classes, 
as a role, did not support it, but still it appealed strongly to the 
racial side of Jewish life. Zionism had its economic aspect, and 
Jewish economists were attracted by that. It had jts religious 
aspect, and the orthodox Jews were attracted by that. It had its 
national aspect, and the young scholars from the universities were 
attracted by that. It offered an asylum for those of Roumania and 
Russia, who still feel the heavy hand of their oppressors, and they 
were attracted by that. 

Thus we see how it appeals to every phase of Jewish charac- 
ter and nationality. In the beginning, the movement was radically 
opposed. It was called Hertzl's folly. By some it was looked 
upon as something more serious than folly. It was thought that 
it would arouse old antagonisms, that the Turkish government 
would oppress the Jew, there being more than 60,000 of them 
already in Palestine. It was believed that Russia, which has so 
much interest in some of the sacred places of Palestine, would 
strongly oppose any concerted movement, and that by these oppo- 
sitions new dangers would come to the unfortunate race. 

However, the Zionists were not daunted. Another conference 
met in 1898. It manifested greater life, and showed that there 
was a spirit of conciliation among the orthodox Jews of every 
land. The German Jew, the Spanish Jew, the Arabic Jew were 
there from both hemispheres, and in the synagogue at Basle 
offered a prayer in the Hebrew tongne with an unanimity which 
betokened an enhtusiasm that the critics of this movement felt 
was entirely wanting. While the movement may have had its 
origin largely in a religious feeling, economic questions soon began 
to develop, and the third conference which was held in Basle, 
August 16th of this year, developed political aspects. The Chris- 
tian powers were to be sounded; the Sultan of Turkey was to be 
approached; a colonial trust company was to be formed, and alto- 
gether the movement has now so grown as to give assurance of 
permanent life. A corporation has been organized in London 
under English law. A trust company is now to be established 



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THE ZIONIST MOVEMENT. 7 

carrying a capital of ten million dollars. Since June last more 
than a million of this sum has been contributed, not by the wealthy 
Jews but by the proletariat of America and Europe. Thousands 
and tens of thousands of Jews are taking stock in this company, 
which has a final object in the purchase of land in Palestine and 
the aid of those who are already there, and it will further under- 
take the establishment of factories as well as the development of 
the soil. The leaders assert their intention to acknowledge the 
suzerainty of the Sultan. They want autonomy for local govern- 
ment. They will ask for commercial freedom, but are willing to 
pay a royalty to the Sultan of Turkey. 

So imbued have these Jews become with the idea of national 
life that they have already selected a national flag. It is to be the 
six-pointed shield of David, in blue, on a ground of white. The new 
societies aiding the Zionist movement have increased tenfold within 
the last two years, and whatever may be said about the universality 
of this movement, it is certain that it has already received strength 
sufficient to make itself felt and to direct its activities along lines 
of practical value. The number of Jews in Palestine at the present 
time is estimated all the way from sixty to eighty thousand. It is said 
also that in that country there are 600,000 inhabitants, but it may 
be doubted whether there is so large a number. A railroad has 
already been built from Jaffa to Jerusalem, and one must sooner or 
later be built from Haifa to the interior, and beyond the Jordan. 
Technical schools are established, and at the present time there is 
an energy and enthusiasm manifested among the Jewish race that 
have never been felt since its dispersion. There is behind all this 
movement, likewise, a moral force. The idea prevails among the 
Jews that they can promote the advancement of learning and 
morality by adherence to their ancient religion; that their sacred 
records have been the inspiration of Christians, and that a rejuve- 
nated life and a return to those fundamental principles which made 
them great as a nation, will produce the same blessings and advan- 
tages to the future that the written word has furnished for the 
past. 

It may be said in concluding, however, that there is no imme- 
diate intention of purchasing the Holy Land. The idea prevails 
that those who are there at the present time may be strengthened 



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8 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

in their position, that new land may be purchased, and that step by 
step, agriculture and manufacturing may go on, and that in the 
meantime, the Jews are sufficiently strong in the world to afford a 
market for the products of their brethren in the Holy Land. But 
it is doubtful if this gradual process can be carried on. If it is, it 
will be because of the difficulties which the Turkish government 
puts in the way of the movement. Many Jews will not wait for 
the action of the Turkish government. They will go there; they 
will make efforts on their own account, and if the progress of this 
Zionist movement is as vigorous in the next ten years as it has 
been in the past three, it is only a question of a few years before 
the transformation of the Holy Land shall begin, when its hillsides 
will be replanted by forests, when the streams will gush forth and 
pour their life-giving substance into the valleys below; and it is not 
beyond the possibilities of human reckoning to calculate that within 
the next two decades, five or six million Jews will find themselves 
established again in the land of their forefathers. 

We are at the close of the nineteenth century. It is an age of 
electricity. It is an age of great financial schemes. Plans are 
barely made before they are carried into execution, and the new 
movement has an idea as well as an ideal, and in the 16ng run, ideas 
shape themselves into history, and history is made so rapidly that 
we scarcely contemplate the possibilities before we are faced by 
the reality of great movements of this character. The Jew is in 
earnest. He has the energy, the wealth, and the intellect, and will 
soon attain the results of the present effort, and the conquest will 
be his. From this time on, the Zionist movement may be classed 
among the great problems of the world's history. 



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A REVERIE. 

BY H. W. NAISBITT. 



I linger 'mid the shadows flitting o'er this life's highway, 

Its sunshine blinds my vision, and I look too far away; 

I can stand the cloud or raindrops, or mists which hide from sight 

Each winding curve my steps most take before 'tis tmly night. 

The mountain top, the widespread vales, have not that loving spell 

Which quiet nook, and leafy lanes, and bounded vistas tell; 

The little and the nearest-by, my soul with rapture thrill 

Far more than landscapes spreading out, which unknown distance fill. 

All detail fades, at sea, on land, excess is mind o'erthrown; 
Mayhap 'tis great and grand in moods, uncoveted, unknown; 
Tis wealth, embarrassing — too much, for simple common ken, 
And soul shrinks from this mighty whole to meaner things of men. 

In dreams of thought some see afar, dominions, thrones and kings; 
They soar amid eternities, as if on seraph's wings; 
I only ask a humble place, a sphere within my reach, 
To meet my duty day by day, and then its lessons teach. 

This task, well done, will Heaven give, whatever that bliss may be; 
It may not be a crown or throne, where there is no more sea; 
But 't will be sweet in rest, or work, as He may think 'tis best, 
And I shall love, I hope, His will, for I have proved it best. 



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FIRST MISSION TO THE LAMANITES. 

BY JOHN JAQUES, ASSISTANT CHURCH HISTORIAN. 



The American Indians are of the house of Israel. The Book 
of Mormon is a history of their forefathers, whom it terms Laman- 
ites and who came originally from Palestine to America. That 
book, revealed by an angel to Joseph Smith, the Prophet, and by 
him translated into English by the power of God, and published 
to the world in 1830, says that the Lamanites once were "a white 
and delightsome people," and that they will be again through obedi- 
ence to the Gospel of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, their dark 
skins being a curse inflicted upon them by the Almighty for their 
sins many generations ago. That book also states that a great 
work will be done among the Lamanites in regard to the Gospel in 
the latter days.* 

Since the organization of the Church of Jesus Christ of Lat- 
ter-day Saints, in 1830, numerous missions have been engaged in to 
and amongst the Indians, in different parts of North America, with 
varying success. In some instances mauy have believed in the 
Gospel restored through Joseph Smith, and have been baptized for 
the remissionion of their sins. 

In the summer and fall of 1830, after the publication of the 
Book of Mormon, several of the Elders manifested a great desire 
concerning the Lamanites in the west, hoping the time had come 
when the promises of the Lord respecting them were about to be 
fulfilled. It was agreed that Joseph Smith should enquire of the 
Lord respecting the propriety of sending Elders among them, 



•Read H Nephi 30: 3-6. 



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FIRST MISSION TO THE LAMANITES. 11 

which was done accordingly, and in September, a revelation was 
received, of which the following is a portion, relating to Oliver 
Cowdery: 

"And now, behold, I say unto you, that you shall go unto the 
Lamanites and preach the Gospel unto them; and inasmuch as they 
receive thy teachings, thou shalt cause my Church to be established 
among them/' 

In the same month a revelation was given through Joseph to 
Peter Whitmer, on the same subject, the following being an extract: 

"Behold, I say unto you, Peter, that you shall take your 
journey with your brother Oliver, for the time has come that it is 
expedient in me that you shall open your mouth to declare my 
Gospel; therefore, fear not, but give heed unto the words and 
advice of your brother, which he shall give you. 

"And be you afflicted in all his afflictions, ever lifting up your 
heart unto me in prayer, and faith, for his and your deliverance: 
for I have given unto him power to build up my Church among the 
Lamanites." 

Another revelation, in this connection, was given in October 
of the same year, through Joseph, to Parley P. Pratt and Ziba 
Peterson, of which the following is a part: 

"And now, concerning my servant Parley P. Pratt, behold, I 
say unto him, that as I live I will that he shall declare my Gospel 
and learn of me, and be meek and lowly of heart; 

"And that which I have appointed unto him is, that he shall 
go with my servants Oliver Cowdery and Peter Whitmer, Jun., into 
the wilderness among the Lamanites; 

"And Ziba Peterson, also, shall go with them, and I myself will 
go with them and be in their midst; and I am their advocate with 
the Father." 

The four brethren named immediately began to make prepar- 
ations for their journey, from Payette, western New York, to the 
borders of the Lamanites, which were then on the western bound- 
aries of the state of Missouri and of the United States, some fif- 
teen hundred miles distant. As soon as the missionary brethren 
were ready, they bid adieu to their relatives, brethren and friends, 
and commenced their journey late in October, 1830. They started 
on foot, "preaching by the way, and leaving a sealing testimony 



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12 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

behind them, lifting up their voices like a trump in the different 
villages through which they passed." This was the first mission 
through the western states and to the Lamanites since the organ- 
ization of the Church. 

As stated in the revelations, the missionaries were Oliver 
Cowdery, Peter Whitmer, Jun., Parley P. Pratt and Ziba Peterson. 

When near Buffalo, these missionaries called on an Indian 
nation and spent part of a day with them instructing them in 
regard to their forefathers. The Indians received the brethren 
kindly and manifested much interest in their message. Two copies 
of the Book of Mormon were given to certain of the Indians who 
<could read. 

The missionaries continued their journey and about two hun- 
dred miles further called on Mr. Sidney Rigdon, living about two 
miles from Kirtland, Ohio, who was a former friend and instructor 
of Elder Parley P. Pratt, when in the Reformed Baptist Society. 
Mr. Rigdon entertained the missionaries cordially and hospitably. 
They presented him with a Book of Mormon, which he received 
with much interest. 

The missionaries remained in Kirtland and neighborhood a con- 
siderable time, visiting from house to house, preaching the Gospel. 
Their labors resulted in Mr. Rigdon and a number of others being 
converted and baptized. In two or three weeks one hundred and 
twenty-seven souls were baptized in that region, and the number in 
a short time afterward increased to one thousand. After ordain- 
ing several brethren to the ministry, the missionaries took leave of 
the Saints and resumed their journey westward. 

Fifty miles west of Kirtland, the missionaries found some 
people who wished to entertain them and hear them preach, while 
others were much opposed to them. Simeon Carter kindly took 
them in, and entertained them. In the evening, while they were 
reading to him and explaining the Book of Mormon, there came a 
knock at the door and an officer entered with a warrant from a 
magistrate, named Byington, to arrest Elder Pratt on a frivolous 
charge. He and another of the brethren accompanied the officer 
a couple of miles in the dark to the place of trial before false wit- 
nesses and a judge who boasted of his intention to put the mission- 
aries in prison, to test the powers of their' apostleship, as he said. 



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FIRST MISSION TO THE LAMANITES. IS 

Elder Pratt concluded to make no defense. He was ordered 
to prison, or to pay a sum of money which he did not have. But 
the two were kept in court till near midnight and urged to settle 
the matter by paying the money demanded. At Elder Pratt's 
request, Brother Peterson sang the hymn, "Oh how happy are 
they," which exasperated the court still more. 

Elder Pratt proposed that if the witnesses would repent of 
their false swearing and the magistrate of his unjust and wicked 
judgment and of his persecution, blackguardism and abuse, and all 
kneel down together, the two brethren would pray for them, that 
God might forgive them. "My big bull dog pray for me," said the 
judge. "The devil help us," exclaimed another. The court 
adjourned, and Elder Pratt was taken to a public house near by 
and locked in. 

In the morning the officer took Elder Pratt to breakfast. 
Afterward, while waiting for him to be taken to prison, his fellow 
missionaries came along and called to see him. He told them to 
pursue their journey and he would soon overtake them. 

The following is from Elder Pratt's Autobiography: 

"After sitting awhile by the fire in charge of the officer, I 
requested to step out. I walked out into the public square, accom- 
panied by him. Said I, 'Mr. Peabody, are you good at a race? 
'No/ said he, /but my big bull dog is, and he has been trained to 
assist me in my office these several years; he will take any man 
down at my bidding.' 'Well, Mr. Peabody, you compelled me to go 
a mile, I have gone with you two miles. You have given me an 
opportunity to preach, sing, and have also entertained me with 
lodging and breakfast. I must now go on my journey; if you are 
good at a race you can accompany me. I thank you for all your 
kindness — good day, sir.' 

"I then started on my journey, while he stood amazed and not 
able to step one foot before the other. Seeing this, I halted, 
turned to him and again invited him to a race. He still stood 
amazed. I then renewed my exertions, and soon increased my 
speed to something like that of a deer. He did not awake from 
his astonishment sufficiently to start in pursuit till I had gained, 
perhaps, two hundred yards. I had already leaped a fence, and 
was making my way through a field to the forest on the right of 



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14 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

the road. He now came hallowing after me, and shouting to his 
dog to seize me. The dog, being one of the largest I ever saw, 
came Close on my footsteps with all his fury; the officer behind 
still in pursuit, clapping his hands and hallooing, 'Stu-boy, stu-boy — 
take him, Watch — lay hold of him, I say— down with him/ and 
pointing his finger in the direction I was running. The dog was 
fast overtaking me, and in the act of leaping upon me, when, quick 
as lightning, the thought struck me to assist the officer, in sending 
the dog with all fury to the forest, a little distance before me. I 
pointed my finger in that direction, clapped my hands, and shouted 
in imitation of the officer. The dog hastened past me with 
redoubled speed towards the forest; being urged by the officer and 
myself, and both of us running in the same direction. 

"Gaining the forest, I soon lost sight of the officer and dog, 
and have not seen them since. I took a back course, crossed the 
road, took round into the wilderness, on the left, and made the 
road again in time to cross a bridge over Vermilion River, where I 
was hailed by half a dozen men, who had been anxiously waiting 
our arrival to that part of the country, and who urged me very 
earnestly to stop and preach. I told them that I could not then 
do it, for an officer was on my track. I passed on six miles further, 
through mud and rain, and overtook the brethren, and preached 
the same evening to a crowded audience, among whom we were 
well entertained." 

After several days' travel, the missionaries arrived at Sandusky, 
in western Ohio, where the Wyandot tribe or nation of Indians 
resided. The missionaries called on them and were well received, 
spending several days with them and laying before them the record of 
their forefathers. The Indians rejoiced in the tidings, bade the 
missionaries God speed, and desired them to write regarding their 
success among the tribes further west, who had removed to the 
Indian Territory, where the Wyandots expected soon to follow. 

Leaving that people, the missionaries continued on to Cincin- 
nati, where they staid several days, preaching, though not with 
much success. About December 20th, they took passage on a 
steamer for St. Louis. At the mouth of the Ohio, the river was 
blocked with ice and the boat stopped. They landed and went on 
foot about two hundred miles, halting for several days in Illinois, 



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FIRST MISSION TO THE LAMANITES. 15 

about twenty idles from St. Louis, in consequence of a severe 
storm of rain and snow lasting a week or more, the snow falling in 
some places [nearly three feet deep. Although in the midst of 
strangers, the missionaries were kindly entertained, found many 
friends, and preached to large congregations in several neighbor, 
hoods. Elder Pratt continues: 

'In the beginning of 1831, we renewed our journey; and, pass- 
ing through St. Louis and St. Charles, we traveled on foot for 
three hundred miles through vast prairies and through trackless 
wilds of snow — no beaten road; houses few and far betwen; and 
the bleak north-west wind alwayB blowing in our faces with a keen- 
ness which would almost take the skin off the face. We traveled 
for whole days, from morning till night, without a house or fire, 
wading in snow to the knees at every step, and the cold so intense 
that the snow did not melt on the south side of the houses, even in 
the mid-day sun, for nearly six weeks. We carried on our backs 
our changes of clothing, several books, and corn bread and raw 
pork. We often ate our frozen bread and pork by the way, when 
the bread would be so frozen that we could not bite or penetrate 
any part of it but the outside crust. 

"After much fatigue and some suffering we all arrived in 
Independence, in the county of Jackson, on the extreme western 
frontiers of Missouri, and of the United States. 

"This was about fifteen hundred miles from where we started, 
and we had performed most of the journey on foot, through a 
wilderness country, in the worst season of the year, occupying 
about four months, during which we had preached the Gospel to 
tens of thousands of Gentiles and two nations of Indians; baptizing, 
confirming and organizing many hundreds of people into churches 
of Latter-day Saints. 

"This was the first mission performed by the Elders of the 
Church in any of the States west of New York, and we were the 
first members of the same which were ever on this frontier." 

Two of the missionary Elders began to work as tailors, while 
the others crossed the frontier and commenced their mission among 
the Indians or Lamanites, passing one night among the Shawnees, 
and the next day crossing the Kansas river and going among the 
Delawares. 



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16 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Inquiring for the residence of the principal chief, the mission- 
aries were introduced to an aged and venerable looking man, who 
had long stood at the head of the Delawares, and had been looked 
up to as the great grandfather, or sachem, of ten nations or tribes. 
His lodge was a two-roomed cabin, and he was seated on a sofa of 
furs, skins and blankets, before a large fire in the center of the 
room. His wives were neatly dressed in calicoes and skins, and 
wore many silver ornaments. As the brethren entered the cabin, 
the chief took them by the hand with a hearty welcome, and 
motioned them to be seated on some blankets or robes. At his 
bidding, his wives set before the brethren a tin pan full of beans 
and corn boiled together; very good eating, although the three 
brethren had to use alternately the same wooden spoon. 

The missionary brethren, through an interpreter, made known 
their errand, told of the Book of Mormon, and asked the chief to 
call the council of his nation together and give the missionaries a 
full hearing. He promised to consider till next day, meantime 
recommending them to the care of Mr. Pool, their government 
blacksmith, who entertained them kindly and comfortably. 

Next morning the missionaries again called on Mr. Anderson, 
the old chief, and spoke further of the book. He did not want to 
call his council, made excuses, and then refused, as he had ever 
been opposed to the presence of missionaries among his tribe. 
But the conversation continued, and finally the chief began to under- 
stand the nature of the book. Then his mind changed, he became 
suddenly interested, sent a messenger, and in about an hour some 
forty men assembled in his lodge, shook hands with the mission- 
aries, and sat down in grave and dignified silence. The chief then 
requested the missionaries to proceed, and Elder Cowdery addressed 
the council as follows: 

"Aged Chief and Venerable Council of the Delaware Nation: 
we are glad of this opportunity to address you as our red brethren 
and friends. We have traveled a long distance from towards the 
rising sun to bring you glad news; we have traveled the wilder- 
ness, crossed the deep and wide rivers, and waded in the deep snows, 
and in the face of the storms of winter, to communicate to you 
great knowledge which has lately come to our ears and hearts, and 
which will do the red man good as well as the pale face. 



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FIRST MISSION TO THE LAMANITES. 17 

"Once the red men were many; they occupied the country 
from sea to sea — from the rising to the setting sun; the whole 
land was theirs; the Great Spirit gave it to them, and no pale faces 
dwelt among them. But now they are few in numbers, their pos- 
sessions are small, and the pale faces are many. 

"Thousands of moons ago, when the red men's forefathers 
dwelt in peace and possessed this whole land, the great Spirit 
talked with them, and revealed his law and his will, and much 
knowledge to their wise men and prophets. This they wrote in a 
book, together with their history and the things which should 
befall their children in the latter days. 

'This book was written on plates of gold, and handed down 
from father to son for many ages and generations. 

"It was then that the people prospered, and were strong and 
mighty; they cultivated the earth, built buildings and cities, and 
abounded in all good things, as the pale faces now do. 

"But they became wicked, they killed one another and shed 
much blood; they killed their prophets and wise men, and sought 
to destroy the book. The Great Spirit became angry, and would 
speak to them no more; they had no more good and wise dreams, 
no more visions, no more angels sent among them by the Great 
Spirit, and the Lord commanded Mormon and Moroni, their last 
wise men and prophets, to hide the book in the earth that it might 
be preserved in safety and be found and made known in the latter 
day to the pale faces who should possess the land, that they might 
again make it known to the red men, in order to restore them to 
the knowledge of the will of the Great Spirit and to his favor. 
And if the red men would then receive this book and learn the 
things written in it, and do according thereunto, they should be 
restored to all their rights and privileges, should cease to fight and 
kill one another; should become one people; cultivate the earth in 
peace, in common with the pale faces, who were willing to believe 
and obey the same book, and be good men and live in peace. 

"Then should the red men become great, and have plenty to 
eat and good clothes to wear, and should be in favor with the 
Great Spirit and be his children, while he would be their Great 
Father, and talk with them, and raise up prophets and wise and 
good men among them again, who should teach them many things. 



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18 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

"This book which contained these things was hid in the earth 
by Moroni in a hill called by him Cumorah, which hill is now in 
the State of New York, near the village of Palmyra, in Ontario 
County. 

"In that neighborhood there lived a young man named Joseph 
Smith, who prayed to the Great Spirit much, in order that he might 
know the truth; and the great Spirit sent an angel to him and told 
him where this book was hid by Moroni, and commanded him to go 
and get it. He accordingly went to the place and dug in the earth 
and found the book written on golden plates. 

"But it was written in the language of the forefathers of the 
red man; therefore this young man, being a pale face, could not 
understand it, but the angel told him and showed him, and gave 
him knowledge of the language, and how to interpret the book. 
So he interpreted it into the language of the pale faces, and wrote 
it on paper, and caused it to be printed, and published thousands 
of copies of it among them; and then sent us to the red men to 
bring some copies of it to them, and to tell them this news. So 
we have now come from him and here is a copy of the book, which 
we now present to our red friend, the chief of the Delawares, and 
which we hope he will cause to be read and known among his tribe; 
it will do them good." 

The chief was then presented with the Book of Mormon. The 
council conversed together in their own tongue, and then the chief 
replied to the missionaries as follows: 

"We feel truly thankful to our white friends who have come 
so far and been at such pains to tell us good news and especially 
this new news concerning the book of our forefathers; it makes us 
glad in here [placing his hand on his heart]. 

"It is now winter, we are settlers in this place, the snow is 
deep, our cattle and horses are dying, our wigwams are poor, we 
have much to do in the spring — to build houses, and fence, and 
make farms. But we will build a council house and meet together, 
and you shall read to us and teach us more concerning the book of 
our fathers, and the will of the Great Spirit." 
, The missionary brethren lodged again at Mr. Pool's, told him 
of the book, and he became a believer in and advocate of it. 

For several days they instructed the old chief and many of his 



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FIRST MISSION TO THE LAMANITES. 19 

tribe, who became increasingly interested from day to day, until 
nearly the whole tribe felt a spirit of inquiry and excitement on 
the subject. As several of them could read, they were presented 
with copies of the book, with the explanation that it was the book 
of their forefathers. Some rejoiced exceedingly and told the news 
to others in their own language. 

The excitement spread to the frontier settlements in Missouri, 
stirring up the jealousy and envy of the Indian agents and secta- 
rian missionaries to such a pitch that the Elders were ordered out 
of the Indian country on the wolf and lamb pretense that they 
were disturbers of the peace, and they were threatened with the 
military in case of non-compliance. 

Being thus arbitrarily compelled, the Elders left the Indian 
country and commenced laboring in Jackson County among the 
white people, by whom they were well received, many listening to 
them, and some were baptized and added to the Church. Elder 
Pratt says: 

"Thus ended our first Indian mission, in which we had preached 
the Gospel in its fullness and distributed the record of their fore- 
fathers among three tribes, viz., the Catteraugus Indians near Buf- 
falo, N. Y., the Wyandots of Ohio, and the Delawares west of Mis- 
souri. We trust that at some future day when the servants of 
God go forth in power to the remnant of Joseph, some precious 
seed will be found growing in their hearts, which was sown by us 
in that early day." 

By the 14th of February, 1831, the cold, north wind was fol- 
lowed by a -milder breeze from the south, the deep snows settled 
down, and spring appeared to be returning. Elders Cowdery, 
Whitmer, Pratt and Peterson, also P. G. Williams, who had accom- 
panied them from Kirtland, assembled in council at Independence, 
Jackson Couny, Mo., and concluded that one of them should return 
to the Church in Ohio and perhaps to head-quarters in New York, 
to report to the Presidency of the Church. Elder Pratt was 
selected for that purpose. He accordingly took leave of them and 
other friends thereabout and started on foot for St. Louis, about 
three hundred miles distant, arriving there in nine days. 

By this time the snow had melted, the rivers were breaking 
up, and the country was covered with mud and water. After 



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20 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

spending a few days with a friend, in the country near St. Louis, 
where he had stayed on his way out, Elder Pratt took steamer in 
St. Louis for Cincinnati, landing there in a week. Thence he trav- 
eled on foot to Strongville, Ohio, forty miles from Kirtland, making 
the journey from Cincinnati, about two hundred and fifty miles, 
over very bad, muddy roads, which caused Elder Pratt to be much 
fatigued and sick. 

Hearing that some brethren lived in Strongville, Elder Pratt 
sought to find them and try their hospitality to a sick and weary 
stranger. He went to the house of an old gentleman named Col- 
trin about sundown and asked if they could entertain a weary 
stranger who had no money. The old gentleman looked at the 
tired and "weather-beaten traveler, soiled with the toil of a long 
journey, besmeared with mud, eyes inflamed with pain and a visage 
lengthened by sickness and extreme fatigue." After a moment's 
hesitation, he bade Elder Pratt welcome and invited him into the 
house, where several ladies were at tea, who received him with a 
smile of welcome and insisted on his sitting down to tea with them. 
Then ensued a conversation something like the following: 

"Stranger, where are you from? You certainly look weary; 
you must have traveled a long distance P 

"Yes; I am from beyond the frontiers of Missouri; a distance 
of twelve hundred miles." 

"Ah, indeed! Did you hear anything of the four great 
prophets out that wayr 

"Prophets! What prophets?" 

"Why, four men — strange men— who came through this 
country and preached, and baptized hundreds of people; and, after 
ordaining Elders and organizing churches, they continued on west- 
ward, as we suppose, to the frontiers on a mission to the Indians; 
and we have never heard from them since. But the great work 
commenced by them still rolls on. It commenced last fall in Kirt- 
land and has spread for a hundred miles around; thousands have 
embraced it, and among others, ourselves and many in this neigh- 
borhood." 

"But what did they preach? And why do you call them 
prophets?" 

"Why they opened the Scriptures in a wonderful manner; 



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FIRST MISSION TO THE LAMANITES. 21 

showed the people plainly of many things to come; opened the 
doctrine of Christ as we never understood it before; and among 
other things they introduced a very extraordinary book, which 
they said was an ancient record of the forefathers of the Indian 
tribes." 

"How were they dressed and in what style did they travel V 

"They were dressed plainly and comely, very neat in their 
persons, and each one wore a hat of a drab color, low, round 
crown and broad brim, after the manner of the Shakers, so it is 
said; for we had not the privilege of seeing them ourselves. 

"However, these fashioned hats were not a peculiarity of this 
people; but were given to each of them by the Shakers at the time 
they passed through this country; so they wore them. As to their 
style of traveling, they sometimes go on foot, sometimes in a car- 
riage and sometimes, perhaps, by water; but they provide them- 
selves with neither purse nor scrip for their journey, neither shoes 
nor two coats apiece." 

"Well, from your description of these four men I think I have 
seen them on the frontiers of Missouri. They had commenced a 
mission in the Indian territory, but were compelled by the United 
States agents, influenced, no doubt, by missionaries, to depart from 
the Indian country, although well received by the Indians them- 



"You saw them, then?" 
"I did." 

"Were they well?" 

"I believe they were all in good health and spirits." 
"Will they return soon? 0, who would not give the world to 
see them?" 

"Well, I am one of them, and the others you may perhaps 

AAA " 

"You one of them! God bless you. What is your name?? 

"My name is Parley P. Pratt, one of the four men you have 
described, but not much of a prophet; and as to a sight of me in 
my present plight, I think it would not be worth half a world." 

Elder Pratt says: 

"The rest of the conversation I cannot write, for all spoke, 
all laughed and all rejoiced at once. The next morning I found 



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22 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

myself unable to arise from my bed, being severely attacked with 
the measles. I came near dying and was confined for one or two 
weeks among them, being scarcely able to raise my head. I was 
watched over night and day, and had all the care that a man could 
have in his father's house. As I recovered in part, being still very 
weak, I was provided with a horse on which I arrived at Kirtland. 
Hundreds of the Saints now crowded around to welcome me, and 
to inquire after my brethren whom I had left in Missouri. Here 
also I again met President Joseph Smith who had, during our ab- 
sence come up from the state of New York." 

The following is part of a letter from Oliver Cowdery, dated, 
Kaw Township, Mo., May 7, 1831, and shows how little was then 
generally known of the Lamanites or Indians in the great west: 

"I am informed of another tribe of Lamanites lately, who 
have abundance of flocks of the best kinds of sheep and cattle; 
and they manufacture blankets of a superior quality. The tribe is 
very numerous; they live three hundred miles west of Santa Fe, and 
are called Navashoes. Why I mention this tribe is because I feel 
under obligations to communicate to my brethren every informa- 
tion concerning the Lamanites, that I meet with in my labors and 
travels." 



BE, THEREFORE, LOVING. 



As from the lofty Wasatch heights, 

The rock-ribbed rivers flow 
To cheer, refresh and beautify 

The thirsty vales below, — 
So, from the heights of human love, 

Rich founts of kindness well, 
Which, sprinkled on the thirsting soul, 

Their own sweet story tell. 



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HOW I BECAME A "MORMON." 



BY DR. KARL G. MAESER. 



Only in compliance with the counsel of President F. D. Rich- 
ards have I relunctantly yielded to the repeated solicitations of the 
editor to relate briefly in the columns of the Era the incidents 
preceding and accompanying my conversion to the great work of 
the latter days, and my baptism into The Church, at Dresden, 
Saxony, October 14, 1855. 

As "Oberlehrer" at the Budich Institute, Neustadt, Dresden, 
I, like most of my fellow-teachers in Germany, had become imbued 
with the scepticism that characterizes to a large extent the tendency 
of modern higher education, but I was realizing at the same time 
the unsatisfactory condition of a mind that has nothing to rely on 
but the ever changing propositions of speculative philosophy. 

Although filled with admiration of the indomitable courage, 
sincere devotion, and indefatigable energy of the great German 
Reformer, Martin Luther, I could not fail to see that his work had 
been merely an initiatory one, and that the various protestant sects, 
taking their initiative from the revolutionary stand of the heroic 
monk at Wittenberg and Worms, had entirely failed to comprehend 
the mission of the reformation. The only strength of Protestantism 
seemed to be its negative position to the Catholic church; while in 
most of the positive doctrines of them ultif arious protestant sects 
their antagonism to one another culminated only too often in un- 
compromising zealotry. These ideas illustrate in the main my views 
on religious subjects, at that time, and are explanatory of the fact 
that scepticism had undermined the religious impressions of my 



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24 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

childhood days, and why infidelity, now known by its modem name as 
agnosticism, was exercising its disintegrating influence upon me. 

In that dark period of my life, when I was searching for a 
foothold among the political, social, philosophical, and religions opin- 
ions of the world, my attention was called to a pamphlet on the 
"Mormons," written by a man named Bnsch. The author wrote in 
a spirit of opposition to that strange people, but his very illogical 
deductions and sarcastic invectives aroused my curiosity, and an 
irresistible desire to know more about the subject of the author's 
animadversion caused me to make persistent inquiries concerning it. 
There were no "Mormons" in Saxony at that time, but, as I acci- 
dentally found in an illustrated paper, they had a mission in Den- 
mark. Through an agent, I obtained the address of Elder Van 
Cott, then President of the Scandinavian mission. My letter ad- 
dressed to that gentleman brought the answer that neither he nor 
his secretary could understand much German, but that Elder Daniel 
Tyler, President of the Swiss and German mission at Geneva, would 
give me all information I should desire on the subject of "Mormon- 
ism." I addressed myself, therefore, to that gentleman. 

What I now relate in this paragraph, I never learned until 
twelve years later, at Beaver City, Utah, where Brother Tyler related 
it in my presence, at a meeting of the Relief Society. When my 
letter arrived at Geneva, headquarters of the mission, one of the 
traveling Elders suggested to President Tyler to have nothing to 
do with the writer of the letter, but to send it back without any 
answer, as it was most likely only a trick of the German police to 
catch our possible connections in that country. President Tyler 
declared that as the letter was impressing him quite differently, 
he would send it back as suggested, but that it would come back 
again with more added to it, if the Lord was with the writer. 
Thus I got my letter back without any explanation or signature, 
only in a new envelope addressed to me. I felt insulted, and sent 
it with a few words of inquiries about this strange procedure, to 
Elder Van Cott, at Copenhagen. By return mail I recived an apol- 
ogy from President Van Cott, stating that there must be a mistake 
somewhere, as Elder Tyler was a good and wise man. He had, 
however, sent my letter again to Geneva with an endorsement. 
This led to a long correspondence between Elder Tyler and myself. 



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HOW I BECAME A "MORMON." 25 

Pamphlets and some books were forwarded to me. Having some 
conceited notions in those days about illiteracy, and no faith in 
Bible or religions doctrines, correspondence and publications had 
no other effect npon me than to convince me that "Mormonism" 
was a mnch bigger thing than I had anticipated. I therefore 
expressed a desire for having an Elder sent to me. 

A few weeks after that reqnest had been made, Elder William 
Budge, now President of Bear Lake Stake, arrived at my house. 
It was providential that such a man was the first "Mormon" I ever 
beheld, for, although scarcely able to make himself understood in 
German, he, by his winning and yet dignified personality, created 
an impression upon me and my family which was the keynote to 
an indispensable influence that hallowed the principles he advo- 
cated. After about eight weeks' sojourn in our family, during 
which time my brother-in-law, Brother Edward Schoenfeld, and 
wife, and another teacher at one of the public schools in Dresden, 
had become interested in the teachings of the "Mormon" Elder, 
Elder F. D. Richards, then President of the European mission, 
and Elder William Kimball, arrived in Dresden. A few interviews 
at which Elder Budge acted as interpreter, led to the baptism of 
eight souls in the river Elbe; the first baptisms after the order 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in that 
country. 

On coming out of the water, I lifted both of my hands to 
heaven and said: "Father, if what I have done just now is pleas- 
ing unto thee, give me a testimony, and whatever thou shouldst 
require of my hands I shall do, even to the laying down of my life 
for this cause." 

There seemed to be no response to my fervent appeal, and we 
walked home together, President Richards and Elder Budge at the 
right and the left of me, while the other three men walked some 
distance behind us, so as to attract no notice. The other members 
of the family were baptized a few days later. Our conversation 
was on the subject of the authority of the Priesthood, Elder 
Budge acting as interpreter. Suddenly I stopped Elder Budge 
from interpreting President Richards' remarks, as I understood 
them, and replied in German, when again the interpretation was 
not needed as President Richards understood me also. Thus we 



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26 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

kept on conversing until we arrived at the point of separation,, 
when the manifestation as suddenly ceased as it had come. It did 
not appear to me as strange 'at all while it lasted, but as soon as 
it stopped, I asked Brother Budge what that all meant, and re- 
ceived the answer that God had given me a testimony. For some 
time afterwards, whenever I conversed with President Richards, in 
England, we could understand each other more readily than when 
I was conversing with others, or rather trying to converse, until my 
progress in the English language made this capacity unnecessary. 
This is the plain statement of the power of the Holy Spirit 
manifested to me by the mercy of my Heavenly Father, the first 
one of the many that have f ollowed,and that have corroborated the 
sincere conviction of my soul, that the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints is of God and not of man. 



DONT SEND MY BOY WHERE YOUR GIRL CANT GO. 



Don't send my boy where your girl can't go, 
And say, "There's no danger for boys, you know, 
Because they all have their wild oats to sow." 
There is no more excuse for my boy to be low 
Than your girl. Then please do not tell him so. 
This world's old lie is a boy's worst foe — 
To hell or the kingdom they each must go. 

Don't send my boy where your girl can't go; 
For a boy or a girl sin is sin you know; 
And my baby boy's hands are as clean and white, 
And his heart is as pure as your girl's tonight. 
That which sends a girl to the pits, of hell 
Will send the soul of my boy there as well. 



Anon. 



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THE RETURNED ELDER. 



BY NEPHI ANDERSON. 



Last Sunday evening I heard Elder Thomas Aldeen speak in 
ward meeting. He made his report, in fact, and it was indeed in- 
teresting. The speaker was no other than my old neighbor and 
friend, Tom Aldeen, but I introduce him by his full name and title 
with all due respect. Tom has earned it, if any Elder in the Church 
has. 

The meeting house was full, mostly young people, as they like 
to be out on a Sunday evening. As usual it was crowded near the 
door, with plenty of unoccupied seats up by the stand. I always 
go up in front. I can there see better and hear better — besides I 
like to set a good example to the young folks. 

I didn't know that Tom had returned, though his mother had 
told me a few days before that she was expecting him. I was 
fairly seated when there was a general turning of heads — yes, I 
plead guilty of turning too, though I usually control myself in this 
respect — and in came Tom and his mother. He was carrying her 
shawl over his arm, and after finding her a seat was about to sit 
down when he caught sight of the Bishop's beckoning hand and 
went on up towards the stand. 

When we obtained a full view of him, how we all did stare* 
Was that Tom Aldeen who had left us a little over two years ago? 
The timid, awkward, blundering Tom who had always come to Sun- 
day School in his overalls and colored shirt, and who had usually 
made such pitiable failures when placed on the program for con- 
joint sessions? Though let me say right here that Tom did very 



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28 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

well in the Mutual, and mark it, he never refused or shirked a 
duty. 

But here he was, walking up the aisle. His shoulders were 
straighter and broader, and the black ministerial coat fitted him 
perfectly. His steps had lost their hesitancy and now he walked 
as though he was sure of the ground upon which he trod. 

As I looked at him and listened to his remarks that evening, 
I couldn't help thinking what a blessed thing this missionary system 
is to us all, and to the Church. 

Tom told his experiences — of his travels, his trials, his con- 
versations,' and other matters that go to make up the curriculum of 
that great school, a mission. He told of the warm, large-hearted 
Saints in the world, and how the Gospel had drawn them together 
as one. As he spoke his face lightened, his eyes beamed. He 
seemed charged with the divine power, love, and that whole meet- 
ing, I am sure, received of its blessed influence. And I thought 
again, what would we do, we cold, unf eeling,stay-at-home Saints, if 
it where not for these missionaries continually coming home with 
their brightly glowing Gospel love with which to re-kindle our own 
smouldering fires. 

As Tom was telling us of his first few weeks' experience, of 
his struggles with powers both seen and unseen, I happened to 
glance across the room to where a number of girls were sitting 
in the choir. Tom's recital was touching, and everyone listened 
with wrapt attention, but I could not help noticing how Helen 
Archer looked. Helen naturally pale, was whiter than ever, save 
a bright red spot in each cheek. The large eyes looked steadily 
at the speaker, and there were tears in them which she could not 
altogether suppress. Was Helen surprised at Tom's transfigura- 
tion? Perhaps; but I had my misgivings that other emotions 
besides that of mere surprise were agitating her at that moment. 

I may as well tell the secret, seeing that I am Tom's neigh- 
ber and know an item or two about the doings of both Helen and 
Tom. 

Before Tom had left on his mission, he had, in his awkward 
way, made love to Helen. Seemingly she had treated him kindly 
enough, but it proved that she was deceiving him all the time. 
It was handy to have someone take her sleigh-riding and to parties 



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THE RETURNED ELDER. 29 

but — I am sorry to say that Helen said unkind things of honest 
Tom behind his back. Once or twice she hurt him terribly. For 
instance: 

It was the spring before Tom left. Remember, Tom was a 
farmer and managed his mother's farm. He was in the habit of 
taking his milk buckets down to the pasture, milking his two cows 
and carrying the milk home instead of driving the cows through 
a muddy slough to the corral. 

One evening I saw Tom come along from the pasture with his 
buckets full of rich, foamy milk. He seemed merry that evening, 
for he was whistling such a lively tune that the frogs in the pond 
ducked their heads under and hid for shame. I still remember 
what a mild, beautiful spring evening it was, and just how Tom 
looked in his blue overalls and jumper, big straw hat, and boots 
smeared with mud. Some planks had been placed over the wettest 
part of the slough, and just as Tom got to them, who should come 
along but Helen Archer and her party of visitors from Ogden. 
As they got on the planks to tip-toe over, they held up their white 
dresses and balanced their dainty parasols with many a tittering 
exclamation of fright. Tom put his buckets on the ground and 
stood aside to let them pass. Tom was nervous, I could see. 
Helen did not catch sight of him until she was within a few feet of 
his buckets. She instantly colored, but went by without recogniz- 
ing him. The other girls stared at him as they passed. 

Tom whistled no more that evening. I could see that the 
poor boy was nearly heart broken. He bothered Helen no more 
after that, and strange to say, I believe no other boy has either. 

But Elder Aldeen is closing. "And now I am pleased to be 
home again," he said; "but I do not wish to cease doing good. I 
hope I may be able to retain a portion of that good Spirit which 
God has been pleased to give me in my mission work. I wish to 
be still useful in building up the kingdom of God. Amen." 

After the meeting, I shook Tom heartily with both hands. His 
friends gathered around to greet him. The girls in the choir stood 
waiting for their turn, and Helen had separated herself from them 
as if she wished to be the last to shake his hand. 

No; I could see no difference in Tom's greeting when he came 
to Helen. 



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ACTS OF SPECIAL PROVIDENCE IN MIS- 
SIONARY EXPERIENCE- 



evil SPIRITS REBUKED— THE GIFT OP TONGUES AND 

PROPHECY. 

BY ELDER EZRA C. ROBINSON. 



While traveling as a missionary in the Southern States, it was 
my happy portion on a number of occasions to witness a fulfillment 
of the Savior's promises to the believers. To the many testimonies 
borne that the signs follow the believers and that the gifts and 
blessings of the Gospel are enjoyed among the true followers of 
Christ in this age, I wish to add one more testimony. 

In the central part of North Carolina a few honest souls had 
accepted our testimony and were baptized. A small branch of the 
Church was established and we held conference with the Saints 
resulting in the arousal of considerable interest. At the close of 
the meeting a number presented themselves for baptism. A young 
lady who was converted and who had previously witnessed the 
power of God in her own behalf in the rebuking of evil spirits, 
attended our meetings with the intention of accepting the Gospel, 
but for some reason she decided to defer baptism until some other 
time. As soon as she returned home she was again attacked by 
evil spirits who obtained possession of her body, cast her to the 
floor, and tormented her fearfully. We were called in to administer 



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ACTS OF SPECIAL PROVIDENCE. 31 

to her and she asked us to baptize her and to pray to the Lord in 
her behalf. Before we could attend to the ordinance of baptism, 
we had a terrible encounter with the powers of darkness. For 
three hours we stood over her exercising the authority of the 
Priesthood in rebuking the evil spirits who stubbornly resisted us 
and returned at short intervals after being rebuked, struggling for 
the mastery. She pointed toward the ceiling, crying, "Can't you 
see them?" When we placed our hands upon her head she rose 
from her prostrate position with such violence as to throw me 
upon my back. Finally, impressed by the Spirit of the Lord, we 
anointed her with oil and she was relieved from that time until she 
was baptized a few hours later. When taken to the water she 
was very weak, unable to walk without assistance, but when 
baptized she was restored. The glow of health returned to her 
cheeks and she walked home without the least assistance. Her 
father, who had been an avowed infidel for many years, soon after- 
wards accepted of the Gospel with others of his family, rejoicing in 
the mercy of God which had led them into the light. 

Although born and reared in the Church, I had never had the 
privilege of hearing the gift of tongues manifested prior to my 
missionary call. On one occasion while in the field, I felt a peculiar 
desire to hear the gift. Six of the Elders were holding a Priest- 
hood meeting. Before the meeting opened I had besought the 
Lord to bless a certain Elder (naming him) with the gift of tongues 
during the meeting we were about to hold. In the meeting, while 
addressing the brethren on the gifts and blessings promised to the 
Saints, I offered a silent prayer that the Lord would bless this 
particular Elder with the gift of tongues. Almost instantly he 
was raised to his feet by the power of God and spoke in an 
unknown tongue, even before I had taken my seat. Very vividly 
do I recall with what unspeakable joy I realized that before me 
stood a servant of God clothed upon with the Holy Ghost, speaking 
as did the apostles of old upon the day of Pentecost. Tears of 
joy sprang to our eyes and we felt that we were indeed baptized 
with the Holy Ghost and with fire. And, when the interpretation 
was given by the same power in answer to our humble petitions, we 
felt we could go forth and testify that we knew of a surety that 



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82 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

the gifts and blessings of old were restored, for we had tasted of 
the heavenly gift. 

My mind reverted back a year and a half when the Lord had 
blessed me with the spirit of prophecy and before thirty-six Elders 
of our conference I had prophesied that we would yet* go forth and 
speak with tongues and prophesy, and heal the sick by the power 
of God, and build branches of the Church in many parts of that 
land. I realized that here was at least a partial fulfillment. 

Afterwards I witnessed these blessings poured out in abund- 
ance, and I wish to bear my humble testimony to the youth of 
Israel that I know that the signs do follow the believers in this age 
and that the God of Heaven has restored the Holy Priesthood to 
earth again, and that the Gospel is indeed the power of God unto 
salvation. 

Manitoba, Canada. 



THE SPIRIT OP PROPHECY— AN ELDER'S INFLUENCE. 

BY ELDER JOSEPH ORTON. 



In England, in my very childhood, on reading the New Testa- 
ment in the hearing of an old gentleman, who could have had no knowl- 
edge of the restoration of the Gospel in this dispensation, he said, 
"My lad, you will live to see apostles and prophets on the earth 
and the gifts and blessings of the Gospel as anciently enjoyed." 
The aged man was remembered in my early temple labors. 

In Feb., 1886, having embarked on the S. S. Wisconsin, Guion 
Line, for a mission to England, on recovery from sea-sickness, I 
issued works of the Church and pamphlets, bearing on the "Mormon" 
question, among the ship's passengers. Soon afterwards a gentle- 
man, politely accosting me, asked, "Are you a 'Mormon' Elder? 1 I 
answered "Yes." Continuing he said: "Sir, I must tell you that 



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ACTS OF SPECIAL PROVIDENCE. 33 

from the time of our leaving New York harbor until I learned that 
a 'Mormon' Elder was aboard, I feared this vessel would not reach 
her destination, and I would see my family no more. Now my fear 
is gone, all doubts have fled." Being the only member of the 
Church on board, I silently tendered thanks to our Father for the 
wonderful influence one solitary Elder may possess. 

St. George, Utah. 



TWO CASES OP HEALING. 

BY ELDER JUNIUS C. JENSEN. 



While I was laboring with five other Elders in Kansas City, 
Ho., last April, tracting and visiting the people, we were called upon 
one day by a Mr. Frank W. Olsen, who stated that his child was 
very sick with spinal meningitis. At his request we visited the 
house, and found in attendance two skilled physicians. They, how- 
ever, had given up the child as lost, declaring, that it could not 
live until noon, that it would be a miracle if it recovered; and even 
then, its condition wouldibe such that the parents would wish it 
had died. Its condition was certainly pitiable, it having sustained 
a rupture prior to being attacked by the spinal trouble. The 
mother and grandmother of the child had faith in the power of 
God to heal, and in accordance with their wishes we administered 
to the child, in the evening, and again in the morning and evening 
of the following day. A week later Elder Aylet and myself visited 
the family and found the child playing on the floor, perfectly 
healed, both of the spinal disease and the. rupture. 

The following month we were visited by a man named Sher- 
man Dismany who stated that his wife was very ill and had desired 
him to bring some of the Elders. Though converted to the Gospel, 
this family had not as yet been baptized. They resided some 
ninety miles from Kansas City. Elder S. H. Cox and myself visited 
the place, and at the woman's request administered to her. Ten 



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34 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

minutes later her father, who was not a believer, came to us with 
tears in his eyes declaring that now he could see why she had 
desired the Elders to come, for she had certainly experienced great 
relief. After supper, while singing hymns for the family, we were 
aided by some invisible singer, an additional voice being heard by 
Mrs. Dismany and Elder Cox. We afterwards held six well-attended 
meetings in this neighborhood and were well cared for by the 
people. We feel to thank the Lord for His goodness and for these 
manifestations of His power. 



'YANKEE DOODLE." 



"Yankee Doodle," called our national air, is a musical vaga- 
bond, a literary Bohemian. The words are older than our Revolu- 
tion, for they date back to the time of Charles the Second. It 
was also a satire on Cromwell. It cannot be called a national song, 
although national property, and it is not a treasure of high value. 
It now exists only as instrumental. It has not a national charac- 
ter and must be silent when serious purposes are desired, and men's 
hearts are moved' to high effort and great sacrifice, but as a quick- 
step it is always inspiriting. Whence its'name or how it originated 
is not clearly known. Tradition affirms that with slight variations 
it has been known from time immemorial in Spain, Italy, France, 
Hungary and Germany. It was introduced into America in 1755 
by Dr. Schuckburgh, of Albany, N. Y. When the British advanced 
in triumph on Lexington and Concord, their band played "God Save 
the King." On their disastrous retreat the Americans played 
"Yankee Doodle." 



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LITTLE THINGS 

BY ELDER A. WOOTTON. 



How prone is the human mind to ignore the little things in 
life! But as the intellect expands and men become careful students 
of their surroundings, the small affairs take on an importance that 
is unappreciated by the casual observer. 

Success in any department of life comes only to him who 
looks carefully after the minutiae of his business. He who is 
careless of the the pennies will find the pounds soon disappearing. 
A small leak will soon sink a great ship. A spark of fire may 
destroy a city and bring destitution and misery upon thousands. A 
minute of time seems of but little worth, but what serious disasters 
might have been avoided had the danger signal been given one 
minute earlier! A particle of watery vapor, too minute to be 
observed by the human eye seems very insignificient, but the Mis- 
sisissippi, the Amazon and the Nile, are formed of these particles 
and those mighty rivers are certainly not insignificant. The aval- 
anche is only an aggregation of these particles,and there is nothing 
insignificant about an avalanche. The mighty trees of the forest 
are built up by nutriment imbibed through openings too small 
for successful scientific investigation. 

In the social and moral world, little things play the same prom- 
inent part either for good or evil. It is not the great acts of 
life that distinguish the gentleman from the boor, but the little 
acts of courtesy and demeanor, the little self sacrifices for the 
comfort and convenience of associates, the little apologies for 
slight inconveniences occasioned, each too insignificant individually 
to attract special attention; but in the aggregate these forma 



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36 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

chain so strong as to draw the heart and bind the friendship for 
life. .The small words and acts betokening love and esteem make 
home that happy place that forms such a tender spot in the mem- 
ory, which throbs in unison with that old but ever welcome melody, 
"Home, Sweet Home;" while a little slight or unkind word or look 
may lead to disintegration of family ties and cause life-long 
estrangement and bitterness of soul. 

The stealing of a pin unreproved may lead to a life of crime,, 
disgrace and misery, when a kindly word of disapproval might 
have been sufficient to turn the whole course of life, as a small 
snag lodged in the bed of the Mississippi has changed the course 
of that mighty river. Little temptations unresisted, little warn* 
.ings unregarded and little stings of conscience unheeded are the 
steps that lead downward to the bonds of sin and shame, while the 
little temptations firmly withstood and the little every day duties 
well and faithfully done make up the sum total of true Christian 
life. 

Many go through life waiting for the opportunity to do some 
great thing to make them famous, neglecting the small duties that 
build character and fit men to cope with the greater as they come, 
not realizing that the noble achievements of eminent men are not the 
elements that made them great, but are the results of character 
built up by attending to the minutiae of life, through years of 
plodding, step by step, exercising self-restraint and will power,, 
and growing mentally and morally strong by overcoming all the 
minor difficulties that obstruct their way to that eminence which 
appears so conspicuous to their fellow-mortals. Character is 
nothing but the resultant of the forces of the habits formed 
through life, and there is no habit so insignificant that it doesn't 
affect the trend of the whole character either for good or for 
evil. 

The telescope has revealed wonders to the human eye, but the 
microscope has revealed far more. It deals with little things, but 
things of vast importance to humanity for weal or woe. The 
germs of some of the most dreaded diseases known have been dis- 
covered, and although formerly supposed incurable, experiments 
are being made, remedies being discovered, and the average length 
of human life is being extended, simply by men devoting their 



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LITTLE THINGS. 37 

attention to things so small as to escape the notice of men daring 
all the past ages of the world's history; and the end is not yet, for 
microscopy is only in its infancy. 

When we examine the wonders of creation and consider what 
little we know of them, we might cry out with the Psalmist: 
"What is man, that thou art mindful of him? and the son of man 
that thou visitest him?" What is there so small as to be unworthy 
the notice of man, when all is the work of the great Creator of the 
universe? 



THE BRITISH AND THE BOERS. 



The war which began lately between England and the South 
African republic, presided over by President Paul Kruger, can only 
-end in the victory of the British over the Boers. The conflict, 
however, will probably witness some desperate encounters. Presi- 
dent Kruger has forty thousand men under his command, now that 
the neighboring republic, the Orange Free State, has made com- 
mon cause with the Transvaal. The South African republic is about 
119,000 square miles in extent, and has a population of over one 
million, of whom the majority are blacks. The Boers form the 
minority of the white population, while the "Uitlanders," or 
foreigners, mostly British, pay nearly all the revenue of about five 
millions of dollars annually, but are debarred from a voice in the 
government. Johannesburg is the leading city and the center of 
the mining region, and had a population, before war became immi- 
nent, of over one hundred thousand. The Orange Free State is 
about 48,000 square miles in extent, and can levy an army of about 
twelve thousand men. The war promises to be carried on over an 
extensive area, favorable to Boer methods of fighting. 



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JOSEPH SMITH FROM A PHILOSOPHIC 
POINT OF VIEW; 



BY LEE EDGAR YOUNG. 



[The following lecture, the notes excepted, was delivered by the 
author before the students of philosophy, at Harvard University — 
Editors.] 

My inward feelings tell me of the thoughts that are upper- 
most in the minds of my hearers when I take up the subject, 
Joseph Smith. Every man before me has heard of the name, and of 
the sect that was founded by this prophet of the nineteenth 
century. Well do I realize that '^0^0^81^ and its founder have 
but little interest to the citizens of the civilized world today; and 
were each of you asked your opinion, I dare say that your answer 
would be that the thoughts and teachings of Joseph Smith will 
have but little weight on the minds of future generations. In 
responding to this subject, however, I must state, at the outset, 
that my basis of reasoning will differ somewhat from yours. Yet 
it is not because you, as physiological-psychologists,* can not 
explain the different characteristic phenomena of the mind when 
you look at them as a result of natural law. But I do believe that 
there are certain states of the spiritual make-up, and certain 
strange phenomena more or less miraculous, which no phase of 
science or philosophy can explain. 

We look at the human brain and well do we know that the 



♦Physiological-psychology is that branch of philosophy which 
teaches that all mental life and phenomena are conditioned by the 
organism, and that we know nothing of mind apart from body. 



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JOSEPH SMITH FROM A PHILOSOPHIC POINT OF VIEW. 39 

school of physiological-psychologists has discovered the fact that 
brain molecular action must precede thought, and that thought 
precedes all action. To a certain lobe of the brain we ascribe 
memory; to another, imagination; and to another, perception, yet 
keeping in mind all the time that the brain works as a whole in 
perfect harmony. Any reasonable man, understanding these facts, 
readily appreciates the human body, the masterpiece of creation. 

But what a world of skepticism this knowledge has caused! 
For how can there be mind and spirit when the brain decays? 
How can the mind act when there is no external playing on the 
ganglions of the nervous system? Magazines and scientific books 
have bristled with such questions, of late; but who can answer 
them? We accept the truths discovered by this school of thinkers, 
and appreciate with Holmes that the "brain is a seventy-year clock 
wound up by the Angel of Life." Yet with it all, we know that 
there are some phases of thought that no human being can explain, 
though he reason a thousand years. 

Let me ask the psychologist a question. What is it in man 
that gives him that divine hope, and faith that God lives and that 
death is not the end of life? What is it that makes man an 
aspiring creature whose soul becomes purely angelic when he 
kneels in humbleness? Is it intuition? Is it instinct? Surely 
these do not explain. They are shades of feeling and emotion that 
are felt and experienced, yet cannot be described. Physiological- 
psychology has its bounds, and to try to explain all mind action 
from a purely materialistic point of view is flagrantly and palpably 
absurd. So, too, whatever progress scientific psychology may 
make, it will never be able to answer what a real prophet is, nor 
what revelation means. 

To answer whether or not Joseph Smith was a prophet of God, 
and a revelator, I think it is necessary to know what God is, and 
His relation to man. I shall assume as a starting point the 
empirical argument of Descartes* which he uses to prove the 
existence of God. Said he: "No idea is higher or clearer than the 



♦Descartes was a French philosopher, born at La Haye, in Touraine, 
in 1596, and he died at Stockholm, Sweden, in 1650. His philosophy 
rests on the proposition: "I think, therefore, I am." 



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40 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

idea of God, or the most perfect being." Whence comes this idea? 
That every idea has a cause, comes from the principle that nothing 
produces nothing. There must be as much cause as there is effect, 
and as I conceive of a being more perfect than I, this conception 
can only come from some one who is more perfect in reality than 
L This idea of God is implanted in one by God Himself. It is an 
original endowment, and is as innate as the idea of myself. This 
is really the ontological argument: we have a concept of God, 
hence there must be a God. Then, to go farther, we cannot think 
of God as apart from an existing individual. 

The Christian world says this God is omnipotent, all merciful, 
and all loving. He is our Creator, and as He is infinite in His 
government, so He is in His love for His children. This God must, 
then, have a perfect law of living; and, if man is His child, God 
naturally speaks to him and gives him principles by which he can 
come to the truest happiness. This truest happiness, we will 
all agree, is the living in harmony with the laws of nature which 
are governed by the law of God. 

Can there be a more beautiful conception of man's rela- 
tion to the Deity than this? God points out the way by giving a 
Gospel plan of salvation to the race. 

Let us make a contrast. Take a negative view. Let mankind 
throughout civilization deny the existence of a Maker and an all- 
wise Protector. Can you imagine the terror and horror that this 
world would be steeped in, within a short time? Man would soon 
become a mere creature of passions, a mere animal. Think of the 
condition of the people of Paris, at the time of the French Revo- 
lution, when they declared that the Revolution should not cease 
until it had "dethroned the King of Heaven as well as the kings 
of earth."* 



*"An attempt was made by the Extremists to have Christianity 
abolished by a decree of the National Council. The Bishop of Paris 
abdicated his office; and his example was followed by many of the clergy 
throughout the country. The churches of Paris and other cities were 
now closed, and the treasures of their altars and shrines confiscated to 
the State. Even the bells were melted down into cannon. The images 
of the Virgin and of the Christ were torn down. The guillotine took the 



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JOSEPH SMITH FROM A PHILOSOPHIC POINT OF VIEW. 41 

We say that God spoke to Joseph Smith and revealed to him 
the holy law of heaven. Yon say, "No. Joseph Smith's visions 
and revelations were the result of some abnormal frame of mind." 
Can this appear reasonable when we look into the life of the man 
and the status of his work? 

John Bunyan* asserted that God spoke to him; so did George 
Foxf and Emanuel Swedenborg.t In fact every age has had its 
men who have asserted that divine revelation has been given to them. 
Whether these men really saw God and talked with Him, I cannot 
say; but I do know that Joseph Smith has given to the world a 
book which has caused wise men to think, and students to ponder 
over its teachings. I refer to the Book of Mormon. 

Regarding this work the conscientious person must come to 
one of two conclusions; either that it is the work of a scholar 



place of the crucifix, and was called the Holy Guillotine. All the visible 
symbols of the ancient religion were destroyed. All emblems of hope 
in the cemeteries were obliterated, and over their gates were inscribed 
the words: "Death is eternal sleep." The madness of the Parisian 
people culminated in the worship of what was called the Goddess of 
Reason. A celebrated beauty, personating the Goddess, was set upon the 
altar of Notre Dame as the object of homage and adoration." — Myers. 

♦John Bunyan, an Englishman, was born in 1628. His most noted 
work is "The Pilgrim's Progress." 

fGeorge Fox was the founder of Quakerism. He was born at 
Drayton, Leicestershire, in 1624. He believed firmly in revelation, and 
asserted that God commanded him to preach a new religion. He died in 
1690. 

JEmanuel Swedenborg was born at Stockholm, in 1688. He became 
a student of the natural sciences, but afterwards took up the study of 
the scriptures. He declared that "Heaven was open to him," and God 
spoke of the mission he was to perform. His early writings are on 
science, but, later in life, he issued a voluminous edition of the scriptures 
according to his own interpretation. The principal of these is the 
"Arcana Gaelestia" in eight quarto volumes, which he printed in London, 
professing to have derived the whole of it by direct illumination from the 
Almighty Himself. 



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42 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

whose brain was as great as that of a Kant* or a Bacon,t or that 
God revealed to the Prophet the records from which it was trans- 
lated. You may ask the question whether or not the "Principia" 
of Newton* or the "La Mecanique Celeste" of Laplacef are not 
greater books. I say, No. The truths of the Book of Mormon 
could never be the result of mere "man-made" investigation any 
more than the Bible could be. 

In the Book of Mormon, there is philosophically worked out a 
grand conception of life and its meaning; of death, and the immor- 
tality of the soul; and it contains a history that no human brain 
could concoct. 

Joseph Smith left us ideas on all phases of learning. He 
laid down a philosophy of life, and gave to man a plan of 
human redemption, which only humble study can make him under- 
stand. He has embodied in his teachings an ideal life here on 
earth. He saw in man grand capabilities and powers, and pointed 
out the way for him to become free, pure and virtuous; and 
asserted by his life that the "pure in heart could see God." 

Joseph Smith's teachings were utilitarian, yet very ideal in 
their tendency. • He lived a life of sacrifice, thereby teaching the 
one essential thing in human life— love. He had a sublime feel- 



♦Kant, the greatest philosoper of his age, and one of the greatest of 
all times, was born in Eonigsberg, a city on the Baltic Sea, in 
Germany, in 1724. His greatest work is the "Critique of Pure Reason," 
one of the most scholarly productions on philosophy ever written. 

fl refer to Francis Bacon, a contemporary of Shakespeare. He 
based his philosophic doctrine on scientific research, and declared that 
natural knowledge must be completed by revelation. 

♦Sir Isaac Newton, the discoverer of the laws of gravitation, was 
born in England, in 1642. His great work the "Principia" was pro- 
nounced by Laplace as the greatest book ever written. It is a work on 
mathematics and the laws of gravity. 

fLaplace, one of the greatest mathematicians and astronomers who 
ever lived, was born in Normandy, in 1749. His greatest mathematical 
production is his "Mecanique Celeste," a work dealing with the revolutions 
of planets. 



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JOSEPH SMITH FROM A PHILOSOPHIC POINT OF VIEW. 43 

ing for the external world — he had every confidence in the grand 
development of the human race. He taught the principles of 
faith, love, and good works, that the glory of God is intelligence; 
and that knowledge — real knowledge — is the path which leads to 
heaven. To him the universal brotherhood of mankind is the ulti- 
mate reality of society; and he asserted that work, with faith in 
Jesus Christ, will finally bring the race to this perfection. 

It is a sorrowful thing, yet nevertheless true, that Joseph 
Smith's teachings are not understood today. Neither were the 
teachings of ancient prophets clearly understood by the peoples of 
their times. In making a study of the results of the works of our 
"Mormon Prophet," we can safely say with Temilron, a French 
writer: "Men's eyes do not focus well enough to note readily the 
advent hour of the world's Messiahs. By by-paths, not by thorough- 
fares or by highways, does truth come to its kingdom among men. 
Good never gallops to victory here in this earth, nor in any in- 
stance does truth march to its crown in a dress parade. It enters 
its kingdom always by Golgotha, a jeering mob, brandishing sticks, 
accompanying, even its best disciples following afar off, the 
women staying nearest, and is lifted to its crown on a cross between 
reviling thieves." 

I do not think that the work of Joseph Smith can be explained 
in its entirety by the psychologist. 

There is a higher law than earthly laws. There is the law of 
Heaven. That law we come to know only through the develop- 
ment of the divine nature within us. 

Philosophy has its bounds; but the truths of God are infinite 
and are only to be known through the Spirit of God. We accept 
the truths discovered by all investigators; but what Hamlet said to 
Horatio is true: "There are more things in heaven and earth, 
Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy." 



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THE INHABITANTS OF SAMOA, THEIR 
SOCIAL LIFE AND CUSTOMS. 

BY W. 0. LEE, SAMOAN MISSIONARY. 



Three distinct classes of people live on the Samoan Islands. 
First, the native race of brown-skinned Polynesians; second, the 
natives from adjacent islands, including the contract laborers or 
"black boys," from the Gilbert, and other groups; and, lastly, the 
foreign population, principally from Germany, England and her 
South Sea colonies, and the United States. 

One who has not traveled and seen the actual effect of the 
white man's civilization (?) upon our brown-skinned proteges, whom 
Kipling most accurately describes as half devil and half child, 
might naturally suppose that the natives would be greatly improved 
through their associations with the superior white race. And so 
they are, in some respects, and would be in all things if every 
foreigner who went to the island was actuated by pure motives, 
and a desire to carry, in truth, the "white man's burden," and lift 
up, by example and precept, the inferior race. This would be an 
ideal condition, and the natural desire of every good and pure man, 
regardless of country or religious opinions. But how different are 
the actual facts in the case! Avarice, immorality, drunkenness, 
and profanity, in lieu of good example, follow in the footsteps of 
the majority of the white men on the islands, and annul, to a great 
extent, the work of the missionaries. In proof of this broad 
assertion, we only need to call attention to the following indisput- 
able facts. 

Beginning with the lesser evil, profanity, there are no profane 
words in the native dialect, but the first words learned by a native 



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THE INHABITANTS OF SAMOA. 45 

in English, as he labors with the white beach-combers of Apia, are 
terribly mixed with the curses so plentifully used in modern Eng- 
lish. 

Drunkenness was an unknown factor in the social life of the 
native until the white man came with his beer, whisky, wine and 
gin. The charge has often been publicly made that many factional 
quarrels among the natives, have been fanned into flame by white 
residents who hoped to reap pecuniary benefits thereby. 

As to the more serious crime of immorality, one has but to 
walk through the streets of Apia, or any other village, where white 
men have lived, or where the cast-off partner of some white man 
has returned to her people, and note the tell-tale color of the half- 
caste children with no father to own them, to realize that some day, 
when men are judged according to the deeds done in this life, 
many a man who has returned to his own country and appeared before 
his fellows as a good Christian, will have to answer for the betrayal, 
and casting away of one or more native child-women and their 
mutual offspring. National pride seems to be a stumbling block 
to the foreigner who might otherwise honorably marry a Samoan 
wife. There are, of course, honorable exceptions to the common 
rale of domestic life among the foreigners on the islands. We 
know of quite a number of happy and prosperous families where 
white men have married, and are true to their native wives. The 
children of the mixed marriages are often sent by their parents to 
foreign countries to receive their education. 

Commercially, the whites are the merchants, the ship and 
plantation owners, the doctors, lawyers, butchers, bakers, black- 
smiths, and carpenters of the larger villages and towns. 

The "black boys," contract laborers from the Solomon, Gilbert, 
and other groups, perform the menial labor on all the large plantar 
tions, under the supervision of white overseers. Of these peculiar 
little people we can say but little, never having lived among them 
in their native homes. During their three years' contracts, they 
make good servants and work much harder and more faithfully 
than do the Samoans, who are far ahead of them in natural intelli- 
gence, and physical beauty. These diminutive wooley-headed, 
spindle-legged, black men remind one of the Darwin theory. If 
there is any connecting link between man and the monkey tribe, 



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46 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

they certainly come nearer the missing link than any other race of 
human beings I have yet seen. At the expiration of their terms, 
they are taken back to their island homes loaded down with suits 
of clothing, hats, a rifle, ammunition, pipes, tobacco, etc. It is 
said that for some time this accumulation of wealth makes them 
kings in their own village. But soon their wealth is divided, they 
loose their prestige, and are anxious to sign articles and go off 
again to their Klondike on Samoa. In the methods first taken by 
the white race to induce the "black boys," to leave their homes and 
contract for work on other islands, we have a picture of the extent 
to which the white race use their superior intelligence to entrap 
their fellows. Here it is substantially as given to the writer by an 
old German sea captain who formerly spent all of his time securing 
contract laborers for the German plantations in the South Seas. 

In their native state the "black boys," are most primitive. In 
the days of which we write they knew nothing of the use of cloth- 
ing, tobacco, pipes, matches, kerosene, etc. Therefore, they had 
no wants that could not be supplied on their own little islands. No 
offer could tempt them to leave their homes; said our informant, 
"We had to create a want so that there would be a desire for 
money to.gratify it with, and we gave them freely, tobacco, pipes, 
matches and clothing, and taught them to use, and to like them. 
After that we had no difficulty in getting them to sign contracts 
for three years to obtain that which they had learned so much 
to desire." What a base use of superior intelligence! Yet these 
"black boys," seem necessary to the success of large plantations on 
Samoa, as the native Samoan will not work on them; first, because 
he is too proud, and, secondly, because he does not have to; a few 
hours' work every few days being sufficient for his own living in 
true Samoan style. There are few if any mixed marriages between 
the Samoans and black laborers. 

No more offensive epithet can be hurled by one Samoan against 
another than to call him a "mea uli" — black thing, as the natives 
designate the papuans, or black laborers. 

Prom these two extremes, the whites and the blacks, we turn 
with pleasure to the happy medium, in this case, the native Samoan 
who, where not contaminated by other races, is an ideal enter- 
tainer, and of the most hospitable race on the face of the whole 



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THE INHABITANTS OF SAMOA. 47 

earth. It is true that nature has so provided that he need take 
little thought of the morrow, and it is almost useless for him to 
store away the foods which sustain the body; as they would only 
decay; therefore, the incentive to save for a rainy day is not nat- 
urally as strong in him as it is in his more enlightened white 
brother. 

Physically the Samoans are superior to our race, and giants 
in comparison with the "black boys." 

It is a beautiful custom they have of calling the family to- 
gether at dark for evening prayers, always preceded by singing 
a native hymn, and sometimes by reading a chapter out of the 
Bible. 

A valuable lesson in retrenchment may be learned from the 
Samoan custom of placing a <a faasa" on food, which is a forbidding 
of the use of any particular article in the time of scarcity until 
it becomes plentiful again. 

Their cooperation in the building of churches, dwelling houses, 
village boats, and all public works, is an object lesson to more civ- 
ilized communities. 

There seems to be an unwritten law among the Samoans to the 
effect that one should never refuse to give his neighbor anything 
asked for. On account of this feeling, individual right to per- 
sonal property is not very clearly defined, and we often see the 
natives helping themselves to each other's clothing in a way that is 
all right to them, but which we would call stealing. They pre- 
sume on this privilege to the extent, in time of famine, of going 
to some other village where bread-fruit and taro is plentiful, and 
helping themselves to a boat-load; while the growers of it for 
shame's sake.because of custom,dare not refuse their needy brothers. 
They are very kind to each other in time of sickness, but to us, 
their custom, when a death occurs, seems cruel. The relatives 
come from all parts, as with us, but no matter how poor the family 
may be, they must furnish a feast after the burial for all their 
relatives and the 'village generally. Under these circumstances, 
if a family cannot get credit, they mortgage their crops, or go to 
almost any extreme in order to keep up with the custom of their 
country. 

Marriage among the Samoans is not attended with the cere- 



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48 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

monies usual in our country,neitheris the marriage vow as sacredly 
kept, as for the good of the people it should be. 

Courtship is conducted (when there is any) under peculiar cir- 
cumstances. There is but one room in a house, and courting 
is necessarily carried on before all present. The pleasure of a 
stroll on the beach, or a row on the placid water inside the reefs 
for sweet company's sake, never seems to appeal to the native 
mind. Like marriages in high life among the more civilized races, 
too many matches are made among the Samoans by relatives and 
financially interested parties, to insure the future happiness of 
home-life of the parties most nearly interested. Like all marriages 
for convenience, when no longer convenient they are quickly severed 
and another marriage takes its place. The original marriage cere- 
mony, among the common native was, and still is, in many cases, 
simply a matter of mutual consent. 

Divorces are obtained in the same manner, or by desertion. 
Because of this custom, the white trader finds it an easy matter to 
obtain Samoan wives, one after another, as he may desire. But 
this common rule, which the churches have tried hard to change, 
and in which they have partially succeeded, has an exception in the 
"Taupo" — maid of the village, and the "Manaia" — handsome young 
chief, of each village. The former is guarded from her infancy by 
old women who are witnesses of her virtue, and the latter is under 
control of the "tulaf ales,"— talking men, or lawyers, of the village. 
These barter and trade, marry and divorce him as often as they 
please, restricted only by their opportunities to make a profitable 
match with the chiefs and relatives of the "Taupo," in some other 
village. In this marriage contract, the consideration is fine mats, 
most desirable above all other earthly things to the Samoans. In 
these high life marriages, love, esteem and courtship, are not 
considered. Oftentimes the young couple have never met until 
they find themselves married by contract; knowing not how soon 
they may be separated by idle mischief-making chiefs who seek to 
use their handsome young men as a means of securing more fine 
mats from the relatives of some other "Taupo f for, as with our 
American heiress who marries abroad, her relatives furnish the 
dowery. Notwithstanding this custom, there are many happy 
families among the natives. And many couples who love and are 



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THE INHABITANTS OF SAMOA. 49 

true to each other, exhibiting tender affection and solicitude for 
each other's welfare. In the beginning of our missionary work on 
the island of Upolu, we succeeded in converting and baptizing the 
head chief of a village, who was also their handsome man. To all 
appearances, he was happily married, and we verily believe, would 
have been contented had the other chiefs left him alone. But they 
had an opportunity to make another most desirable match with a 
village maid. So they gave him no peace until he had dismissed 
his wife, and sent her home to her people. With great show and 
much feasting, they went to the other village to get a new bride 
for their chief, and fine mats for their portion. On learning of 
what had been done, we called a meeting of the native Saints and 
by a unanimous vote the offending chief was severed from the 
Church. One peculiar part of the affair was that we cut him off 
in his own house, as we were his guests. We had no mission-house 
of our own in that particular village, and strange as it may seem, 
this same chief afterwards gave us land and material with which to 
build us a mission house. While an ardent supporter of Mataaf a, 
in opposition to the govenment, he yet showed the warmest friend- 
ship for us, wherever we met. How different from those who 
receive Church discipline at home! 

When upbraided for this or any other weakness peculiar to 
them as a race, one is invariably given what they seem to consider 
an unanswerable reply: "Ole tu faa Samoa" — It is the Samoan 
custom. While they agree with you in condemning it as wrong, 
yet their resignation to what they consider inevitable is most 
aggravating. It is the same with the custom of tattooing. For 
over fifty years, the missionaries have tried to teach the natives 
that tattooing is a heathenish custom, contrary to the laws of God, 
and of good society. Yet with all their efforts, a man is not a 
man, in Samoan custom, until fully tattooed from waist to knee. 
The women, also, are frequently tattooed with their names on the 
forearm. They seem not at all disconcerted when a letter is acci- 
dentally marked upside down, and, of course, must remain for life. 
The method of tattooing is so cruel and disgusting that we have no 
desire to describe it. There is one class, however, that the London 
Missionary Society have succeeded in keeping out of the tattooer's 
hands. They are the boys who, like little Samuel, are consecrated 



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50 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

to the work of the Lord by their parents, and henceforth live with 
the village pastor, until old enough to finish their religions training 
with a four year's course at Malua, the Protestant training school 
for native missionaries on Upolu. This class alone is free from 
tattoo marks; and yet, such is the hold of this custom among the 
natives, that a teacher no sooner falls from grace than he imme- 
diately gets tattooed so that he|may be on an equal with his fellows 
and not be called a "woman-man," a contemptuous name that has 
an entirely different meaning to the Samoan, than what our expres- 
sion, "a ladies' man" has to us. 

There is an Abrahamic simplicity and respect for authority 
and old age among the Samoans. Disobedience or disrespect shown 
by young men towards their elders is considered a serious offense. 
The offender is punished severely. In any house where chiefs are 
assembled, no young man would think of standing erect; but as a 
sign of respect for his elders, walks and waits upon them in a 
stoop-shouldered position. Even the language of the common 
people is changed out of respect for the chiefs, more respectful 
terms always being used in addressing a chief than a common 
person. 

The home life of the ordinary Samoan family in time of peace, 
is an uneventful one. The father has his taro and banana patches, 
and his little bread-fruit and cocoanut grove to care for. He 
breaks the monotony of this work by going fishing in the sea, long 
before most people here are ]ip in the morning. But he gets even 
with us by following the Spanish custom of taking a siesta. So 
accustomed are they to the noonday nap that it is almost impossi- 
ble for them to keep awake all day. The wife and the girls spend 
their time in fishing for muscles in shallow water, washing their 
limited clothing, braiding mats and baskets, scraping, pounding, 
pasting and painting their native cloth. This, by the by, is made 
from the bark of the small paper-mulberry tree, about the size of a 
fishing pole. The women also take care of the food when it is. 
cooked, but the young men are the chefs of Samoa, and also the 
principal waiters. Their method of cooking in an oven whose sides, 
top and bottom, are 'composed of hot rocks, covered with a mass of 
green leaves, has a tendency to preserve the aroma and flavor of 
the various articles cooked, which in our way, is often lost in the 



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THE INHABITANTS OF SAMOA. 51 

air. It is remarkable how tender and palatable a small pig tastes 
that has been cooked in a native oven — a well-cooked chicken is 
not sweeter nor more juicy. 

While every Samoan head of a family seems to own his home 
and small plantation, yet it is not so, for he is but one member of 
a large family, and simply a Stewart over his portion, being subject 
to the will of the "Matai," or head chief of his family. Because 
of this condition, families are often moved from one house to 
another. They are subject to removal for any overt act, or, as a 
matter of choice, families often move from one island to another; 
living one year with his folks and another with her folks, and so 
on, borrowing each other's children indiscriminately. They were 
seemingly much offended when we refused to let them adopt our 
little girl, and take her home with them to live. Natural affection 
as we understand it, between parents and children, does not seem 
to be very strong. Because of jthis!peculiar interchange it would be 
next thing to impossible to take a correct census of the natives. 

The first sight that greets one on entering a Samoan village, 
is the almost, and sometimes entirely,nude bodies of the little brown 
natives, playing in the sandy main street of the village. At the 
approach of a stranger, they scamper away in fear, and hide them- 
selves behind cocoanut trees, and the posts of houses. They peek 
at you as you ride or walk through the village, with their big 
brown eyes set in the fattest and most interesting of faces. The 
native children have so few games to amuse them, that we were 
often tempted to introduce tops and marbles among them, that if 
possible they might sense the joyous delight of our boyhood days. 
The game of cricket has been introduced among the natives, but 
is frowned down by the English missionaries, because of the 
extremes they go to in playing it. One village plays against an- 
other for days and weeks, with feasting in the day time and "sivas" 
native dances, at night, until a famine is threatened in the village 
because of the entire cessation of work in caring for the crops. 

There is a peculiarity in the way the natives do many things, 
and some of their ways are quite the opposite to ours; for instance, 
when women hand-print their "tapa" cloth, they strike away from 
the body instead of drawing the hand and brush towards them. 
They cut their children's hair with a piece of broken glass, shav- 



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62 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

ing the skull like that of a Chinaman, leaving a toft of hair here 
and there in a most grotesque manner. Fancy an American mother 
looking on while these Samoan barbers shave their children's heads, 
with pieces of broken beer-bottles, fastening the little one be- 
tween their knees as in a vice, during the operation. 

Ava drinking is used to express good feeling and hospitality. 
While a little piece of ava-root looks like any common piece of 
root, yet in Samoan custom it is a sign of the most genuine hos- 
pitality. Speeches of welcome, and responses always attend its 
presentation. Altogether it is a most [pleasant custom, as it is 
carried out on Samoa. The drink is made in mild form, does not 
stupify as on Hawaii, but is considered a good medicine by foreign- 
ers. It quenches the thirst, and often takes the place of a meal 
to the natives. In no other custom more than ava-drinking does 
one see the caste line drawn so closely between the various de- 
grees of chiefs, matai faipule, tulafale, etc. The highest in rank 
is served first, or trouble follows, since the natives are exceedingly 
jealous of rank and genealogy. One would think, to see a "fono," 
or council of chiefs, (especially if on a Saturday) that they were all 
old, white-headed men, but on closer observation, you would find this 
effect the result of their hair, (which is always cropped short and 
combed pompadore, both fore and aft,) being smeared all over with 
a slackened lime paste. The lime has two effects. It keeps the 
head clean and turns the hair a golden brown. After a bath, and 
a plentiful supply of highly-perfumed cocoa-nut oil spread upon the 
hair and over the body, many of these seemingly white-headed 
chiefs change their appearance wonderfully. 



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LIQUID AIR, AND SOME OF THE EXTRAV- 
AGANT CLAIMS MADE FOR IT. 

BY DE. JAMES B. TALMAGE, OP THE UNIVERSITY OP UTAH. 



So many articles treating on the subject of liquid air, the 
marvelous properties of the substance, and the alleged possibilities 
of its application to the service of man, have appeared in the mag- 
azines of recent months, that additional writings of the kind call 
for a statement of reason or excuse for their coming forth. The 
present writer's excuse for appearing in print under the foregoing 
heading rests on the urgent and repeated requests of the Era's 
editors to this end; and their reasons for desiring such a contribu- 
tion are probably strengthened by the questionable reliability of 
the great array of liquid air literature already presented to the 
reading public. Certainly much that has been published on this 
subject consists of unproved assertions and of extravagant prom- 
ises, the fulfillment of which is by no means assured. Prospectuses 
of three companies have already appeared, each specifying a cap- 
italization of five millions of dollars, and predicting speedy and 
enormous returns to those who invest their means in the utilization 
of this new agent of civilization and progress. The careful reader 
may have observed that the immoderate praise of liquid air as an 
agent of unprecedented efficiency, and the song of its future 
triumphs, have been generally voiced through the columns of semi- 
sensational periodicals; while scientific journals and publications 
of acknowledged authority in the special field of physics have been 
mainly silent on the subject or studiously guarded in their utter- 



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54 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

ances. Demonstrated facts, unsupported theories, and fanciful 
dreams have been so mingled in current discussions of liquid air, 
that the lay reader may be unable to distinguish between fact 
and supposition. 

In the first place, what is liquid air, or, more accurately stated, 
liquefied air? It may be profitable to preface the answer to this 
question by a few general considerations. We are accustomed to 
speak of two classes of substances with respect to physical state, 
viz., solids and fluids; of fluids two sub-classes are recognized, 
liquids and gases. The essential difference between a liquid and the 
same substance in a state of gas is one of condensation, the parti- 
cles of the gaseous substance being brought closer together in the 
process of liquefaction. Long ago it was demonstrated that by 
increasing pressure, or by lowering temperature, and more expedi- 
tiously by combining both of these operations, certain gases could 
be reduced to the liquid condition. Increased pressure was usually 
employed as the means of liquefaction, but experiment soon proved 
that pressure alone would not insure liquefaction in all cases; and 
that for each gas there is a certain degree of heat, commonly 
known as the critical point of temperature, above which the gas 
cannot liquefy, however great the pressure applied. It has also 
been proved that for every gas there exists a critical point of 
pressure, below which liquefaction is impossible even though the 
temperature be greatly reduced. Air, which is not a single gas 
but a mixture of gases, was one of the most obstinate substances 
to liquefy. Its critical temperature has been proved to be about 
— 140° G, and its critical pressure 39 atmospheres, or 585 pounds 
to the square inch. Liquefied air then is the ordinary atmospheric 
mixture of gases, so condensed by pressure and cold as to be 
brought into the state of a watery fluid. 

Means of producing intense cold have been eagerly sought 
with the hope of employing such in the liquefaction of gases. The 
common methods now used are based on the fact that heat is 
absorbed in the process of gas expansion. It is generally known 
that when a gas is compressed by mechanical means it becomes 
warm. Conversely, when a gas so compressed is allowed to expand, 
heat is absorbed, and the bodies with which the expanding gas is 
in contact will be robbed of their sensible heat. Upon this princi- 



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LIQUID AIR. 55 

pie the expansion of compressed ammonia in tubes is made a means 
of refrigeration. 

In 1879, Callette liquefied air in small quantities by means of 
pressure mechanically applied, combined with the cooling effect of 
expanding gases. Six years later, Solvay produced liquid air in 
greater quantities by employing a cumulative method of cooling, 
the principle of which may be stated briefly as follows: Air that 
has been compressed is deprived of part of its sensible heat by 
external cooling; it is then allowed to expand to its volume before 
compression, and is again compressed, cooled and allowed to 
expand, the process being repeated until a very low degree of 
temperature is reached. This method has been improved upon by 
Linde, of Munich, in 1895 ; and during recent months, by Mr. 
Charles E. Tripler of New York. The gentleman last named has 
been so successful in his efforts that liquid air is now produced at 
a very low cost, and in quantity sufficiently great to warrant the 
expectation that its adaptability to practical purposes may be 
thoroughly tested by experiment. While the means of producing 
the substance were so costly and difficult, practical experiments, 
on a large scale, were not attempted. It is interesting to note 
that in Mr. Triplets ingenious and highly efficient method of apply- 
ing the principle of cumulative cooling, compressed air is employed 
as the gas which cools by expanding. Liquefied air is air in an 
extreme state of compression; this substance therefore maybe 
and has been employed as a cooling agent, which by its own evap- 
oration and subsequent expansion, cools, and eventually liquefies 
other, though smaller quantities of air. The principle underlying 
the process by which air is liquefied on the cumulative plan of 
cooling, is thus concisely described in a recent paper by Mr. E. S. 
Wicklin, of Chicago. It should be understood that the description 
is not that of any particular machine. "Air compressed to about 
2,500 pounds to the inch, and cooled by being passed in pipes 
through a bath of running water while thus compressed, is carried 
through coils of pipes to a receiver several feet away. Into this 
it is discharged through pinholes not large enough to reduce the 
pressure in the coils. As fast as set free in the receiver, the air 
expands to nearly its original volume, falling in temperature per- 
haps a hundred degrees or more. From the receiver the air flows 



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56 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

back through a large jacket that surrounds the incoming coils, and 
returns to the compressor, where it is again compressed, cooled, 
returned through the coils, and discharged through'the pinholes. 
Thus it will be seen that as soon as the operation is started the 
coils are enveloped in an intensely cold atmosphere that greedily 
snatches heat from every inch that it touches. In this condition 
the air in the coils is every moment growing colder, and is thus 
discharged from the pinholes at a temperature more reduced, and 
filling the jacket with expanded air ever more and more eager to 
devour the last remaining vestige of heat in the coils. This cannot 
long continue. The cold becomes so intense that the expanding 
air gives up its latent heat, forms a cloud, and rains down a liquid 
shower to the bottom of the receiver. From this moment the con- 
denser must draw a part of its supply from the outside, as every 
drop of the liquid takes up seven hundred and fifty times its vol- 
ume of the expanded air." 

Of the remarkable properties possessed by liquid air much has 
been written, and the published descriptions, in general full and 
accurate, are all instructive and interesting. The boiling point of 
liquid air, or the temperature at which, under proper pressure, air 
passes into the liquid condition is about 312° F.; that is 344 Fah- 
renheit degrees below the freezing point of water. Now, the tem- 
perature difference between water at its freezing point and water 
at its boiling point, (at the sea level) is only 180 Fahrenheit de- 
grees; yet water at its freezing point is 344 degrees hotter than 
liquid air at its boiling point. The ordinary temperature of a liv- 
ing room, say 68° F., is 380 degrees hotter than boiling liquid air. 
Consequently when liquid air in an open vessel is exposed to the 
ordinary temperature of a room, or even when poured into an ice 
cavity, it boils violently, and is rapidly reconverted into the gas- 
eous state. Alcohol, which, because of its low freezing point, — 
—202.9° F., is used in thermometers designed to indicate very low 
temperatures, is solidified when brought in contact with liquid air; 
and mercury under similar conditions is frozen so hard that a block 
of the metal may be used as a hammer. Such facts as these, while 
interesting and curious, are of but little promise in pointing a way 
to the utilization of liquid air in the practical arts. The main pur- 
poses to which man hopes to apply the substance are those of 



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LIQUID AIR. 57 

refrigeration and power, and it is along these lines that the loudly 
advertized schemes of immediate application are directed. Let us 
briefly consider each of these purposes, and the probable adapta- 
bility of liquid air thereto. 

As a refrigerating agent liquid air has been credited with 
efficiency almost beyond comprehension. And indeed there appears 
great promise of advantage in substituting this new liquid for 
ammonia and other substances which have heretofore been utilized 
on the principle of cooling through evaporation and gaseous ex- 
pansion in large refrigerating plants. It would seem to be an easy 
matter to equip ships,hospitals, and large establishments generally, 
with {liquid-air machines, by which ice could be readily produced, 
and rooms be kept cool by a system of expansion tubes. But the 
plan of using liquid air as a cooling agent on a small scale, by 
simple exposure in open vessels, is probably impracticable. Never- 
theless, wonderful claims have been asserted for the substance 
when so employed. I quote from a prospectus circulated by an 
eastern company now offering its stock for sale:— "A single gallon 
[of liquid air] will perform wonders in an ordinary city home. A 
tumblerful dipped out and placed in the ice chest will maintain a 
temperature of zero in the refrigerator for twenty-four hours. A 
quart of it placed in the ventilating apparatus will keep the tem- 
perature of the whole house at 60° during the hottest summer 
day. The remainder of the gallon put into the proper motor, with 
an electric dynamo attachment, will generate enough heat to do 
the cooking, run the electric lights, warm the water for the bath, 
and in the winter heat the entire house by electric radiators. Its 
application as a medicine is full of marvelous possibilities." This 
is perhaps a fair type of many published assertions on the subject. 
The prospectuses of other companies embodying statements as ex- 
travagant as the foregoing have reached my hand. 

The utter fallacy of many of these statements can be practi- 
cally demonstrated and mathematically proved by any capable 
student of physics. Not desiring to burden these pages with de- 
tails of calculation, which to many would be tedious, I content 
myself with a statement of results. One pound of liquid air is at 
best equal in refrigerating power to less than one pound and a half 
of ice; (accurately stated, 1.42 pounds of ice). Furthermore, it 



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68 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

is certain that the loss through evaporation, etc., will be much 
greater in the case of liquid air than in that of ice, and therefore 
this theoretical efficiency will not be realized. Therefore, liquid 
air and ice may be considered as about equal in practical refriger- 
ating value, weight for weight. A tumblerful of liquid air weigh- 
ing about half a pound, is therefore equal as a refrigerating agent 
to about half a pound of ice. 

The second statement quoted in regard to the great cooling 
effect of a small quantity of liquid air, viz., that "a quart of it 
placed in the ventilating apparatus will keep the temperature of 
the whole house at 60° during the hottest summer day," is likewise 
untrue. As a matter of fact the refrigerating effect of a quart 
of liquid air so used would be equivalent to that of about two 
pounds of ice. The assertion that the unused portion of the gal- 
lon of liquid air (five and a half pints) would furnish motive power 
sufficient to run a dynamo, warming and lighting the house and 
furnishing heat for the cook-room and the bath, is a gross exag- 
geration. In considering it we are brought to the second proba- 
ble means of liquid air utilization, viz., as a source of power. 

That the great expansive power of liquid air can be used as a 
convenient means of mechanical energy, there can be little doubt. 
The value of this source of energy can be practically determined. 
The full theoretical efficiency of a gallon of the liquid is equivo- 
lent to a force of one-horse power operating forty-five minutes; 
and the five and a half pints referred to above would furnish one- 
horse power during thirty-one minutes only. Practically this 
efficiency would be greatly lessened through the inevitable losses 
in working. 

It is, however, probable, almost certain indeed, that liquid air 
will be very widely employed as a motive power; the ease -and con- 
venience attending its use being among its strong recommendations 
to this service. But no one can reasonably hope to gain from the 
expansive power of liquid air greater force than was employed in 
producing the liquid; indeed, as shown, the practical yield will be 
necessarily less. It may suit our convenience, and therefore be of 
advantage to us, to employ the power of steam to drive a dynamo, 
thereby transforming the energy into electricity; we may then use 
the electric current in operating a motor, which in turn may drive 



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LIQUID AIR. 59 

a mill, a printing press or a street car; yet who would expect to 
realize in the motor as great a manifestation of energy as was 
yielded by the steam engine in tije first place? Every transforma- 
tion has cost much in loss of available power. Compressed air has 
been found serviceable, because convenient, in driving small en- 
gines; but the power resulting is always less than that employed 
to compress the air; and with appliances theoretically perfect could 
never be greater than the initial energy developed. 

Uses at once varied and great already appear in the prospect 
for liquid air; there is little excuse for the unfounded claims that 
have been asserted as among its assured applications. The sub- 
stance will probably find a place among the cauterizing agents 
used in surgery. Its employment in the manufacture of explo- 
sives and as a means of securing more thorough combustion of 
fuel appears reasonably certain. Its adaptability to the purposes 
last named may be thus explained. As before stated, the atmos- 
phere is a mixture of gases, the principal ingredients being oxygen 
and nitrogen. When reduced to the liquid state and allowed to 
boil, the nitrogen disappears first, its boiling point (— 320° P.),being 
about twenty degrees below that of oxygen, (— 300° P.) ; the oxygen 
therefore is soon in excess. Now, oxygen is the common supporter 
of combustion; and if liquid oxygen, thus readily obtainable, can 
be safely and successfully fed to carbon undergoing combustion, 
the present woeful waste of fuel may be largely obviated. In a 
similar way the addition of liquid oxygen to explosive materials 
may greatly add to their efficiency. 

But of all the wonders, real or imaginary thus far declared of 
liquid air, the most astounding is the following: It is asserted that 
a given amount of liquid air, when employed to drive a liquid air 
engine, actually produces a quantity of the substance greater than 
that used in the machine. Mr. Tripler is quoted as saying: "I 
have actually made about ten gallons of liquid air in my liquefier by 
the use of about three gallons in my engine. There is therefore a 
surplusage of seven gallons that has cost me nothing, and which I 
can use elsewhere as power." This surprising statement is the 
cause of the almost unparalleled excitement incident to the an- 
nouncement of the successful manufacture of liquid air in quantity. 
Certainly to any one who can accept the declaration as made above 



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60 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

it is sufficiently astonishing. To the physicist it is simply a mis- 
statement. Either we have not understood Mr. Tripler or he has 
failed to fully comprehend his own operations. * Fanciful pictures 
have been drawn of the boundless possibilities of a power that 
costs less than nothing, and of energy that perpetuates itself in an 
ever increasing proportion. Such a solution of such a problem be- 
littles the impossibilities of perpetual motion. However, the state- 
ment is not yet fortified by the proof which physicists demand. It 
may be noted that the article in which Mr. Tripler is quoted as 
having used the words given above, closes as follows* — "Much has 
yet to be done before liquid air becomes the revolutionizing power 
which Mr. Tripler prophecies. ♦ * * jj r# Tripler has 
yet to perfect his machinery for producing liquid air without 
expense." 

The assurance which to some may seem presumption, in reject- 
ing the positive statement concerning the increasing production of 
liquid air through itself alone, is justified by the fact that laws of 
nature are opposed to the declaration. It is not given toman to 
create either matter or energy. His drafts on the bank of 
nature will be honored to the extent of his deposit honestly mad* 
therein, and no further. He may utilize matter and the forces 
about him, by exchange and transformation, but he cannot get 
something for nothing. 



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EDITOR'S TABLE. 



THE ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPT OP THE BOOK OP MORMON. 



Much has been said, at different times, as to the whereabouts 
of the original manuscript of the Book of Mormon, but very little 
of a definite character had been said respecting this topic. Quite 
recently an article on this subject was reprinted in the St. Louis 
Republic, from a Richmond, Missouri, correspondent, and copied by 
the Troy, N. Y. Press and reproduced from the latter paper by the 
Deseret News of September 27th, with appropriate comment. That 
the readers of the Era may more clearly see the puerile, but 
malicious character of this article, which is a fair sample of many 
others published in the press of the country, on this subject, it is 
here reproduced: 

The original manuscript of Joseph Smith's "Book of Mormon," the 
Bible of the "Mormon" Church, is kept in a bank vault in this town. 
The Elders of the "Mormon" Church, in Utah, made different attempts, 
in past years, to get possession of it, but failed. Once they offered 
$100,000 in cash for the old and yellow manuscript' but its keeper, 
David Whitmer, one of the founders of the Church refused the offer 
because he believed the Utah branch of the Church wished to get hold of 
the manuscript to insert into it, by forgery, a clause that would author- 
ize and*banction the practice of polygamy. Last week, two representa- 
tives of the "Mormon" Church of Utah were here making another 
attempt to buy the manuscript. This original manuscript, written at the 
dictation of Joseph Smith, is now in the possession of George W. Schweich 
of this town, a retired merchant, the grandson of David Whitmer who 
was one of the three witnesses to the writing of the manuscript. The 
manuscript of the "Book of Mormon" contains six hundred large sheets 
of linen paper, the size of foolscap, written closely on both sides. The 



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62 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

paper is yellow with age, and the ink is faded to brown. The pages are 
bound together with strings of yarn. The manuscript contains three 
hundred and fifty thousand words. It was written in 1829. 

The fact of the matter is that the original manuscript of the 
Book of Mormon never was "kept in a bank vault" in the town of 
Richmond nor in that of any other town, in Missouri. Neither has 
the original manuscript ever been in the possession of David Whit- 
mer nor that of any of his kindred. Neither has the "Mormon" 
Church in Utah through any of its Elders or otherwise attempted 
at any time to get possession of the original manuscript of the 
Book of Mormon, "and failed." The Church in Utah has not at 
any time, through its Elders or otherwise, offered a hundred thou- 
sand dollars nor any other sum of money for the original manu- 
script, nor for the "old and yellow" copy of it which was left by 
Oliver Cowdery, at his death at Richmond, Missouri, March 3rd, 
1850, in the possession of David Whitmer, which copy is said to be 
now "in a bank vault" in Richmond, Missouri. The story about 
David Whitmer refusing "the offer" of one hundred thousand dol- 
lars for his copy of the manuscript, "because he believed the Utah 
branch of the Church wished to get hold of the manuscript to 
insert into it, by forgery, a clause that would authorize and sanc- 
tion the practice of polygamy," is ridiculous twaddle. The fact, 
however, that such a story is told, and published in some of the 
leading newspapers of the country, would make it appear that 
there are people blind enough to give credence to it. 

" First, let it be said that David Whitmer's "belief," if he ever 
entertained such a belief, together with the whole story, is 
without the least shadow of truth. How could it be possible for 
such a thing as forgery to be perpetrated! Up to the date of the 
alleged offer hundreds of thousands of copies of the Book of Mor- 
mon had been published and scattered broad-cast over the world, 
and, besides, translated into more than a dozen foreign languages. 
Therefore, even if David Whitmer or the agents of the "Mormon" 
Church of Utah, might desire to alter the manuscript, how could 
they hope to call in and change the tens of thousands of the 
printed book? Comment is unnecessary. A grain of common 
sense will show how imbecile the thought. 



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EDITORS TABLE 63 

The statement that 'last week two representatives of the 
'Mormon' Church, of Utah, were here making another attempt to 
buy the manuscript," is a falsehood of the same class. However 
there may have been occasionally an Elder of the Church, not 
posted on this subject, who, for some purpose known to himself, 
might have tried to ascertain the value in which this manuscript 
is held by its possessors. But no man, Elder or Apostle, is, nor 
ever has been, authorized by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints to offer any sum of money for the manuscript now in 
the possession of the heirs of (David Whitmer. In September, 
1878, in company with Apostle Orson Pratt, the writer visited 
David Whitmer, at Richmond, Ray County, Missouri. In the pres- 
ence of David C. Whitmer, the son of Jacob, Philander Page, 
David J. Whitmer, son of David Whitmer, George Scheweich, Col. 
James W. Black, J. R. B. Van Cleave and some others, Father 
David Whitmer was asked if the three witnesses signed their own 
names to their testimony to the Book of Mormon? Father Whit- 
mer unhesitatingly replied with emphasis: 

"Yes, we each signed his own name." 

"Then," said the questioner, "how is it that the names of all 
the witnesses are found here, (in D. Ws manuscript) written in the 
same hand-writing?" 

This question seemed to startle [Father Whitmer, and, after 
examining the signatures he replied: 

"Oliver must have copied them." 

"Then, where are the original documents?" was asked. . 

He replied, '1 don't know." 

Knowing as we did with what sacredness this manuscript was 
regarded by Father Whitmer, both Elder Pratt and the writer 
sounded him to see if he could be induced to part with it, and we 
found him determined to retain it. We were not authorized to 
offer any money for the manuscript, neither did we make any offer 
of money or other consideration for it. But notwithstanding this 
fact, it was soon rumored about and published abroad that we had 
offered large sums of money for it. 

In July, 1884, the writer received the following enquiries, by 
letter, from L. J. Traughbar, Jr., of Mandeville, Carrol County, 
Missouri: 



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64 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

"Did Mr. Pratt and yon offer David Whitmer $10,000 for the 
manuscript of the Book of Mormon? Did you offer him $100,000? 
Did yon make him any definite offer for them?' 

To each question there can be but one reply, No, not those 
amounts and not one dollar! 

Now let us see what became of the original manuscript of the 
Book of Mormon. The following is copied from the history of the 
Prophet Joseph Smith by his mother: (pp. 142 and 143.) 

Soon after this Joseph secured the copyright; and before he returned 
to Pennsylvania, where he had left his wife, he received a commandment 
which was, in substance, as follows: 

First, that Oliver Cowdery should transcribe the whole manuscript. 
Second, that he should take but one copy at a time to the office, so that 
if one copy should get destroyed, there would still be a copy remaining. 
Third, that in going to and from the office he should always have a guard 
attend him, for the purpose of protecting the manuscript. Fourth, that 
a guard should be kept constantly on the watch, both night and day, 
about the house to protect the- manuscript from malicious persons, who 
would infest the house for the purpose of destroying the manuscript. 
All these things were strictly attended to, as the Lord commanded 
Joseph. After giving these instructions, Joseph returned to Pennsyl- 
vania. 

This is sufficient to show that the original manuscript was 
copied by Oliver Cowdery. 

The following letter may be interesting here: 

Further facts in relation to the manuscript of the Book of Mormon. 
I saw the Prophet Joseph Smith, Jr., hide up the above manuscript unto 
the Lord in the south-east corner of the Nauvoo House, Illinois. I stood 
within eight or ten feet of him, heard and saw what he said and did, on 
that important occasion, which I freely testify to all the world. 
[Signed] Frederick Kesler, Sen., 

Bishop of the Sixteenth Ward, 
October 12, 1878. Salt Lake City, Utah. 

From the history of Joseph Smith, Millennial Star, Vol 18, 
page 693, (See also Times and Seasons, Vol. 2, page 576), we copy: 
"Conference met in the grove. The Presidency being absent lay- 
ing the corner stone of the Nauvoo House, the meeting was called 
to order by President B. Young." This is under date of October 
2, 1841. - 



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EDITORS TABLE. 65 

Many years ago, the writer copied the following statement 
from the early records of The Church, which were kept by his 
private secretary under the immediate direction and supervision of 
the Prophet Joseph Smith himself: 

The corner stone of the Nauvoo House was laid by President Joseph 
Smith on the 2nd of October, 1841, and the following articles were 
deposited therein by the President, to-wit: 

A Book of Mormon; a revelation given January 19, 1841; the Times 
and Seasons, containing the charter of the Nauvoo House; Journal of 
Heber C. Kimball; the memorial of Lyman Wight to the United States 
Senate; a Book of Doctrine and Covenants, first edition; No. 85 of the 
Times and Seasons; the original manuscript of the Book of Mormon; 
the Persecutions of the Church in the State of Missouri, published in the 
Times and Seasons; the Holy Bible. Silver coins as follows: one half- 
dollar, one quarter-dollar, two dimes, two half-dimes, and one copper 
coin." 

Thus we see that the original manuscript of the Book of Mor- 
mon, which had up to this time remained in the possession of 
Joseph himself, was on October 2nd, 1841, by his own hand, depos- 
ited in the south-east corner of the Nauvoo House, with other 
things, and that it never was at any time in tbe possession of David 
Whitmer. The copy taken was used for printing by E. B. Grandin, 
of Palmyra, New York. Oliver Cowdery read the proofs, and 
when the book was printed retained possession of the copy which* 
at his death, in Richmond, fell into the hands of David Whitmer. 
These are the facts. And, in further proof, the writer avers that 
he is now in possession of a portion of the original manuscript, 
and "The Memorial of Lyman Wight to the United States Senate," 
which were taken from the Nauvoo House about the year 1884, by 
L. C. Bidamon, when he removed that portion of the house which 
contained the records. — Joseph P. Smith. 



COLLECTION OP ANECDOTES. 



We ask the readers of the Era to write anecdotes. 

The Latter-day Saints, through their missionary system, have 



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66 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

had unusual opportunities to gain experience, knowledge, and 
valuable and interesting information. Every year hundreds of 
missionaries are sent out into the nations of the earth. The object 
of their going is, of course, to preach the Gospel, but in connection 
with this labor, much experimental knowledge is incidentally 
received by the individual which in the aggregate should have a 
tendency to make ours the best informed community in the world. 
Such knowledge must prove of incalculable benefit to the people as 
a whole. Many new ideas are thus gathered relating to mechan- 
ical, industrial, business, religious, moral and social affairs, and are 
converted to the best use, in the line of progress, in the building 
of our mountain commonwealth. 

It has occurred to the editors of the Improvement Era that 
among the returned Elders, as well as among those who are now in 
the field, in all parts of the world, there must be a rich fund of 
anecdotal experience, illustrating a variety of topics of interest to 
the general reader, and especially useful to young men in their 
daily work of character-building. Placed before the public, would 
this not make valuable and instructive reading? With such thought 
in view, we have decided to make an effort to gather a collection 
of anecdotes. 

We ask every reader of the Era who has one in mind to write 
it, and forward it to the editor. The collection will appear in 
chapters, as we find room to print the communications. In order 
to guide the writers, we give the following anecdotes as examples: 

Illustrating the necessity of holding one's self in readiness to 
grasp the opportunity which is said to come to every man once in a 
life time: it is told by William Eugene Lewis in the Metropolitan, 
as having been related to him by "Fighting Bob" Evans of the Navy. 

''Dewey at Manila" said Captain Evans, "recalls to my mind an 
incident that occurred in the war with the South * * * Farragut 
and his fleet lay down toward the mouth of the Mississippi, completely 
preventing the passage of the stream by the enemy. Above were several 
gunboats and ironclads, reformed tugs and other craft, which we would 
call auxiliaries now. These were greatly needed at New Orleans. There 
wasn't an apparent chance in the world for the Confederate boats to 
make the trip. For a long, weary time the condition remained the same. 
It looked as if the close of the war would find the fleets in unchanged 



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EDITOR'S TABLE. 67 

relative position. One day it happened that the commanders of Farra- 
gut's ships undertook a general [rehabilitation and repair. Their fires 
were banked and there was a sound of scraping, and the smell of paint 
was on the air. Of all the ships on the blockade but one had fires under 
her boilers and sufficient steam to start her engines. This was the time 
the Confederates chose to move their boats. Down the channel they 
came and rounded the bend, not in line of battle, but Indian file, like 
ducks returning from an excursion. The Northern fleet was helpless — 
all but the one craft. Officers and men, in their chagrin, alternated 
cursing with crying. 

"What did the commander of the one ship capable of attacking do? 

"He had no instructions suitable for the emergency, so he over- 
hauled his chest and presently there fluttered and snapped from his 
halyards the inquiry: 'Shall I engage the enemy?' 

"Naturally Farragut and the officers on his flagship were employed 
watching the regatta which steamed on down with many marine insults. 
No answer came to the commander's question, for no one had taken the 
trouble to read it. At last he ordered his gig and went over to the flag- 
ship to confer. He was met on the stage side by Old Ironsides himself. 
Although the lower Mississippi region is sub-tropical, those who were 
witnesses assert that the temperature was Alaskan. 

" 1 received no response to my signal' — began the commander who 
had steam but lacked initiative. 

" *Captain,' interrupted Farragut, 'to every man comes an opportu- 
nity once in his lifetime. Yours has passed, down the river.' 

"The Admiral cut off discussion by retiring. Dewey's opportunity 
found him adequate, and so far from asking for directions, he cut the 
only line of communication. Orders," concluded Captain Evans with 
gravity, "are often extremely troublesome, not to say discouraging." 

Illustrating a noble revenge, or paying good for evil: 

When Madame Sontag began her musical career, she was hissed off 
the stage at Vienna by the friends of her rival, Amelia Steininger, who 
had begun to decline through her dissipation. Years passed on and 
Madame Sontag, at the height of her popularity, was riding through 
Berlin, when she saw a child leading a blind woman. "Come here, my 
child," said Madame Sontag; "who is that you are leading by the hand?" 
"That's my mother," replied the child; "that's Amelia Steininger. She 
used to be a great singer, but she lost her voice and she cried so much 
about it that she lost her eyesight." "Give my love to her," said 
Madame Sontag, "and tell her an old acquaintance will call on her this 



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68 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

afternoon." The next week, in Berlin, Madame Sontag sang before a 
vast audience gathered at a benefit for that blind woman. She employed 
a skilled oculist, but he in vain tried to give eyesight to the blind 
woman. Until the day of Amelia Steininger's death, Madame Sontag 
took care of her, and her daughter after her. That was what the queen 
of song did for her enemy. 

Illustrating the courtesy and consideration of George Wash- 
ington: told by Martha Littlefield Phillips in the Century Magazine 
in, "Recollection of Washington and his friends." The author is a 
granddaughter of the youngest daughter of General Nathaniel 
Greene, and she tells the incident in the words of her grandmother 
concerning a visit of the latter to Washington at Philadelphia: 

One incident which occurred during that visit was so comical in 
itself, and so characteristic of Washington, that I recall it for your 
entertainment. Early in a bright December morning a droll-looking old 
countryman called to see the President. In the midst of their interview 
breakfast was announced, and the President invited the visitor, as was 
his hospitable wont on such occasions, to a seat beside him at the table. 
The visitor drank his coffee from the saucer, but lest any grief should 
come to the snowy damask, he laboriously scraped the bottom of his cup 
on the saucer's edge before setting it down on the table-cloth. He did 
it with such audible vigor that it attracted my attention, and that of 
several young people present, always on the alert for occasions of 
laughter. We were so indiscreet as to allow our amusement to become 
obvious. General Washington took in the situation and immediately 
adopted his visitor's method of drinking his coffee, making the scrape 
even more pronounced than the one he reproduced. Our disposition to 
laugh was quenched at once. 

Illustrating the difficulty of translating verbatim from one 
language to another: told by a traveler from Brooklyn who 
happened to be in Venice in July, 1898, and received his first 
intelligence from the Italian newspapers, of the American victory 
over the Spanish fleet at Santiago. 

"With my limited knowledge of Italian," he says, "I was just able to 
make out from the morning paper that we had destroyed the Spanish 
fleet, and that there was great rejoicing on our ships after the fight; and 
wanting particulars, I took the paper to Professor Rovera who speaks 
almost perfect 'scholar's English', and asked him to translate it to 



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EDITORS TABLE. 69 

me, which he did in excellent style, until he came near the end, when, 
with a little hesitation, he read, 'And the band played the Flag with 
the Stars on it, and, It will be Very Warm in the City this Evening.' It 
was about a minute before I recognized 'The Star Spangled Banner,' and, 
Ther 1 !! be a Hot Time in the Old Town Tonight." 



THE PARIS CONGRESS OP THE HISTORY OP RELIGIONS. 



At the instance of M. Victor Charbonnel, who is the chief 
promoter, the Parliament of Religions at Chicago, in 1893, is to be 
duplicated with some variations, at the Paris Exhibition of 1900. 
The general plan has been outlined, the movement being headed by 
M. Albert Reville, who is the chairman of the forty members of 
the Committee on Organization. He is the professor of his- 
tory of religions at the College of France. 

This Congress is to differ from the Chicago Parliament in that 
it is to be composed of a strictly scientific personnel. Its organ- 
izers will invite as speakers not the representatives of the various 
churches, but "independent and disinterested scholars who study 
the history of religion from the scientific side." Instead of faith, 
science will be used as a basis. 

As with the Chicago Parliament, so with this, it met strong 
opposition at first. It was only after matters had been ar- 
ranged in such away as "to prevent all dogmatic and confessional 
controversy from finding a place on its program," that the Paris 
Congress of the History of Religions was permitted to organize. 
The principal opposition, though by no means all, came from the 
Catholics, who constitute the membership of the dominant religion 
in France. But all objections were at last overcome, and the or- 
ganization is working. 

A central committee composed of well-known French scholars, 
have drawn up the regulations. The Congress will have both gen- 
eral and sectional meetings. A circular has been issued explain- 



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70 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

ing the whole scope of the undertaking. The following paragraph 
is found in the official invitation which has been sent to historians, 
theologians, philosophers, f olk-lorists, ethnographists and sociolo- 
gists, so that the field of the discussion will be broad — broader by 
far, perhaps, than in Chicago, where, as the readers of the Era 
are aware, unpopular faiths were excluded — at least this was the 
case with the Latter-day Saints: 

"The proposed Congress is exclusively of a historical nature. Dur- 
ing the nineteenth century the history of religions has been fully de- 
veloped as an independent science, and should, therefore, be entitled to 
a prominent position in an international exhibition, the aim of which is 
to bequeath, as a legacy to the twentieth century the magnificient 
achievements of the nineteenth. The history of religion has an import- 
ant mission to perform, in the way of elucidating the past and in shed- 
ding its illuminating influence on the moral and social problems of the 
present and the future. It is desirable that all those who have the progress 
of the subject at heart should learn how to know one another recipro- 
cally. It is to their interest to consult together concerning the ways 
and means of giving religious studies a larger place in the curriculum 
of the universities, and to consider together certain questions of the 
hour. It will be profitable for all those who are isolated by their indi- 
vidual studies to find themselves united, for a few moments, on this 
common ground of scientific research." 

The Committee on Organization have decided to organize the 
following departments: 

1. The religions of the uncivilized races and the civilizations 
of America prior to its discovery by Columbus. 2. The religions of 
the far east— China, Japan, and Indo-China, etc. 3. The Semitic 
religions— Judaism, Islamism. 4. The religions of Egypt. 5. The 
religions of India and Iran. 6. The religions of Greece and Rome. 
7. The religions of the Celts, Teutons, Slavs, etc. 8. The Chris- 
tian religion. 

Every scientific communication will be received, while dis- 
putes or discussions regarding articles of faith, confessional polem- 
mics, only will be excluded. The Congress may thus become a 
receptacle for, and a dispenser of much valuable dead historical 
information, but we doubt it will ever result in any immediate liv- 
ing benefit, any more than did its Chicago prototype. 



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IN LIGHTER MOOD. 



A baker who bought his batter in pound rolls from a farmer, notic- 
ing that the rolls looked rather small, weighed them, and found that 
they were all under a pound in weight. Thereupon he put the farmer 
into the county court. 

'These butter rolls," said the judge, "are certainly under a pound in 
weight. Have you any scales V he asked. 

"I have," said the farmer. 

"And have you any weights? 

"No, sir." 

"Then how do you weigh your butter?" 

'•That's very simple," said the farmer. "While I've been selling but- 
ter to the baker I've been buying pound loaves from him and I have used 
them for weights on my own scales." 

• * * 

As Artemus Ward was once traveling in the cars, dreading to be 
bored and feeling miserable, a man approached him, sat down and said, — 

"Did you hear that last thing on Horace Greeley V 

"Greeley? Greeley?" said Artemus. "Horace Greeley? Who is he?" 

The man was quiet about five minutes. Pretty soon he said, — 

"George Francis Train is kicking up a good deal of a row over Eng- 
land. Do you think they will put him in a bastile?" 

"Train? Train? George Francis Train?" said .Artemus, solemnly, "I 
never heard of him." 

This ignorance kept the man quiet about fifteen minutes, then he 
said, — 

"What do you think about General Grant's chances for the Presi- 
dency? Do you think they will run him?" 

"Grant? Grant? Hang it man," said Artemus, "you appear to 
know more strangers than any man I ever saw." 

The man was furious. He walked off, but at last came back and 
said, — 

"You confounded ignoramus, did you ever hear of Adam?" 

"What was his other name?" 



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OUR WORK. 



THE ERA AS A TEXT-BOOK. 

In order to bring the exercises of the Improvement Associations and 
the contents of the Improvement Era more closely together, that they 
may become more directly co-operative and inter-dependent, the General 
Board offers the following suggestions to presidents and officers of the 
associations: 

The manual work, as heretofore, should constitute the chief part of 
the weekly program. In addition, however, there is frequently time left 
for miscellaneous exercises; and it is suggested and urged that where 
such is the case, (and it would be well for each association to have some 
time remaining, at the close of the regular manual exercises,) that a 
lesson be provided from the Era for each program, both of the weekly 
meetings and monthly conjoint sessions. For example, let the officers 
carefully read the last current number of the Era and then select, say 
four articles, to be considered during the coming month, appointing some 
member to make a report of the substance of each article, or, if it be 
short, perhaps read it, as a part of the regular program. We have in 
mind several articles, in the October number, for instance, that could 
be treated in this way with much profit. As examples of these Dr. 
BrimhalPs article on "Continuity in Character;" Dr. Young's article on 
the "Evils of Drink and Tobacco," and two articles in "Our Work" de- 
partment on "Writing as a Means of Improvement;" and "Just a Hint or 
Two," by Elder Naisbitt. Other articles, also, might be named from this 
same number that would prove interesting if studied and thus presented. 
It is also suggested that the officers occasionally put to the whole asso- 
ciation some question that can be answered by reference to the Era, as 
for example, in the October number, What is the plain duty of every 
young man as to his course regarding evil? page 946. Who was William 
Wilberforce? page 935; Relate the anecdote illustrating the power of 



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OUR WORK. 73 

environment over us. Page 932. What leading lesson in the article, "A 
Message to Garcia?" 

These hints on program-making are worthy of adoption by the pre- 
siding officers, and we will be pleased to hear from those who shall pnt 
them into effect, as to their results and practicability. 

As a further example, the following articles and questions are 
named for November study: "First Mission to the Lamanites," "The 
Original Book of Mormon Manuscript," "The Zionist Movement" and the 
article on Joseph Smith by Edgar Young. Questions like these may be 
asked: What was the testimony received by Dr. Maeser, after baptism? 
What leading thought do you get from the article, "The Returned 
Elder?" Relate an incident showing an Elder's influence? Page 32. 



PRINTED INVITATIONS TO ATTEND THE FIRST MEETING. 



Among the many changes made in Stake officers recently, the 
change in Weber Stake is to be numbered. This occurred on Sunday, 
May 21, last, at which time Elder B. H. Roberts and other members of 
the General Board visited the Stake and attended the conference held 
in the Ogden Tabernacle. Superintendent Angus T. Wright, his coun- 
selors, Thos A. Shreeve and H. H. Thomas, and other officers of the 
Board, after years of faithful service in the improvement cause, were 
honorably released. The following officers were then presented and 
sustained: 

John L. Herrick, superintendent; John V. Bluth and Heber Scow- 
croft, counselors; T. Y. Stanford, recording secretary; J. W. F. Volker, 
corresponding secretary; Parley T. Wright, treasurer; Wm. E. Newman, 
M. H. Thomas, Geo. W. Baker, J. W. West, J. F. Snedaker, J. R. Beus, 
W. G. Cragun, aids. At a subsequent conference Elder Willard Scow- 
croft was added to the board as chorister. 

The new board began its labors this fall by instituting an active 
campaign in behalf of mutual improvement. Among the new ideas ad- 
vanced was that of printing a circular letter, at the expense of the 
Stake Board, and supplying the president of each association with enough 
copies to send one to every member of the ward who should be a mem- 



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74 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

ber of the association. The presidency of each association addressed 
these letters and filled in the blank left for the date of commencing the 
season's work. After being signed by the president and secretary, these 
letters were delivered to the members of the ward who were, or who 
shonld be, enrolled as members of the association. 

The idea, we think, is a good one, and we print the circular below 
for the benefit of others who may desire to adopt this plan of inviting 
their members to attend the opening meeting each year. 



.Utah, Oct. 1, 1899. 



Dear Brother: 

As the time is approaching for us to begin our season's work of the 
Mutual Improvement, we desire to call your attention to some things of 
importance in relation thereto. 

Our first meeting will beheld on at 

p. m. sharp, in our meeting house. 

As the study of the new manual, which is entitled, "The Dispensa- 
tion of the Fullness of Times," is a very interesting one, and also instruc- 
tive, it will be to your individual benefit to attend every meeting if pos- 
sible, commencing with the first, and we are certain that at the close of 
the season you will feel that the time spent in attending to these meet- 
ings and studies, will have paid you immensely, as it takes up history 
and other studies, which will increase your intellectual qualities and 
strengthen your spiritual life. - 

We want to make this season one of the best ever known, and as it 
will be to your personal benefit to take hold of this matter with zeal 
and energy, we have no doubt but what you will give us your assistance 
and attend the first meeting, as we will have a program arranged and 
studies will commence at that time. 

We also call your attention to the Improvement Era, which is pub- 
lished monthly for the benefit of the young men of Zion. It is very in- 
structive and interesting, and we desire you to subscribe or renew your 
subscription to this magazine. 

The subscription price is $2.00 per annum in advance, including 
copy of the manual, which makes the subscription for the Era $1.75 per 
annum. 

We sincerely hope and trust that you will help us in this matter 
and assist in making the meetings for the coming season as interesting 
as possible, so that all our young people will feel encouraged in the 
cause in which we are engaged. 



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OUR WORK. 75 

Please do not forget the date of our first meeting, as we certainly 
♦expect you to be there. 

Manuals can be procured from the undersigned. 

Your Brethren, 



President. 



Secretary. 

The general night of meeting in the Weber Stake is Tuesday, and 
the third Sunday evening of each month is given over to conjoint meet- 
ings with the Y. L. M. I. A. A uniform meeting night has been of 
.great value to the associations of this Stake. 



THE MISSIONARIES, THEIR PREPARATION AND LABOR. 



At the last annual conference of the Y. M. M. I. A., it was inti- 
mated that possibly some change in the system of the missionary 
branch of our labors would be inaugurated. After some discussion, the 
details of the new movement were left with the General Board who de- 
cided to call some fifty Mutual Improvement Missionaries for 1899-1900, 
instead of a greater number, as heretofore. It was also decided that 
instead of laboring entirely with the membership, their special work 
would be with the stake and ward officers. They were to be direct repre- 
sentatives of the General Board, while the local missionary work was 
to be performed by ward officers or their delegated representatives. 
The missionary committee of the General Board, composed of Elders J. 
Golden Kimball, Frank Y. Taylor and Thomas Hull, were charged with 
the details of calling and instructing the missionaries. 

The following brethren, out of those who were called, responded: 
Alexander Campbell, Gardston, Alberta Stake, Canada; Alfred Kearl, 
Laketown, Utah, Bear Lake Stake, Idaho; Robert Andrus, Leorin, Bingham 
Stake, Idaho; Nels Madsen, Brigham City, Box Elder Stake, Utah; Jos. 
Richardson, Smithfield, Cache Stake, Utah; Willard Baxter, Mount Ster- 
ling, Cache Stake, Utah; Brigham H. Telford, Lewiston, Cache Stake, 
Utah; Moses Smith, Marion, Cassia Stake, Idaho; Alonzo G. Sedgwick, 



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76 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Bountiful, Davis Stake, Utah; Harley P. Randall, Centerville, Davis 
Stake, Utah; John S. Curtis, Orangeville, Emery Stake, Utah; John Hinck- 
ley, Rexburg, Fremont Stake, Idaho; W. I. Norton, Nephi, Juab Stake, 
Utah; Dennison E. Harris, Colonia Juarez, Juarez Stake, Mexico; Wallace 
Bunting, Kanab, Kanab Stake, Utah; Don C. Babbitt, Mesa, Maricopa, 
Stake, Arizona; Thomas R. Condie, Croyden, Morgan Stake, Utah; James 
Callan, Dayton, Oneida Stake, Idaho; John M. Bunker, Bunkerville, Nev- 
ada, Saint George Stake, Utah; J. S. Gibbons, Saint Johns, Saint Johns 
Stake, Arizona; Thomas E. Williams, Layton, Saint Joseph Stake, 
Arizona; Harry W. Matthews, Tayloraville, Salt Lake Stake, Utah; 
George M. White, Miller, Salt Lake Stake, Utah; D. J. Rogers, Bluff, 
San Juan Stake, Utah; Stephen A. Smith, Manassa, San Luis Stake, 
Colorado; George Dutson, Aurora, Sevier Stake, Utah; John Mur- 
ray, Holbrook, Snowflake Stake, Arizona; Lorton Cranney, Cotton- 
wood, Star Valley Stake, Wyoming; Arthur Maxwell, Peoa, Summit 
Stake, Utah; Joseph P. Sharp, Vernon, Tooele Stake, Utah; George A. 
Slaugh, Vernal, Uintah Stake, Utah; Francis Kirkman, Lehi, Utah 
Stake, Utah; N. Parley Jensen, Spanish Fork, Utah Stake, Utah; R. 
Lovell Mendenhall, Mapleton, Utah Stake, Utah; Joseph Moulton, Heber 
City, Wasatch Stake, Utah; Seth Taft, Thurber, Wayne Stake, Utah; R. T. 
Rhees, View, Weber Stake, Utah; D. C. Walker, Eden, Weber Stake, Utah; 
John H. Glenn, Woodruff, Woodruff Stake, Utah. 

In order to prepare them for their mission, meetings were arranged 
for by the missionary committee, to be held in the Social Hall, Salt Lake 
City, at which the following program was carried out: 

Thursday, October 12, 1899. 
10 a. m. Introductions, etc. 

2 p. m. Outline of Missionary Work for the Season of 1899-1900; 
and general instructions, (a) Representatives of General 
Board, (b) Work with associations and stake and ward officers, 
(c) How this season's work differs from that of previous seasons. 

Missionary Committee and Elder B. F. Grant. 

7:30 p. m. The Manual, (a) What this manual is. 

Elder Willard Done, 
(b) Its object and plan, (c) How to use it. 

Elder Edward H. Anderson. 
Questions and answers By Missionaries. 

Friday, October 13. 
10 a. m. Improvement Era and general improvement fund. 

Elders Francis M. Lyman and Heber J. Grant. 



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OUR WORK. 77 

2 p. m. 1. Local missionary work, (a) Ward officers [to direct it. 

(b) Call missionaries in wards to labor with dilatory members 
and non-members, (c) How? 

Elders J. Golden Kimball and Prank Y. Taylor. 
2. Secretaries' work, (a) Rolls, (b) Records, (c) Kind of men for 

secretaries. Elder Thomas Hull. 

7:80 p. m. Questions and answers. 

Satnrday, October 14. 
10 a. m. Duties of stake superintendents and ward presidents. 

Elders John Henry Smith, Frank Y.Taylor and Thomas Hull. 
2 p. m. Questions and answers. 
7:30 p. m. Model Association. 

Sunday, October 15. 
The missionaries will visit the Sabbath Schools and Tabernacle and 
ward meetings. 

Monday, October 16. 

10 a. m. Address By President Lorenzo Snow. 

2 p. and 7:80 p. m. Methods, (a) How to entertain the members 
of associations, (b) How to enthuse the members of associa- 
tions. Elder George M. Cannon. 

(c) How to get young men to work, (d) How to get older 
members to work. Elder Abraham O. Woodruff, 
(e) Ward amusements, outside influences, libraries, etc. 

Elder Prank Y. Taylor. 
Questions and answers. 

Tuesday, October 17, Final Instructions. 

1. First things to do on entering stake and ward, (a) Call on super- 

intendent of M. I. A. (b) Call on president of stake, (c) Call on 
president of association, (d) Call on bishop of ward. 

2. How to approach officers, (a) Superintendent of M. I. A. (b) Pres- 

ident of stake, (c) President of M. I. A. (d) Bishop of ward. 
(What bishops should do with newly converted young men.) 

President Joseph F. Smith and Apostle Francis M. Lyman. 

3. Preaching, (a) When, (b) What, (c) How. 

Elder J. Golden Kimball. 

4. Deportment and appearance. Elder J. Golden Kimball. 

The missionaries wilFgo out into the various stakes of Zion and meet 
with the local officers and associations, in turn instructing them upon 
these same points. The meetings resulted in decided success. The 



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78 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Spirit of God and of the work were manifest. They go out to the stakes 
prepared to instruct and enthuse the officers in the important work before 
them. There should be good results from their labors. We trust that 
the stake and ward officers of the associations, conjointly with the local 
authorities of the Church, under whose directing and ecouraging care 
the associations are placed, will co-operate with the missionaries, and 
push the work with vim, under the blessings of God, to sure and com- 
plete success. 



EVERY PROGRESSIVE PRESIDENT SHOULD ANSWER, YES. 



These are important days for Mutual Improvement Association work. 
Is your association completely organized? Do you succeed in getting 
a good attendance? Are all your members supplied with manuals? Do 
the officers meet weekly to prepare the lesson, and to arrange details for 
the regular meeting? Are you trying to comply with the rules on page 
5, in the manual? Do you meet promptly on time and close on time? Is your 
meeting-place warm, light, clean and cheerful? Do you have a local 
system of missionaries whose duty it is to visit delinquent members each 
week? Do you think of your work constantly, and so create enthusiasm 
and interest? Do the members prepare their lessons at home? Have 
you and all your officers subscribed for the Era, and each obtained one 
other subscriber? Have you planned for the collection of the Improve- 
ment Fund? 



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EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 

BY THOMAS HULL, SECRETARY OP THE GENERAL BOARD OP Y. M. M. I. A. 



September \%th, 1899: The third annual convention of the League 
of American Municipalities opens in Syracuse, N. Y. President Sam'l 
L. Black in his opening address, said: 

"We are not here to lose ourselves in abstruse 
and abstract speculations. Our purpose is a sternly 
practical one. We deal with human life; we seek to 
prolong it. We aim to work this out by disposing 
of such severely practical questions as garbage dis- 
posal, water supply, civil service reform, saloon regu- 
lations and similar measures. Neither the physicians 
nor the ministers of the gospel go before us in the 
humanitarian character of their work." 
* * * The French council of ministers decides to pardon Cap- 
tain Dreyfus and the pardon is signed. 

20th: Captain Dreyfus is released at 3 a. m. and leaves Rennes for 
Nantes. 

25th: Affairs are reaching a crisis between Great Britain and the 
Transvaal republic in South Africa. The Orange Free State has decided 
to assist the Boers in case of hostilities. * * * The Fili- 
pinos capture an American gunboat the Urdaneta. All her crew are 
missing. 

26th: Admiral Dewey arrives off New York at dawn, two days 
ahead of schedule. 

28th: Governor Wells and staff call on- Admiral Dewey on the 
(Hympia. 

29th: A great naval parade is given in New York in honor of 
Admiral Dewey. It is said that nothing like it was ever seen before. 
Three million people witness the gigantic pageant. * * * The 
situation in the Transvaal is such that hostilities may occur at any 
moment. 

30th: The City and State of New York and the Nation unite in a 
vast demonstration in honor of Admiral Dewey. The great land parade 
is described as the wonder of modern times. * * * The 



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80 m IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Boers are mobilizing their forces in the Transvaal, and it is believed 
they will initiate hostilities shortly. * * * Fourteen Ameri- 
can prisoners are released "by the Filipinos. 

October Id. George Swan, the City Auditor of Salt Lake and who 
was for many years the secretary of the Utah Central Railway, dies 
suddenly in Salt Lake City. 

2nd: Another great ovation is given to Admiral Dewey. This 
time it is in Washington, D. C, and it is the greatest tribute ever paid by 
the Capital to any person. 

3rd: The first State Fair in Utah opens in Salt Lake City. * 

* * President McEinley presents to Admiral Dewey the handsome 
sword awarded him by Congress. 

4th: President McKinley directs the immediate dispatch of a number 
of war vessels to the Philippines. This action is the result of his inter- 
view with Admiral Dewey. * * * President McKinley 
leaves Washington for a visit to Chicago. 

6th: The seventieth Semi-Annual Conference of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints opens in Salt Lake City. 

7th: The now notorious C. M. Owen files a complaint against Presi- 
dent Lorenzo Snow, charging him with unlawful cohabitation. 

8th: Bishop Edwin Stratford of the Fourth ward, Ogden, dies at 
his home in that city. * * * Hon. Wm. J. Bryan is taken 
sick with throat and lung trouble, at the home of Fred. J. White the 
Democratic candidate for Governor of Iowa, in Webster, Iowa. * 

* * Active war preparations continue both in England and the 
Transvaal. 

10th: President Eruger of the Transvaal issues an ultimatum to 
Great Britain. 

11th: A remarkable phenomenon is seen in Butte, Montana. One 
half of the town is said to be sliding down hill. Many buildings are 
badly cracked by the movement. * * * Free State Burghers, South 
Africa, seize a train at Ladysmith, which was the property of the 
Natal (British) Government. This is practically the beginning of war 
with England. 

13th: The county attorney of Salt Lake County refuses to prose- 
cute President Snow on the ground that there is not sufficient evidence 
to convict. * * * The first battle in the Transvaal war is fought. 
The Boers destroy an armored train and kill fifteen British soldiers. 

14th: C. M. Owen files a complaint agaist Congressman-elect 
Roberts charging him with adultery. 

16th: The Columbia wins the first race in the international contest. 



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IMPROVEMENT ERA. 



Vol. m. DECEMBER, 1899. No. 2. 



THE NOBILITY OF LABOR. 

BY HEBEE J. GRANT, OP THE QUORUM OP THE TWELVE APOSTLES. 



While speaking to the young people at stake conferences of 
the Improvement Associations, and at ward meetings, I have endeav- 
ored to impress upon the minds of the youth the necessity of their 
working to the extent of their ability; and also while so labor- 
ing never to become disheartened. 

The Marchioness de Lambert has said: 'There is nothing so 
improper for a young man as that modesty which makes him fancy 
he is not capable of great things. That modesty is a faintness of 
soul which hinders it from exerting itself. There is a superior 
genius and merit in some persons that tells them nothing is impos- 
sible to them." 

A number of those who have listened to my remarks have 
assured me that they have been benefitted thereby; and so I have 
concluded to become a regular contributor to the columns of the 
Era, and to chat with "our boys," as through that medium, I will 
be able to reach many thousands instead of a few hundreds. 

"Arise, therefore, and be doing, and the Lord will be with 
you.*— I. Chron. 22: 16. 



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82 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

'^To do that which before us lies in daily life is the prime 
wisdom." 

"He that loseth wealth, loseth much; he that loseth friends 
loseth more; but he that loseth his spirit, loseth all." — Cervantes. 

"Dream, oh youth! dream nobly and manfully, and thy dreams 
shall be thy prophets." — Lord Bulwer Lytton. 

If the readers of the Era will learn by heart the above quo- 
tations, and make these ""sentiments the rule of their lives, this 
action will be worth more to them, many times over, than the cost 
of a year's subscription. 

I have found nothing in the battle of life that has been of 
more value to me than to perform the duty of today to the best of 
my ability; and I know that where young men do this, they will be 
better prepared for the labors of tomorrow. 

In contributing to the Era a series of articles which will be 
made up principally of my own experiences, I shall do so, not for 
the purpose of throwing boquets at myself, figuratively speaking, 
but with the hope that I may inspire my readers with a desire to 
labor. 

It is admitted that statements of personal experiences, spoken 
or written, carry more force, and make a more lasting impression 
upon the minds of hearers and readers than can be made in any 
other way. This must be my excuse for relating so many incidents 
in my own career. 

When a youth, attending school, a man was pointed out to me 
who kept books in Wells, Fargo and Co's. Bank, in Salt Lake City, 
and it was said that he received a salary of one hundred and fifty 
dollars a month. Well do I remember figuring that he was earn- 
ing six dollars a day, Sundays omitted, which seemed to me an 
enormous amount. Although I had not yet read the inspiring 
words of Lord Bulwer Lytton, quoted above, yet I dreamed of be- 
ing a book-keeper, and of working for Wells, Fargo & Co., and 
immediately joined the book-keeping class in the Deseret Univer- 
sity, in the hope some day of earning what I thought at that time 
to be an immense salary. 

I quote with pleasure once more from Lord Bulwer Lytton: 
"What man wants is not talent, it is purpose; not power to achieve, 
but the will to labor." 



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THE NOBILITY OF LABOR. 83 

Samuel Smiles has said: "Purposes, like eggs, unless they are 
hatched into action, will ran into decay." 

Lord Lytton took it for granted undoubtedly that where a 
youth dreamed nobly and manfully, that it would inspire him to have 
a purpose in life, and to"hatch the same into action," and not allow 
it to "run into decay." Having purposed to become a book-keeper, 
I immediately set to work to attain this object. Well do I remem- 
ber the amusement I furnished my fellow-students. One remarked 
when looking at my books, "What is it; hen tracks?" Another 
said, "Has lightning struck an ink bottle?" These remarks and 
others, while not made to hurt my feelings but in good-natured 
fun, nevertheless cut deep, and aroused within me a spirit of de- 
termination. I resolved to live to set copies for all who attended 
the university, and to be the teacher of penmanship and book- 
keeping in that institution. Having a purpose and also "the will 
to labor," and agreeing with Lord Lytton that, "In the bright lexi- 
con of youth there's no such word as fail," I commenced to employ 
my spare time in practicing penmanship, continuing year after 
year until I was referred to as "the greatest scribbler on earth." 

The result was that some years later, I secured a position as 
book-keeper and policy clerk in an insurance office. Although at 
fifteen, I wrote a very nice hand, and it was all that was needed to 
satisfactorily fill the position which I then held, yet I was not fully 
satisfied but continued to dream and "scribble," when not otherwise 
occupied. I worked in the front part of A. W. White & Co's. 
bank, and, when not busy, volunteered|to assist with the bank work, 
and to do anything and everything I could to employ my time, never 
thinking whether I was to be paid for it or not, but having only a 
desire to work and learn. Mr. Morf , the book-keeper in the bank, 
wrote well, and took pains to assist me in my efforts to become pro- 
ficient as a penman. I learned to write so well that I often earned 
more before and after office hours by writing cards, invitations, 
etc., and making maps, than the amount of my regular salary. 
Some years later, a diploma at the Territorial Fair was awarded me 
for the finest penmanship in Utah. When I engaged in business 
for myself, there was a vacancy at the university in the position 
of teacher of penmanship and book-keeping, and to make good the 
promise to myself, made when a youth of twelve or thirteen, that 



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84 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

I would some day teach these branches, I applied for the situation. 
My application was accepted, and my obligation to myself was thus 
discharged. 

Young men who are laboring in the improvement cause should 
be true to themselves, and when they resolve to accomplish some- 
thing, they should never become discouraged, but should labor 
cheerfully and with a determination until the promise to themselves 
has become a reality. I cannot possibly impress this lesson too 
strongly upon the minds of my readers. If we fall into the habit 
of making resolves in relation to ourselves, and of constantly 
breaking them, such a course will tend to make us careless in the 
fulfillment of promises to others. Young men should always re- 
member the advice which Shakespeare puts into the mouth of the 
father of Laertes, when the latter was leaving home: 

'To thine own self be true, 

And it must follow, as the night the day, 

Thou can'st not then be false to any man." 

I quote in full one of the lessons from the National Fifth 
Reader, which made a profound impression on my mind during my 
school days, and which has never been forgotten: 

NEVER DESPAIR. 

There is no trait of human character so potential for weal or woe 
as firmness. To the business man it is all important. Before its irre- 
sistable energy the most formidable obstacles become as cobweb bar- 
riers in its path. Difficulties, the terror of which causes the pampered 
sons of luxury to shrink back with dismay, provoke from the man of 
lofty determination only a smile. The whole story of our race — all 
nature, indeed — teems with examples to show what wonders may be ac- 
complished by resolute perseverance and patient toil. 

It is related of Tamerlane, the celebrated warrior, the terror of 
whose arms spread through all the eastern nations, and whom victory 
attended at almost every step, that he once learned from an insect a les- 
son of perseverance, which had a striking effect upon his future charac- 
ter and success. 

When closely pursued by his enemies — as a contemporary tells the 
anecdote —he took refuge in some old ruins, where, left to his solitary 



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THE NOBILITY OF LABOR. 85 

musings, he espied an ant tugging and striving to carry a single grain 
of corn. His unavailing efforts were repeated sixty-nine times, and at 
each several time so soon as he reached a certain point of projection, he 
fell back with his burden, unable to surmount it; but the seventieth time 
he bore away his spoil in triumph, and left the wondering hero reani- 
mated and exulting in the hope of future victory. 

How pregnant the lesson this incident conveys! How many thou- 
sand instances there are in which inglorious defeat ends the career of the 
timid and desponding, when the same tenacity of purpose would crown 
it with triumphant success! Resolution is almost omnipotent. Sheridan 
was at first timid and obliged to sit down in the midst of a speech. 
Convinced of, and mortified at, the cause of his failure, he said one day 
to a friend, 'It is in me, and it shall come out." 

From that moment he arose, and shone, and triumphed in a con- 
summate eloquence. Here was true moral courage. And it was well ob- 
served by a heathen moralist, that it is not because things are difficult 
that we dare not undertake them. 

Be, then, bold in spirit. Indulge no doubts — they are traitors. In 
the practical pursuit of our high aim, let us never lose sight of it in the 
slightest instance: for it is more by a disregard of small things than by 
open and flagrant offenses, that men come short of excellence. There 
is always a right and a wrong; and if you ever doubt, be sure you take 
not the wrong. Observe this rule, and every experience will be to you 
a means of advancement. 

"Never Despair" has been one of the guiding stars of my life, 
as I have often felt that I could not afford to be outdone by an 
insect. 

At nineteen, I was keeping books and acting as policy clerk for 
Mr. Henry Wadsworth, the agent of Wells, Fargo & Co. My time 
was not fully employed. I was not working for the company but 
for the agent personally. I did the same as I had done in Mr. 
White's bank,— volunteered to file a lot of bank letters, etc., and to 
keep a set of books of the Sandy Smelting Co., which Mr. Wadsworth 
was doing personally. 

To emphasize the truth of the above quotation from 
I Chronicles, I will remark that my action so pleased Mr. Wadsworth 
that he employed me to do the collecting for Wells, Fargo & Co., 
and paid me twenty dollars a month for this work in addition to 
my regular compensation of seventy-five dollars from the insur- 



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86 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

ance business. Thus I was in the employ of Wells, Fargo & Co., 
and one of my day dreams had become a reality. 

When New Year's eve arrived, I was at the office quite late 
writing calling cards. Mr. Wadsworth came in and pleasantly re- 
marked that business was good, that it never rains but it pours, or 
something to this effect. He referred to my having kept the 
books of the Sandy Smelting Co. without compensation, and said a 
number of complimentary things which made me very happy. He 
then handed me a check for one hundred dollars which doubly com- 
pensated me for all my extra labor. The satisfaction enjoyed by 
me in feeling that I had won the good will and confidence of my 
employer was worth more to me than twice one hundred dollars. 

Every young man who will endeavor to employ all his time, 
never stopping to count the amount of compensation he is to re- 
ceive for his services, but rather be inspired with a desire to labor 
and learn, I promise, will achieve success in the battle of life. 

I urge upon the boys engaged in the Mutual Improvement 
Associations to labor with determination and zeal. 

"Dream, oh youth! dream nobly and manfully, and thy dreams 
shall be thy prophets." 

"What man wants is not talent, it is purpose; not power to 
achieve, but the will to labor." 

"Arise, therefore, and be doing, and the Lord will be with 
you." 



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HARVEST TIME. 

BY SARAH B. PEARSON. 



Stoop, stoop, stoop, over the cool,"damp furrow, 
The morning air is wondrous sweet; 
The heart is light, and hands are fleet 
To hasten the task e'er the sun's full heat 

Beats upon the furrow. 
No time to listen to cat-birds call 
To each other over the garden wall; 
No time to watch the oak leaves fall, 

Or crimson maples shiver, 
Or waves of ether, clear and blue, like waves of water quiver. 

Plod, plod, plod, and turn the mellow furrow. 
With clanking harness and shining share, 
The patient plow-horse treads with care, 
And the fallowing plow lays the harvest bare, 

In the depths of the long, straight furrow. 
And the pickers follow in friendly chase, 
Their pails resounding in eager race, 
A bantering smile on the winner's face 

As he empties his load of treasure, 
And hastes again to the scene of fray^ and fills again his measure. 

Think, think, think, and plod again the furrow. 
If hearts are happy, and thoughts are glad, 
Or hearts and thoughts are heavy and sad, 
Still hands must fly, though brain goes mad, 

For a moment, with joy or sorrow. 
Till the mill-whistle signals the noonday hour, 



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88 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

"And lunch is spread in a shady bower 
Of trees on the edge of the field, where showers 
Of frost-stained leaves are falling. 
And the cottage roofs in the distance sleep, and the drowsy kine are 
calling. 

Toil, toil, toil, through the the rough, brown furrow, 
With aching back, and throbbing head, 
With blistered hands, and lagging tread, 
Through the livelong day, that we may have bread. 

Toil through the dusty furrow, 
Till the shadows fall like a filmy vail 
And shroud the outlines of hill and dale; 
And the forest echoes the nightengale; 

And evening winds are sighing. 
Then homeward wend our weary way with the long day's dying. 

And the prayer that we offer when day has fled, 

To the Lord of the harvest, holy: 
"When the grain from the tares is forever won; 
When the last great harvest of life is done; 
And Thou gather Thy sheaves at set of sun, 

And seal them up to Thy glory, 
Oh, gather us, Father, unto Thy breast 
Where the toiler has earned such blissful rest; 
Has learned to appreciate the blest 

Reward for righteous striving; 
And the significance of labor won, and sacredness of living." 



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ON WHAT DAY WAS CHRIST CRUCIFIED? 



BY ELDER CHARLES P. WATKINS. 



'Then certain of the scribes and of the Pharisees answered, say- 
ing, Master, we would see a sign from thee. But he answered and 
said unto them,' An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after 
a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the Prophet 
Jonas; For as Jonas was three days and three nights is the whale's belly; 
so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of 
the earth."— Matt. 12: 38-40. 

Critics of the Bible have denied that this sign of the divine 
character and mission of the Savior was ever given, for, as he was 
crucified on Friday and rose from the dead on Sunday morning, he 
had not lain three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. 
The purpose of this article is to show conclusively that the sign 
was given, and that in this as in all other prophecies made by the 
Savior, "Heaven and earth shall pass away: but my words shall not 
pass away."— Mark 13: 31. 

All the evangelists agree that he arose on the first day of the 
week, Sunday. Matt, 28: 1-16; Mark 16: 1-6; Luke 24: 1-6, John 20: 
1-18. As this weight of authority definitely settles the time of his 
resurrection, in order to prove that he lay three days and nights in 
the earth, the day of his crucifixion and burial must of necessity be as 
definitely fixed. Popular tradition has taught us that he was cru- 
cified on Friday, but to literally fulfill the sign promised the scribes, 
the death and burial must have occurred on Thursday. To estab- 
lish this as the correct day, scripture passages will be quoted to 
show that Jesus never partook of the passover, that he had been 



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90 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

crucified before the day of the passover, and that the day of the 
passover began on Thursday at the close of day and ended on Fri- 
day evening at the same hour. Further, it will be shown from 
authorities on Jewish laws and customs that no trial or execution 
would be permitted on the day of the passover. These points once 
proven, the only conclusion that can be reached will be that he was 
crucified on Thursday. 

We have been taught that he ate the passover before his 
betrayal and crucifixion, but this is plainly erroneous. The Savior 
said: "Ye know that after two days is the feast of the passover, 
and the Son of man is betrayed to be crucified." Matt. 26: 2. If 
he were to be crucified on the day of the passover, he certainly 
could not have partaken of the passover supper. Again: "Now 
before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour 
was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, 
having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto 
the end. And supper being ended, * * . *." John 13: 
1, 2. This was the last supper he ate with his disciples, and, as is 
seen from the beginning of the quotation, it was eaten before the 
feast of the passover. The context in this chapter informs us that 
he washed his disciples' feet, and after giving instructions foretold 
his betrayal by one of his disciples. "Now there was leaning on 
Jesus' bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved. Simon Peter 
therefore beckoned to him, that he should ask who it should be of 
whom he spake. He then lying on Jesus' breast saith unto him, 
Lord, who is it? Jesus answered, He it is, to whom I shall give a 
sop, when I have dipped it. And when he had dipped the sop, he 
. gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon. And after the sop, 
Satan entered into him. Then said Jesus unto him, That thou 
doest, do quickly. Now no man at the table knew for what intent 
he spake this unto him. For some of them thought, because Judas 
had the bag, that Jesus had said unto him, Buy those things that 
we have need of against the feast." This passage shows clearly 
that the supper which was just ended was not the passover supper, 
for if it had been such, as we have been taught to believe, the 
thought would not have occurred to the other eleven disciples that 
Judas was instructed to go out and buy the things needed for the 
feast. After the departure of Judas, Jesus continued to instruct 



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ON WHAT DAY WAS CHRIST CRUCIFIED? 91 

his disciples and to encourage them with words of kindness and 
love. John, chapters 14, 15, 16 and 17. 

The objector may quote the following: "And he said unto 
them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you 
before I suffer: For I say unto you that I will not any more eat 
thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God." Luke 22: 15, 
16. What was this passover? It was the passover he was to 
administer to his disciples, the passover of the Lamb of God, of 
which the paschal lamb was a type, for we read: "And he took 
bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, 
This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of 
me. Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the 
new testament in my blood, which is shed for you." Luke 22: 19, 
20. This was the passover he had such great desire to institute 
before he suffered. 

After his instructions, he and the disciples went to the garden 
of Gethsemane. John 18: 1. He knew that his hour was come- 
He knew that on the morrow the paschal lamb would be slain; he 
knew that lamb was a type of himself, and that he himself was the 
Lamb of God slain from before the foundation of the world. 
The paschal lamb had been separated from the flocks on the tenth 
day of the first month (Nisan) or second of April. (Smith's Dic- 
tionary of the Bible.) Jesus also was separated on the same day 
when he rode into Jerusalem amid the shouts of the people, 
"Hosanna: Blessed is the King of Israel that cometh in the name of 
the Lord." John 12: 13. As he was thus chosen and honored on 
the same day, so also would he be crucified on the same day that 
the paschal lamb was to be slain. 

Judas, with a band of men and officers from the chief priests 
and Pharisees, came to the garden late in the night, with lanterns 
torches and weapons. Although they there witnessed the power of 
God, which should have been a warning to them, they nevertheless 
took Jesus, bound him and led him away to Annas, who in turn sent 
him to Caiaphas. "Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall 
of Judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into 
the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might 
eat the passover. Pilate then went out unto them and said, What 
accusation bring ye against this man?" The accusers of Jesus did 



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92 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

not go into the judgment hall lest they should be defiled and would 
not be able to partake of the passover, and therefore Pilate went 
out unto them to hear their charges. This is ample evidence that 
the time for the eating of the passover had not yet arrived. As 
Jesus did not partake of any food with his disciples from the time 
he was betrayed in the garden, it is evident that he had not eaten 
of the passover. That his betrayal occurred before the passover 
supper had been eaten, is also proven by the following statement: 
"Now at that feast the governor was wont to release unto the 
people a prisoner, whom they would. And they had then a notable 
prisoner, called Barrabas. Therefore when they were gathered 
together, Pilate said unto them, Whom will ye that I release unto 
you? Barrabas, or Jesus which is called Christ? * * * 
They said, Barnabas." Matt. 27: 15-17, 21. As the prisoner had 
not yet been released, (Matt. 27: 26; Mark 15: 15; Luke 23: 25,) 
the feast of the passover must still have been in the future. But 
if still further proof is wanted, the following passage referring to 
the very hour in which Christ was taken to Golgotha and crucified, 
should be final: "And it was the preparation qf the passover, und 
about the sixth hour; and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your 
king." John 19: 14. 

Having proven that Jesus did not partake of the passover 
supper, and that he was crucified prior thereto, the next question 
is, When did the passover begin? "In the fourteenth day of the 
first month at even is the Lord's passover." Lev. 23: 5. It was on 
the morning of this day, Thursday, with us as with the Jews, that 
Jesus appeared before Pilate, but the passover did not begin until 
even, at six, which hour marked the commencement of the Jewish 
Friday, though to us still Thursday. That it began on the evening 
of the day he was crucified is evident from the following passage: 
'The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the 
bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, 
(for that sabbath day was an high day), besought Pilate that their 
legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away." John 
19: 31. The objector may say that it was on the preparation of 
the Sabbath, and as the Jewish Sabbath was held on Saturday, the 
crucifixion must have been held on Friday. No, for if that were 
true, the day of the passover and the Sabbath must have occurred 



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ON WHAT DAY WAS CHRIST CRUCIFIED? 93 

on the same day. John says, "for that sabbath was an high day/' 
Bearing in mind that Jesus was crucified on the preparation of the 
passover, let us read: 

And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the children of 
Israel, and say unto them, Concerning the feasts of the Lord, which ye 
shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are my feasts. Six 
days shall work be done: but the seventh day is the sabbath of rest, an 
holy convocation; ye shall do no work therein: it is the sabbath of the 
Lord in all your dwellings. These are the feasts of the Lord, even holy 
convocations, which ye shall proclaim in their seasons. In the fourteenth 
day of the first month at even is the Lord's passover. And on the 
fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread unto the 
Lord: seven days ye must eat unleavened bread. In the first day ye shall 
have an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein. But ye 
shall offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord seven days: in the 
seventh day is an holy convocation: ye shall do no servile work therein." — 
Lev. 23: 1-8. 

"And in the first day there shall be an holy convocation, and in the 
seventh day there shall be an holy convocation to you; no manner of 
work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, that 
only may be done of you." — Exodus 12: 16. 

From this we may understand why John calls it an high day, 
that is the day following the passover, because the same law was 
given to be observed on this day as on the regular Sabbaths, no 
matter on which day of the week thid should occur, and those holy 
convocations were to be Sabbaths of rest unto the people. Here 
is also another evidence that it was not on the day after, but prior 
to, the passover that our Savior was slain. It would be unreason- 
able also, to suppose that the Jews, so strict to observe their Sab- 
baths and holy convocations, would desecrate it by holding court 
and condemning and even executing three prisoners in public on 
this holy day. Chambers' Encyclopedia, under the head of "Sabbath," 
declares that no case where life or death were involved could be 
tried in a court on a Friday. Such were the customs of the Jews. 
The chief priests did not want to take Jesus at the feast day lest 
there should be an uproar among the people; hence, Judas took 
opportunity to betray him before the passover. 

Thus Christ was crucified on Thursday. That day ended at 
six in the evening, when Friday, the passover day, began. At that 



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94 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

time Christ had given up the ghost, had been taken down from the 
cross, and the body given to Joseph of Arimathsea for interment. 
His body lay in the tomb from Thursday evening, or the beginning 
of the Jewish Friday, until Sunday morning, three days and three 
nights, and he arose from the tomb on the third day, Sunday. That 
Sunday was the third day, may be gathered from the account given 
in Luke 24: 13-21, of Jesus appearing unto two disciples, who 
inform him of all that has happened, .concluding with these words: 
"And beside all this, today is the third day since these things were 
done." Again: If Sunday was the third day since these things 
were done, Saturday must have been the second day, and Friday 
the first day since these things were done. In other words they 
were done on the Thursday. 

In conclusion may be cited the evidence contained in the Book 
of Mormon. Samuel, the Lamanite prophet, prophesied: 

"And behold, again another sign I give unto you; yea, a sign of 
his death; * * * behold, in that day that he shall suffer 
death, the sun shall be darkened and refuse to give his light unto you; 
and also the moon, and the stars; and there shall be no light upon the 
face of this land, even from the time that he shall suffer death, for the 
space of three days, to the time that he shall rise again from the dead." — 
Helaman 14: 14, 20. 

The fulfillment of this prophecy is recorded as follows: 

"And it came to pass that there was thick darkness upon all the 
face of the land, insomuch, that the inhabitants thereof who had not 
fallen, could feel the vapor of darkness; * * * and it 
came to pass that it did last for the space of three days, that there was 
no light seen."— HI Nephi 8: 20, 23. 

And it came to pass that thus did the three days pass away. And it 
was in the morning, and the darkness dispersed from off the face of the 
land."— HI Nephi 10: 9. 



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IN THE STILLNESS. 

BY LEWIS STEWART. 



Silent now the voice of gladness, 

Song of bird and hum of bee; 
And a feeling, tinged with sadness, 

As I gaze across the lea, 
Steals upon me from the memories 

Shrined in caskets from the vast, 
Silent, sacred, holy chambers 

In the temples of the past. 

Now the wish, the fret, the worry 

Of a heart scarce yet controlled, 
Are all bound and cold and silent 

As these forms, in shrouds enroll'd; 
Forms of shrubs and trees, so ghost-like, 

In the dull, gray dawning light, 
Standing there, themselves their tombstones, 

Marble cold and deadly white. 

Sad, I listen in the stillness 

For a voice, so sweet, so dear; 
Voice of music, voice of angel 

That enchants the spirit's ear: 
Tones of love so gently spoken, 

Melodies so heavenly rare, 
That no mortal ever hears them, 

Save as echoes of his prayer. 

Now the hea^n-born presence thrills me; 
Rings the message sweet and clear: 



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96 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

"Tell thy friends, thy fellow mortals, 
With a smile and with a tear, 

He that died for man hath risen; 
He that wept is conq'ror now. 

Rise and free the soul from prison; 
Look not backward from the plow. 

'Tell the children, fair, the story; 

Warn the maiden and the youth; 
Shout the tidings from the hill-tops, 

Dare not hide the light of truth. 
Christ, the holy, fills the child-heart; 

Christ, the peerless, wins the brave. 
In the brightness of his coming, 

Fall the fetters from the slave." 

Where are now the shrouds so deathlike? 

Nature only sleeps awhile; 
And the mantling snows of winter 

Glisten in the sun's bright smile. 
Gone are all the weary fancies; 

Gone the sadness Trin to pain. 
Snows of winter, graven tombstones, 

To the earth and man are gain. 

Lake View, Utah. 



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THE LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY 
RIGDON. 

BY JOHN JAQUES, ASSISTANT CHURCH HISTORIAN. 



I. 

Sidney S. Rigdon, as it is understood his proper name was, 
but who was universally known as Sidney Rigdon, was born in St. 
Clair Township, Alleghany County, Pennsylvania, February 19, 1793, 
and was the youngest son of William and Nancy Rigdon. 

William Rigdon was born in Hartford County, Maryland, in 
1743, and died May 26, 1810. He was the son of Thomas Baker 
Rigdon and Ann Lucy Rigdon. Thomas Baker Rigdon was 
born in Maryland and was the son of Thomas Baker Rigdon, from 
Great Britain. 

Ann Lucy Rigdon, grandmother of Sidney, was born in Ireland. 
She emigrated to Boston, and was there married to Thomas Baker 
Rigdon. 

Nancy Rigdon's mother was born at Freehold, Monmouth 
County, New Jersey, March 16, 1759, and died October 3, 1839; 
was eldest daughter of Briant Gallaher, of Ireland. Elizabeth 
Reed Gallaher, mother of Nancy Rigdon, was Gallaher's second 
wife, and was born in Monmouth County, New Jersey. Her 
parents were born in Scotland. 

Sidney Rigdon thought he was of Norman extraction, and 
that his ancestors came to England with William the Conqueror. 
Sidney's father was a farmer and had three sons, Carvil, Loami, 
Sidney S., and a daughter Lucy. Before his marriage, William 
Rigdon moved from Maryland to Pennsylvania, and Sidney Rigdon's 
mother had previously moved to the same state from New Jersey. 

When Sidney Rigdon was seventeen years of age, his father 
died, and Sidney's mother died when he was twenty-six years old. 



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98 IMPROVEMENT ERA] 

In his 25th year, he became a member of the society of "Regular 
Baptists," under the charge of Rev. David Phillips, from Wales, 
and the next year left the farm, and went to live with Rev. Andrew 
Clark, another Baptist preacher. While there, Sidney received a 
license and commenced to preach, and from March, 1819, followed 
farming no more. 

In May of that year, he went to Trumbull County, Ohio, and in 
July lived with Adamson Bentley, another Baptist preacher. There 
Sidney became acquainted with Phebe Brook, a native of Bridge- 
town, Cumberland County, New Jersey, whom he married, June 
12, 1820. 

He continued to preach in that region until November 1821, 
when, on request, he left Warren, Trumbull Co., and took charge of 
the First Baptist Church, Pittsburg, where he preached with con- 
siderable success, that church soon rising from a very low, confused 
state to a rapid increase of members, crowded meetings, and to be 
one of the most respectable churches of that city. He became a 
very popular preacher, and his society was much sought after. 
But after awhile he was greatly perplexed with the idea that the 
doctrines taught by the church he was connected with were not 
altogether in accordance with scripture. Nor were those of any 
other church with which he was acquainted altogether satisfactory 
to him. But he knew no other way of getting a living, and he 
had a wife and three children to support. After great deliberation 
and reflection and solemn prayer, he resolved to follow his convic- 
tions. In August, 1824, he announced to the members of that 
church that he was determined to withdraw from it, as he could 
no longer uphold its doctrines. In consequence of his great 
popularity, this unexpected announcement caused amazement, 
sorrow, and tears to his congregation. 

At that time Alexander Campbell, who came from Ireland, was 
a member of the Baptist association, but he afterwards separated 
from it. Walter Scott, a native of Scotland, also left it about the 
same time. Mr. Campbell had previously lived at Bethany, Brook 
County, Virginia, where he published the Christian Baptist, monthly. 

After leaving the Baptist church, these three gentlemen, 
being very friendly, frequently met together to discuss religious 
topics. Eventually from this connection sprang a church, the 



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THE LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON 99 

members of which called themselves "Disciples," but which were 
generally known as Campbellites, though Rigdon had much to do 
with it. 

For the maintenance of his family, Mr. Rigdon went to work 
as a journeyman tanner, many of his former warm friends looking 
upon him with great coolness and indifference. His wife cheer- 
fully shared his sorrow and humiliation, believing that all would 
work together for their good. 

After having labored for two years as a tanner, he removed 
to Bainbridge, Geauga Co., Ohio, where, it being known that he had 
been a popular preacher, he was solicited to preach, with which 
request he complied. Thenceforth he devoted himself to the work 
of the ministry, confining himself to no special creed, but holding 
the Bible as his rule of faith, and advocating repentance and 
baptism for the remission of sins, and the gift of the Holy Ghost, 
doctrines which Mr. Campbell and he had been investigating. He 
Jabored in that vicinity one year with much success, numbers 
attending his meetings, building up a large and respectable church 
at Mantua, Portage County, Ohio. His doctrines were new, and 
crowded houses assembled to hear him, though some opposed and 
ridiculed his doctrines. 

He was then pressingly invited to remove to Mentor, an enter- 
prising town, about thirty miles from Bainbridge, and near Lake 
.Erie, which he did sometime afterward. There were the remnants 
of a Baptist church, nearly broken up, the members of which were 
attached to his doctrines. But many of the citizens were jealous 
-of him, and slanderous reports were circulated concerning him. 
However, he continued his labors, and in a few months the opposi- 
tion weakened, prejudice gave way, and he became very popular, 
the churches where he preached being filled to overflowing to hear 
him, the doctrines being new, but were elucidated with unusual 
clearness, and enforced with great eloquence. Calls came from 
every direction for him to preach, which he complied with as much 
as he could. His fame increased and spread abroad, thousands, rich 
and poor, flocking to hear his eloquent discourses, so that the 
•churches where he preached became too small to hold the crowds 
who went to hear him, and he had to preach in the open air, in the 
woods and groves, to the multitudes of eager hearers. He expa- 



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100 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

tiated upon the literal fulfillment of prophecy, the gathering of 
Israel in the last days, the coming of the Son of man, the judg- 
ments to be poured out upon the ungodly, the reign of Christ with 
his saints on the earth, the millennium, etc. 

Many became convinced and were baptized, whole churches 
became converted, and he soon had large and flourishing societies 
throughout that region. He was a welcome visitor wherever he 
went, and his society was courted by the learned and intelligent. 

He then had a wife and six children, and lived in a small, 
unfinished frame house, not very comfortable. The members of 
his church held a meeting to take into consideration his wants and 
provide for them. They resolved to erect him a suitable residence. 
They purchased a farm, and commenced the building of a better 
house and outbuildings for him, and his prospects with regard to 
temporal things became brighter than ever before. 

This was in the fall of 1830, at which time Elders Parley P. 
Pratt, Ziba Peterson, Oliver Cowdery, and Peter Whitmer stayed 
awhile at Mentor, on their mission to the Indians on the western 
boundaries of Missouri. Elder Pratt had been a preacher in the 
same church as Sidney Rigdon, who was his instructor. Elder 
Pratt resided at Amherst, Lorain Co., Ohio. He had been sent into 
the State of New York on a mission, where he became acquainted 
with the circumstances of the coming forth of the Book of 
Mormon, and was introduced to Joseph Smith and other Latter-day 
Saints. After reading the Book of Mormon, Parley P. Pratt 
became convinced that it was of God, was baptized, ordained an 
elder, and began to preach. Believing that there were many 
among his former associates who were honest seekers after truth, 
and being sent on his mission to the west, he resolved to call dur- 
ing his journey on his old friends, and make known to them the 
great work which the Lord had begun. 

The first house Elder Pratt and his brethren called at was 
Sidney Rigdon's. They presented him with the Book of Mormon, 
saying that it was a revelation from God. He had not heard of it 
before, and was much prejudiced at the assertion, replying that he 
was acquainted with one Bible, which he believed was a revelation 
from God, but he had considerable doubts regarding their book. 
They wished to investigate the subject with him. But he said, 



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THE LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON. 101 

"No, young gentlemen, yon must not argue with me on the subject, 
but I will read your book, and see what claim it has upon my faith, 
and will endeavor to ascertain whether it be a revelation from God 
or not." But he readily granted their request to preach in his 
chapel and lay the subject before the people. 

According to appointment, a large congregation assembled, 
which was addressed by Oliver Cowdery and Parley P. Pratt, fol- 
lowed by Sidney Rigdon, who said the information they had received 
was of an extraordinary character and demanded the most serious 
consideration. He exhorted his hearers to take the apostle's 
advice, "to prove all things, and hold fast that which is good," 
and not turn against what they had he&rd without being fully 
convinced of its being an imposition, lest possibly they should 
resist the truth. 

Elders Cowdery and Pratt returned home with Mr. Rigdon 
conversing upon the things preached about. He said he would 
read the Book of Mormon, investigate it fully, and then frankly tell 
them his mind and feelings on the subject. 

About a fortnight after he had received the book, and after 
much prayer and meditation, he was convinced by a revelation 
from Jesus Christ, given in a remarkable manner. Fully satisfied 
in his own mind of the truth of the work, he informed his wife of 
it, and found that she was investigating the subject and was be- 
lieving with all her heart. 

To embrace the new doctrines was a severe trial. He informed 
his wife that it would undoubtedly make a great change in their 
worldly circumstances if he obeyed the Gospel, and he said to her, 
"My dear, you have once followed me into poverty, are you again 
willing to do the same?" 

She replied, "I have weighed the matter, I have contemplated 
on the circumstances in which we may be placed, I have counted 
the cost, and I am perfectly satisfied to follow you; it is my desire 
to do the will of God, come life or come death." 

Accordingly both were baptized into the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints, and with those already baptized in that 
place, formed a branch of The Church of about twenty members, 
and Brother Rigdon and others were ordained to the ministry. 



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102 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Elders Cowdery and Pratt bade an affectionate farewell and pro- 
ceeded on their mission to the Lamanites. 

In December, 1830, Elder Rigdon went to Joseph Smith to 
inquire of the Lord. Shortly after, Joseph received a revelation of 
which the following is part: 

"Behold, verily, verily I say unto my servant Sidney, I have 
looked upon thee and thy works. I have heard thy prayers, and 
prepared thee for a greater work. Thou art blessed, for thou shalt 
do great things. Behold, thou wast sent forth, even as John, to 
prepare the way before me, and before Elijah, which should come, 
and thou knewest it not. Thou didst baptize by water unto repent- 
ance, but they received not the Holy Ghost; but now I give unto 
thee a commandment, that thou shalt baptize by water, and they 
shall receive the Holy Ghost by the laying on of the hands, even as 
the apostles of old. 

"And I have sent forth the fullness of my gospel by the hand 
of my servant Joseph; and in weakness have I blessed him, and I 
have given unto him the keys of the mystery of those things which 
have been sealed, even things which were from the foundation of 
the world, and the things which shall come from this time until the 
time of my coming, if he abide in me; and if not, another will I 
plant in his stead. 

"Wherefore watch over him, that his faith fail not; and it 
shall be given by the Comforter, the Holy Ghost, that knoweth all 
things. And a commandment I give unto thee, that thou shalt 
write for him; and the scriptures shall be given, even as they are 
in mine own bosom, to the salvation of mine own elect; for they 
will hear my voice, and shall see me, and shall not be asleep, and 
shall abide the day of my coming, for they shall be purified, even 
as I am pure. And now I say unto you, tarry with him, and he 
shall journey with you,— forsake him not, and surely these things 
shall be fulfilled. And inasmuch as ye do not write, behold it shall 
be given unto him to prophesy; and thou shalt preach my Gospel, 
and call on the holy prophets to prove his words, as they shall be 
given him." 

The following is an extract from a revelation through Joseph 
to Edward Partridge: 

"I will lay my hands upon you by the hand of my servant Sid- 



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THE LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON. 103 

ney Rigdon, and yon shall receive my Spirit, the Holy Ghost, even 
the Comforter, which shall teach yon the peaceable things of the 
kingdom; and yon shall declare it with a loud voice, saying, Hosan- 
nah, blessed be the name of the Most High God. 

"And now this calling and commandment give I unto yon con- 
cerning all men, that as many as shall come before my servants, 
Sidney Rigdon and Joseph Smith, Jr., embracing this calling and 
commandment, shall be ordained and sent forth to preach the ever- 
lasting Gospel among the nations, crying repentance, saying, Save 
yourselves from this untoward generation, and come forth out of 
the fire, hating even the garments spotted with the flesh." 

Other revelations were given to Joseph and Sidney soon after- 
ward concerning their labors in preaching the Gospel, etc. 

In the latter part of January, 1881, the Prophet Joseph and 
wife, accompanied by elders Rigdon and Partridge, started for 
Kirtland where they arrived about the first of February. They 
were kindly received and welcomed by Brother N. K. Whitney and 
family. 

In February a revelation was given, directing that the elders 
should go forth, preaching the Gospel, excepting, "my servant 
Joseph, Jr., and Sidney Rigdon. And I give unto them a command- 
ment that they shall go forth for 8 little season, and it shall be 
given them by the power of my Spirit when they shall return." 

In March, a revelation was given directing Sidney Rigdon, 
Parley P. Pratt and Lemon Copley to go and preach the Gospel to 
the Shakers, calling on them to believe, repent and be baptized, 
which the three brethren did, near Cleveland, but the Shakers re- 
jected the Gospel. 

On the 19th of June, Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Martin 
Harris, Edward Partridge, W. W. Phelps, Joseph Coe, A. S. Gilbert 
and wife started from Kirtland, in accordance with a revelation 
previously given, for Missouri, going by wagon, canal boats and 
stages to Cincinnati, and by steamer to St. Louis. Joseph Smith 
and some others went thence to Independence, Jackson County, 
Missouri on foot, on land, and the rest went by water, Sidney Rig- 
don and wife among them, arriving about the middle of July. In 
August Sidney was appointed by revelation to write a description 



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104 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

of the land of Zion, also an epistle to be sent to the different 
branches of The Church. 

On August 2, in accordance with a revelation, Sidney Rig- 
don consecrated and dedicated the land of Zion for the gathering 
of the Saints. On the 3rd, the spot for the temple, a little west 
of Independence, was dedicated in the presence of eight men, 
among whom were Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Edward Partridge, 
W. W. Phelps, Oliver Cowdery, Martin Harris and Joseph Coe. 

A revelation was given, August 8, directing that Joseph Smith, 
Sidney Rigdon and Oliver Cowdery take their journy for St. 
Louis and Cincinnati. The next day, Joseph with ten elders left 
Independence landing, in sixteen canoes, on the way to Kirtland. 

A revelation was given on the 12th, directing Joseph, Sidney 
and Oliver to travel by land and not on the waters, except on the 
canal, while returning to their homes. They three were not to 
preach to the world till they got to Cincinnati. From St. Louis, 
they took stage for Kirtland, arriving on the 27th. 

In a revelation given the same month, after their arrival in 
Kirtland, Joseph and Sidney were directed to seek them a home, 
and of Sidney the Lord said: 

"And now, behold, verily I say unto you, I the Lord, am not 
pleased with my servant Sidney Rigdon; he exalteth himself in his 
heart, and receiveth not counsel, but grieveth the Spirit; where- 
fore his writing is not acceptable unto the Lord; and he shall make 
another, and, if the Lord receive it not, behold he standeth no 
longer in the office unto which I have appointed him." 

In October, Joseph and Sidney, having removed to Hiram, 
Portage County, about thirty miles south-easterly from Kirtland, 
Joseph recommenced the translation of the scriptures, Sidney act- 
ing as scribe. At a conference, October 11, David Whitmer and 
Reynolds Cahoon were appointed to obtain means for Joseph and 
Sidney to continue the translation. 

On the 3rd of December, as directed by revelation, Joseph 
and Sidney went to Kirtland, preaching in several other places 
also. 

A revelation was given January 10, 1832, commanding Jos- 
eph and Sidney to continue the translation until it was finished. 
While translating St. John's gospel, on February 16, Joseph and 



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THE LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON. 105 

Sidney had a remarkable vision concerning the glories of the 
celestial, terrestrial and telestial worlds. 

In the night of the 25th of March, a party of mobocrats led 
by Simonds Rider, a Campbellite preacher, seized Sidney Rigdon 
and Joseph Smith, dragged them out of their houses, abused them 
shamefully, and tarred and feathered them, that being at the time 
a favorite method of mobocratic assault and torture. Sidney was 
dragged out by the heels and injured so much that he became de- 
lirious and remained so several days. The mob was composed of 
various religious parties, mostly Campbellites, Methodists and Bap- 
tists, who continued to molest and menace Father John Johnson's 
house for a long time. 

Elder Rigdon and family, who were sick with the measles, re- 
moved to Kirtland the following Wednesday, 29th. 

Saturday, April 1, on account of the mob, he went to Char- 
don and joined Joseph at Warren on the 2nd. On the 5th, they 
left Steubenville by steamboat for Wheeling, Va., going thence by 
steamer to Louisville and St. Louis, thence by stage to Independ- 
ence, where they arrived on the 24th. Elder Rigdon preached two 
powerful discoures while there. 

May 6, Joseph, Sidney and N. K. Whitney left Independence 
by stage, via St. Louis, for Kirtland, where they arrived in June, 
and Joseph recommenced the translation of the Scriptures, spend- 
ing most of the summer on that work. 

On the 2nd of February, 1833, Joseph completed the transla- 
tion of the New Testament, in which Sidney Rigdon had assisted 
him as scribe. 

According to revelation given March 8, 1833, Sidney Rig- 
don and Frederick G. Williams were ordained and set apart March 
18 by Joseph Smith, a3 his counselors in the presidency. 

March 23, Sidney set apart Ezra Thayre and Joseph Coe to 
purchase land in Kirtland on which to build a stake of Zion. 

In the spring, Sidney had raised up and was presiding over a 
branch in Norton Township, Medina County, Ohio. 

Having finished the translation of the Scriptures on July 2nd, 
the first presidency started on preaching tours. 

At this time, sectarian missionaries on the frontiers rose up 



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106 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

and excited a mobocratic uprising against the Saints in Jackson 
County, Missouri. 

Joseph, Sidney, and Freeman Nickerson left Kirtland, October 
5, on a journey eastward and to upper Canada. They preached 
at several places on the way, returning to Kirtland November 4. 
After their return, Sidney was afflicted with sore eyes. 

In a revelation given October 12, Sidney was called to be a 
spokesman unto Joseph: 

"And it is expedient in me that you, my servant Sidney, should 
be a spokesman unto this people; yes, verily, I will ordain you unto 
this calling, even to be a spokesman unto my servant Joseph; and 
I will give unto him power to be mighty in testimony; and I will 
give unto thee power to be mighty in expounding all scriptures, 
that thou mayest be a spokesman unto him, and he shall be a rev- 
elator unto thee, that thou mayest know the certainty of all things 
pertaining to the things of my kingdom on the earth." 

Joseph wrote of Sidney Rigdon, November 19, as follows: 

"My heart is somewhat sorrowful, but I feel to trust in the 
Lord, the God of Jacob. I have learned in my travels that man is 
treacherous and selfish, but few excepted. 

"Brother Sidney is a man whom I love, but is not capable of 
that pure and steadfast love for those who are his benefactors, as 
should possess the breast of a president of the Church of Christ. 
This, with some other little things, such as a selfishness and inde- 
pendence of mind, which, too often manifested, destroy the confi- 
dence of those who would lay down their lives for him — but, not- 
withstanding these things, he is a very great and good man; a man 
of great power of words, and can gain the friendship of his hear- 
ers very quick. He is a man whom God will uphold, if he will con- 
tinue faithful to his calling. God, grant that he may, for the 
Lord's sake. Amen. 

'The man who willeth to do well, we should extol his virtues, 
and speak not of his faults behind his back. A man who wilfully 
turneth away from his friend without a cause is not easily forgiven. 
The kindness of a man should never be forgotten. That person 
who never f orsaketh his trust, should ever have the highest place 
for regard in our hearts, and our love should never fail, but in- 
crease more and more, and this is my disposition and sentiment- 



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THE LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON. 107 

"And again, blessed be Brother Sidney, also, notwithstanding 
he shall be high and lifted up, yet he shall bow down under the 
yoke like unto an ass that croucheth beneath his burthen, that 
learneth his master's will by the stroke of the rod; thus saith the 
Lord; yet the Lord will have mercy on him, and he shall bring 
forth much fruit, even as the vine of the choice grape, when her 
clusters are ripe, before the time of the gleaning of the vintage; 
and the Lord shall make his heart merry as with sweet wine, be- 
cause of him who putteth forth his hand and lifteth him up out of 
deep mire, and pointeth him out the way, and guideth his feet 
when he stumbleth, and humbleth him in his pride. Blessed are his 
generations; nevertheless one shall hunt after them as a man hunt- 
eth after an ass that has strayed in the wilderness, and straight- 
way findeth him and bringeth him into the fold. Thus shall the 
Lord watch over his generation, that they be saved. Even so. 
Amen." 

In accordance with a revelation given February 24, 1834, 
Sidney Rigdon and Lyman Wight started soon after on a mission 
to the country eastward, to preach and to endeavor to get some 
young and middle aged volunteer brethren to go to Jackson County, 
Missouri, and assist in the redemption of Zion. 

With Joseph Smith and other elders, Sidney and Lyman at- 
tended a conference, March 17, at Avon, Livingston County, New 
York, with this purpose in view, and also to raise means to free the 
Eirtland Church from debt. Joseph, Sidney and Lyman started back 
for Kirtland on the 19th, arriving there on the 28th. 

On the 18th of April, Joseph, Sidney, Oliver and Zebedee 
Coltrin left Kirtland for New Portage to hold conference. At 
Norton they retired to the wilderness and united in prayer for the 
brethren who were going to the land of Zion. They then laid 
hands on and blessed each other. Elders Rigdon, Cowdery and 
Coltrin blessed Joseph. 

On the 21st, they attended an important conference when 
several brethren volunteered to go to Zion and others donated 
money "for the benefit of the scattered brethren in Zion." On the 
22nd, Joseph, Sidney, Oliver and others returned to Eirtland. 

Early in May, Joseph left Eirtland for Missouri. Elder Rigdon 
continued to act in his presidential office at Eirtland. He was also 



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108 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

one of the trustees and conductors of the "Kirtland school," where- 
in penmanship, arithmetic, English grammar and geography were 
taught during the winter. 

At a meeting, March 7, 1835, Sidney was appointed to lay on 
hands and bestow blessings in the name of the Lord on those who 
had labored on the Kirtland temple, or who had "consecrated to 
its upbuilding." Accordingly, many blessings were given that day 
and the next. 

April 3 and 4, Elder Rigdon was presiding at a conference 
at Freedom, New York. 

On the 2nd of May he attended a grand council and conference 
at Kirtland, and a High Council August 4. 

Joseph, Sidney, Oliver, and P. G. Williams, having been 
appointed a committee, September 24, 1834, to arrange "the 
items of the doctrine of Jesus Christ, for the government of the 
Church," a General Assembly of the Church was held at Kirtland, 
August 17, to take into consideration the labors of the committee, 
which had resulted in the "Book of Doctrine and Covenants of the 
Church of the Latter-day Saints." The book was accepted by 
unanimous vote of the assembly. Joseph was absent in Michigan, 
but Oliver and Sidney were in Kirtland and acted as presidents in 
the assembly. 

Joseph, Sidney, and Oliver left Kirtland for New Portage, 
September 2, to attend a conference, returning on the 8th. 

Joseph, Sidney, and several others united in a prayer meeting, 
October 23, asking the Lord to deliver them out of their afflic- 
tions and difficulties caused by debts, to deliver Zion without the 
shedding of blood, to grant them long life and freedom from mobs, 
to preserve their posterity, to enable them and others to go to 
Zion (Western Missouri), and purchase inheritances there without 
perplexity and trouble, and finally save them in the celestial 
kingdom. 

On November 2, Joseph, Sidney, Oliver and others, went to 
Willoughby to hear Senator Piexotto lecture on the theory and 
practice of physic. The next day Joseph assisted in organizing the 
"Elders' School," and dedicated it at Kirtland. 

Various meetings and councils were held on different days, and 
visitors of more or less note were received, with many of which 



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THE LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON. 109 

events Sidney was connected. On Sunday, 8th, in the. afternoon 
meeting, John Smith made some remarks and a proposition con- 
cerning the case of Isaac Hill, after which* "President Rigdon 
then arose and very abruptly militated against the sentiment of 
Uncle John, which had a direct tendency to destroy his influence, 
and bring him into disrepute in the eyes of the Church, which was 
not right. He also misrepresented Mr. Hill's case, and spread 
darkness rather than light upon the subject. 

"After I returned home," writes Joseph, "I labored with Unale 
John, and convinced him that he was wrong; and he made his 
confession to my satisfaction. I then went and labored with 
President Rigdon, and succeeded in convincing him also of his 
error, which he confessed to my satisf action." 



CONSOLATION. 

BY NEPHI ANDERSON. 



In this my journey through infinitude 

I'm not the creature of mere accident; 

Nor need I blindly grope through time and space 

To some hap-hazard end, unthinkable; 

For One has gone before, search'd out a way 

To immortality and perfectness; 

And I may follow in that upward path; 

For He who is ahead looks back on me 

And kindly bids me follow in His tread. 

— This is my sweet, consolatory thought, 

My supreme hope to which I fondly cling. 



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HOW WE SHALL PREACH. 



BY ELDER H. W. NAISBITT. 



The primary object of preaching the Gospel is not to antago- 
nize the world, it is not to encourage bitterness, strife or division, 
not to create a distinctive creed or church for the purpose of 
human glorification: but its exponents know as Paul did that "a 
dispensation of the Gospel has been committed unto me, [them] 
and woe unto me [them] if I [they] preach not the Gospel." 

That the preaching of this Gospel may indirectly create con- 
tention is not to be considered any barrier to its presentation, or 
the teachings of the Savior would have likewise been annulled, for 
he evidently saw that one of the results of his teaching was to be 
"division," for "from henceforth there shall be five in one house 
divided, three against two, and two against three, the father will 
be divided against the son, and the son against the father; the 
mother against the daughter, and the daughter against the mother." 
Not that the Gospel is of a quarrelsome character or that this is 
its spirit, but the spirit of rebellion in the unregenerate soul abhors, 
fights against, contends with the Divine rule of order, universally 
almost. 

The Savior who was full of light and prescience knew that he 
would array against himself all the sectaries of the Jewish relig- 
ious life, yet ye never sought the favor nor was he afraid of the 
frowns of Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenees or other off-shoots or 
devotees of the primal body. It was his mission to promulgate the 
truth, "whether men would hear or whether they would forbear." 

Nor is it known that the apostles ever sought to compromise 
on what they were assured was the truth; their call was to preach, 



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HOW WE SHALL PREACH 111 

and to do so without fear or favor. They had a good deal of the 
spirit of the old prophet who said, "He that hath my word let him 
speak my word faithfully, for what is the chaff to the wheat? saith 
the Lord." J 

The preaching of the Gospel in the Christian era (so-called) 
was not of the style that the world loved. It hated the apostles 
and it hated the Christians, but we have not heard or read that 
they modified or concealed the truth, because it gave offense; they 
were positive and decided, and it was as presumptive as words 
could make it, when Paul said, 'Though we or an angel from 
heaven, preach any other Gospel unto you than that which we have 
preached, let him be accursed." 

The man-fearing spirit was not a prominent feature of early 
Christian life, for preaching was "to the Jews a stumbling block 
and to the Greeks foolishness." But this opposition, passive or 
otherwise, never allured the preachers from declaring in the ears of 
men "the whole counsel of God;" they knew as Paul said, that the 
Gospel was, to "those who are saved, the power of God!" 

Quite likely there were many in all positions and conditions of 
religious life in those days, who accepted offense because of the 
illiberality and lack of charity on the part of the Christian ministry, 
perhaps some as good as the man of Csesarea, or as "the young 
man" in the New Testament; both .seemed to be beyond criticism 
from a moral and religious standpoint, and it might have seemed 
superfluous to a critic, to say of the former that he needed to "send 
men to Joppa for Peter to tell him what he ought to do;" and was 
it cruel to tell the latter, after he had declared "that he had kept 
all the commandments from his youth up," that "he still lacked one 
thingr 

The Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, said, "I am the way, the 
truth, and the life," and on another occasion he said, "No man 
cometh unto the Father but by me;" but no one in Christendom today 
claims that this was illiberal or untrue, however harsh and 
arbitrary it might have appeared then, and when Peter stood up 
and declared before the high priest and elders that there was "no 
other name under heaven, given among men whereby they must be 
saved," although "filled with the Holy Ghost" at the time, it was no 
doubt considered illiberal, uncharitable and untrue. 



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112 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

There was a very positive character about original Christianity. 
It had to be so, and it assuredly brooked no innovation in its early 
history; the apostles were jealous for its purity, they "marked 
those that caused divisions." Timothy was exhorted to "hold fast 
to the form of sound words f the Corinthians were also urged to 
"all speak the same thing," and so stringent, so supremely anxious 
was one of the leaders for this alwolute unity, that he wrote a 
general epistle, and said, "Whosoever transgresseth and abideth 
not in the doctrine of Christ hath not God;" further, "If there come 
any unto you and bring not this doctrine receive him not into your 
home, neither bid him God speed." 

All the words of warning, all of prophecy as to result, were 
instigated by the spirit of truth; no expediency, no false charity 
suppressed rebuke and censure of all manifestations of diverging 
practice and doctrine, and had it not been realized that "departure 
from the faith," was possible for a time, the anathemas of the 
prophets would surely have almost stricken terror into the hearts 
of the tried and true. 

Imagination however may enquire, after a modern retrospect, 
what would have been the feelings of those who were "ready to be 
offered up" if in the very citadel of the cross, or in any of the 
branches like Antioch, that vastness of Christian (?) variety had 
been exhibited as seen in modern times. Could Jerusalem, could 
the apostles and elders, could the believers and converts have seen 
the strange religious phenomena of today, and concluded that the 
Church of Christ and the Gospel of God, was a grand unyielding 
authoritative whole? 

Would they, or did they, dispute as to the need of faith in 
God or the authority of Christ? Is it a fact that there was con- 
tention and separation then as to the mode of baptism? Did any 
claim that it was only a form, or a non-essential of the Christian 
faith? Was the example of Christ eschewed or his command to 
baptize ignored by his apostles? Did any question its mode or 
purpose? Have you read of a convert asking whether baptism 
would really wash away or remit his sins? Can you read of any 
baptized convert objecting to the ordinance of the laying on of 
hands, or was not the results thereof so tangible and real, that the 
soothsayers said, "Give us this power, that upon whom we lay our 



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HOW WE SHALL PREACH. 113 

hands they may receive the Holy Ghost," tempting the servants of 
Christ with money for this inestimable gift? Is it known that any 
of the apostles or elders told their converts that they could unite 
with any organization at their own pleasure, counting belief in and 
practice of these ordinances a matter of indifference or dependent 
upon personal choice? Nor can this be done in our day, and it is 
true charity to preach the Gospel and exact complete and undivided 
acquiescence and obedience thereto. 

Nor is this done for denominational purposes; the Church of 
Jesus Christ is not a denominational Church, it is not a sectarian 
Church, it is the Church of God and Christ, revealed and restored 
in our day, according to promise and prophecy of the ages long 
gone by. Nor is it even founded upon the New Testament; although 
it is a perfect fac simile in doctrine, ordinance, organization and 
priesthood of the Church of Christ in ancient times, as the same 
New Testament will prove. 

This modern revealed Church is an offense the same as its 
predecessor; it is belied, persecuted or ignored, as was the first; its 
bitterest enemies and worst opponents have been the religionists 
of our time; the more reasonable sceptic admits its consistency 
and its harmony with the ancient Church, and every student, every 
enquirer realizes this strange fact, which remains unexplained on 
any hypothesis, save that of greater wisdom or revelation in or to 
the founder of the same. The first cannot be true; for Joseph 
Smith was a commonplace boy, and it is a greater miracle to 
think that he "evolved from his inner consciousness" this duplicate 
system of ordinance and organization, than to give credit to an 
inspirational influx for a divine purpose on the page of history in 
the economy of God. The people forming the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints take no personal credit for this, nor do 
its leaders or authorities; they simply bear x testimony to its truth, 
and say to the world — the religious world — the same assurances 
we have can be yours also, the same blesings we enjoy are for you, 
and in asserting that divine wisdom hath manifested itself in this 
movement, they do no more than was implied in the ministry and 
mission of the Christ and his associates and successors. 

Neither The Church nor the elders are responsible for the 
inferences which religionists or other thinkers may draw from their 



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114 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

testimony and literature. The latter may not evince the culture, 
or profundity of the schools, but the early advocates, the chosen 
apostles of Jesus were not learned, their theology was not as pro- 
found and voluminous as was that of the Pharisees, or as that of 
Christendom, but they had the simple truth, they could testify of 
Christ, they had proven that "the Gospel was the power of God 
unto Salvation," and if their logic was ever deemed to be faulty, 
their testimony was staunch as the everlasting hills. 

There is no claim of superior learning or wisdom, among the 
elders of The Church; there is no assumption of special righteous- 
ness: there is no disposition to contend with or belittle those 
organizations and creeds which have been and are today precious 
to multitudes; there is no spirit of reproach; their labor is a labor 
of unselfish love. They are not professional ministers, but simply 
taken from the plough and the workshop, from the counter and 
the desk, to declare the glad tidings of great joy, and warn the 
nations by preaching the Gospel prior to the second coming of the 
Son of Man. 



NATURE'S TESTIMONY. 

BY LLOYD WOODRUFF. 



I was sitting in my study; 

Silent shadows hovered 'round, 
Gathering in, like birds of evil, 

O'er some ghastly battle ground. 

And within me raged a battle: 
Fierce as ever savage throng 

Fought with battle-ax or war-club, 
'Gainst a right to keep a wrong. 



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NATURES TESTIMONY. 116 

Uncontrolled, the strife and turmoil 
Seared my soul with blighting breath. 

Faith and Doubt were fighting madly; 
Faith for life, grim Doubt for death. 

As the shadows fell more darkly, 

Each one weakened Faith in life; 
Eeach one strengthened scornful doubting, 

Urging him to fiercer strife. 

Then black night encircled 'round me; 

Faith fell fainting, spent with pain. 
Fiendish Doubt sprang nimbly on him: — 

'Thou shalt ne'er oppose again." 

As he raised his ready dagger, 
Raised to strike Faith's kingly heart; 

Through the trees, a ray of glory 
Made him pause and pale and start. 

Twas the moon in queenly splendor, 

Flooding hill and dale with light; 
Faith revived with sudden fury, 

Putting Doubt to hasty flight. 

And a nightingale, in praising, 

Broke to rapturous, magic song. 
Breathless all things stopped to listen; 

Waiting minds the notes prolong. 

To my heart those notes were knowledge 

In my soul, a new-born light, 
All of joy, of hope and gladness, 

Seemed to burst in radiance bright. 

And a faintly beaming halo 

Showed the path our Savior trod: 
All creation paused to whisper, 

"Follow that and dwell with God." 



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THE MISSION AND NECESSITY OF THE 
HOLY GHOST. 



BY ELDER FRED. W. CROCKETT. 



When virtue and vitality are exhausted and the terminus of de- 
clining years is reached, the spirit then pursues its immortal exodus, 
leaving behind only a relic of cold, lifeless clay which, before it was 
deprived of its vital forces, rejoiced and sorrowed among the great 
throng of mortality. This life-giving union made manifest in 
spirit and body symbolizes very uniquely the relation that the Holy 
Ghost bears to the true Church of God. In other words, as the 
body when separated from the spirit is rendered powerless and pas- 
sive so it is with the Church and members in particular when not in 
possession of this divine gift. To say it is purely indispensible to 
all true followers of Jesus is to present the matter in terms of mild- 
ness rather than with the stress which should accompany it. The 
Holy Ghost is the Spirit of God, without which no man can com- 
prehend the! things of God. 'Tor what man knoweth the things 
of man save the spirit of man which is in him? Even so the 
things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God." — I. Cor. 2:11. 

A careful consideration of the following passage of scripture 
will enable us to appreciate and sense more keenly the infinite im- 
portance that attaches itself to the subject now in hand. Nico- 
demus, visiting Christ by night, was informed by the Son of God 
that, "Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot 
enter into the kingdom of God." — John 3: 5. In this we perceive 
that the birth of the Spirit or the Holy Ghost is a necessary qualifi- 
cation or step in the preparation which one makes while here on 
earth and by which his eternal destiny is shaped; we learn also the 



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THE MISSION AND NECESSITY OF THE HOLY GHOST. 117 

order, in which the birth of the Spirit comes, namely: after the 
baptism of water, as Christ told Nicodemus in the passage just 
quoted, that a man must be "born of water" first and then "of the 
Spirit." 

By reference to the words of the Apostle Peter spoken on the 
day of Pentecost — Acts 2: 38 — we see that the Holy Ghost was not 
only promised to the people whom Peter addressed,nor was the prom- 
ise limited to the apostolic age — or one hundred or two thousand 
years — but the apostle says: "The promise is unto you, and to your 
children, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God 
shall call." The idea that this inestimable blessing was meant only for 
the early Christians is absurd, and we at once discard it as false. Sad 
and cheerless, indeed, would be the spiritual aspect of man were it 
true, as many modern divines assert that it is, that the Holy Ghost 
was given only to establish the church, and is now no longer 
needed. Have we reached a point in this world, I ask, that it is no 
longer necessary for man to work out a salvation? Has the Lord 
repealed or modified his original plan so that men may now unheed 
his laws and still continue to walk in his fear and admonition? Truth 
and reason answer, No. We still need the Holy Ghost to guide us 
aright. The apostle to the gentiles says: "Wherefore I give you 
to understand, that no man speaking by the Spirit of God calleth 
Jesus accursed, and that no man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but 
by the Holy Ghost." — I Cor. 12: 3. No reasonable man will affirm 
that an acknowledgement of Christ is not imperatively essential to 
salvation, and according to the above passage no man can truly make 
that acknowledgement unless in possession of the Holy Ghost. 

No fact in scripture is made more conspicuous than this, and 
yet thousands of people who call themselves Christians and teachers 
of Christians, while they acknowledge the Holy Ghost as being a 
constituent of the gospel, they divest it of all its primitive powers, 
destroy its purpose and mission and transmute its nature, which 
amounts to the same thing as an open denial of the thing itself. In 
other words, in one breath they acknowledge it a divine gift from 
God extended to all his children, while in the next breath they 
deny its powers and fruits, which is equivalent to a denial of the 
thing itself. For of what service is the engine where no steam is 
generated to put its machinery into motion? So it is with the Holy 



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118 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Ghost. Man feeds the divine gift with noble deeds and obedience, 
and enjoys as remuneration, its powers and fruits so necessary to 
his spiritual development. 

To acquire this divine gift, so indispensible.to the future hap- 
piness of man, all the laws and requirements preceding it must be 
obeyed and lived up to. These are respectively, faith in the Father 
and Son, followed by true and godly repentance, which means to 
leave off sin and work righteousness. After this determination to 
serve God, we become fit subjects for the next step — baptism, which 
is performed in the way Christ instituted, by immersion, and by 
some person who has been called of God as was Aaron, through a 
prophet, and thus authorized to do this baptizing. When these 
conditions have been complied with, we are then entitled to the Holy 
Ghost, accompanied with all the powers and fruits characteristic 
of the same. If this be not the case then the word of God surely 
is at fault. 

Peter and other apostles, when on trial before the high priest, 
said: "The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom ye slew and 
hanged on a tree * * * and we are his witnesses of 
these things; and so is the Holy Ghost, whom God hath given to them 
that obey him." — Acts 5: 30-32. Prom this we see again that it 
was not only promised to the apostles, but, as before stated, to all 
that obey God. Its possession comes only by virtue of the abandon- 
ment of all worldly influences and practices whose natures are not 
elevating and in harmony with that which is honest and virtuous. 
An attempt to trace the course of an eagle in the air would savor 
no less of success than the attempt of him who undertakes to enjoy 
and understand the things of God when his mind and body are de- 
filed and tarnished by the pernicious influences and degenerate habits 
of the world. "If ye love me, keep my commandments. And I will 
pray the Pather,and he shall give you another Comforter that he may 
abide with you forever; even the Spirit of truth whom the world 
cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him, but 
ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you." — John 
14: 15-17. Here we see plainly that the gift is not for the world, 
but for those only who believe and obey. 

The significance and value of the divine gift are made evident 
in the twenty-sixth verse of the last chapter quoted from, which 



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THE MISSION AND NECESSITY OF THE HOLY GHOST. 119 

reads: "But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the 
Father will send in my name, he shall teach yon all things, and 
bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto 
you." A part of its mission, then, was to strengthen the memory, 
to aid in preaching and teaching so that every principle and exhor- 
tation advanced would be in accord with God's word, and hence of 
priceless worth to them for whom they were meant. When the 
apostles taught the flock, they did it not by the enticing words of 
man's wisdom but would speak as they were moved upon by the 
Holy Ghost. This is the only method to preach the gospel and 
preach it in a way that it will tend to the edification of the flock. 
Extemporaneous preaching gives the Lord a chance to dictate, and 
in this manner those things which are most needed on each occasion 
will be expounded and brought to light; but when the shepherd 
spends the entire week to weave the sermon, sparing no polish that 
would add new melody to its poetical and oratorical ring, it seems 
to me that the Lord is left out entirely and that the Holy Ghost, 
whose mission was to aid the ambassadors of Christ,{is expunged, 
and the wavering ability of man brought in as a substitute. Bril- 
liant preaching that wafts people to heaven on beds of ease does 
very well for this life, but the all-important question is, will it re- 
tain its brilliancy in the life to come and answer the requirements 
made of us by God. It is quite necessary, of course, that the suc- 
cessful minister be a man of great learning; yet, in all cases the 
Holy Spirit should control the disposition and expression of this 
knowledge. 

Morevover, the Holy Ghost is to guide us into all truth, for he 
shall not speak of himself, but whatsoever he shall hear that shall 
he speak; and he will show us things to come.— John 16: 13. We 
here see another grand thing in the mission of the Holy Ghost* 
How essential it is that we be guided into all truth! Truth alone 
will save us, and its deeply hidden gems are brought to the surface 
only through the power of the Holy Ghost. Furthermore, he would 
show us things to come; and prophecy has always been a character- 
istic of God's people and should be sought after and enjoyed by all 
true believers of today. 

Thus far in our discussion we have seen, first, that man in order 
to fulfill the law and thereby gain eternal life must be born of the 



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120 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Spirit, or, which amounts to the same thing, receive the Holy 
Ghost; second, man must have the Holy Ghost, otherwise he cannot 
say, and say truly, that Jesus is the Lord, which confession is in- 
dispensable to his salvation; third, man cannot understand and teach 
the gospel properly without the divine gift; fourth, by it we are 
guided into all truth. Bearing in mind these various and necessary 
things accorded man by virtue of the Holy Ghost, let us now search 
the scriptures and find, if possible, through what channel this glori- 
ous gift comes forth to man. 

The eighth chapter of the Acts of the Apostles is very explicit 
on this particular point. We read in this chapter of Philip, an 
evangelist of the gospel, going to Samaria, at which place he re- 
mained for some time preaching the good word of Christ. By his 
teachings many of the Samaritans were converted and Philip bap- 
tized both men and women. When the news that Samaria had re- 
ceived the word of God reached the apostles which were at Jerusa- 
lem they sent unto them Peter and John who when they were come 
down prayed for them that they might receive the Holy Ghost, for 
as yet he had fallen upon none of them, only (showing that matters 
as yet were incomplete), they had been baptized in the name of the 
Lord Jesus; and now comes the point upon which the stress must 
be placed, then laid they their hands on them and they received the 
Holy Ghost. 

In this it is clear that the Holy Ghost was given by the laying 
on of hands, or, in other words, the people of Samaria were "born 
of the Spirit" by the laying on of hands by ordained and chosen 
apostles of Christ. That it took men of authority to officiate in 
this, is made patent in the case of [Simon, who, when he saw that 
the Holy Ghost was given by the laying on of the apostles' hands, 
offered them money, saying, give unto me that power that on whom- 
soever I lay my hands he may receive the Holy Ghost. But Peter 
rebuked him for his proposition, telling him that the gift of God 
was not purchased with money; also, that he had neither part nor 
lot in the matter, for his heart was not right in the sight of God* 
This is one evidence, then, that the Holy Ghost comes by the laying 
on of hands; also, that only divinely commissioned men may officiate 
in the ordinance. 

As another decisive proof along this line, we read of Paul's ex- 



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THE MISSION AND NECESSITY OF THE HOLY GHOST. 121 

perience at Ephesus, which is recorded in the nineteenth chapter of 
Acts. The apostle going into Ephesus and finding certain disciples, 
inquired of them as to whether they had received the Holy Ghost 
since they believed. To the apostle's surprise, they replied that they 
had not so much as heard of the Holy Ghost. They were then bap- 
tized in the name of Jesus Christ; and now again for the vital point: 
and when Paul had laid his hands on them the Holy Ghost came on 
them and they spake with tongues and prophesied. This, then, is 
another infallible evidence that the Holy Ghost is bestowed by the 
laying on of hands, and as shown in the last paragraph comes after, 
and not before, baptism. 

The laying on of hands is the divine way of conferring the Holy 
Ghost. Because people have ceased to practice it, does not in the 
least nullify the doctrine or get man into heaven without complying 
with it. The gospel stands just as it is, and men may make it bend 
to suit their notions in this life, but when the race of mortality is 
run, they will be judged according to its every principle and wherein 
they have failed, instead of the gospel bending to remedy their mis- 
takes they will have to make restitution for their neglect and trans- 
gressions. 

Paul, in writing to Timothy, exhorted him to stir up the gift of 
God which was in him by the putting on of his hands. There are 
numerous other evidences that bear out the doctrine for which I 
am contending, but I will seek only to add one more to the many 
already adduced, after which I feel confident that all thinking people, 
at least, will make no hesitancy in bearing testimony to the authen- 
ticity and reasonableness of my argument. 

The passage of scripture that I now have in mind is one that 
bears so directly and conclusively upon the doctrine of the laying 
on of hands that it seems no man can deny its force without clos- 
ing his eyes to the light of reason, and in fact to everything that par- 
takes of the nature of logic and truth. The Apostle John in his 
second epistle and ninth verse says, "Whosoever transgresseth, and 
abideth not it the doctrine of Christ, hath not God." If we must 
abide in Christ's doctrine let us find out what his doctrine is. This 
calls forth the passage referred to at the beginning of this para- 
graph. It is found in the sixth chapter of Hebrews, beginning at 
the first verse, and reads thus: 'Therefore leaving the principles 



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122 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying 
again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith 
toward God; of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of 
hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment" 
These are doctrines of Jesus Christ in which man must abide or 
lose his salvation — faith, repentance, laying on of hands, resurrec- 
tion of the dead, and eternal judgment. 

In what way, I pray, can modem Christendom account for dbing 
away with the doctrine of the laying on of hands, when the apostle 
weaves it in the salvation fabric and makes it a point of no smaller 
moment than faith or baptism? How can one consistently believe 
in the doctrine of faith and at the same time deny the doctrine of 
the laying on of hands, when the apostle places them together, giv- 
ing no man authority to denounce either or to accept one and reject 
the other? 

Some may say, the laying on of hands was practiced in the 
early days, but it is not necessary now. If this be so, then I ask, 
from what source do you get authority to draw such a conclusion? 
If you can relegate the laying on of hands to the apostolic period, 
you can do likewise with every doctrine of the Messiah, for one is 
as pure and essential as another. 

This concludes the discussion of the Holy Ghost. Of necessity, 
I have had to be brief and from this fact have omitted many points, 
all of which would reflect light upon the subject had space permit- 
ted me to use them. I beg of the reader to weigh carefully the 
above argument. Paul, the apostle, preached the laying on of hands 
and he says, 'Though we or an angel from heaven, preach any other 
gospel unto you, let him be accursed." Let us not attempt to get 
to heaven on a part of the gospel. 



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TO HIM THAT OVERCOMETH. 

BY ELDER ATTEWALL WOOTTON. 



"For I am not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ: for it is the 
power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth, to the Jew 
first, and also to the Greek. For therein is the righteousness of, 
God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written,. The just shall 
live by f aith." 

This statement of Paul is a general definition of the Gospel, 
the details of which every individual must learn and put into practice 
for himself in order that it may bring salvation to him individually* 
It will not do for him to sit still and merely believe that Jesus did 
it all, and that there is nothing for him to do only to believe. As 
well might the pupil in the school say, "The teacher is paid to 
teach me, so there is nothing for me to do only to believe that he 
is able and willing to do so, and I shall be educated." Steam is the 
power to run large ships across the ocean, but in order to get the 
benefit of that power, men are obliged to learn and work out all the 
details of machinery necessary, and apply the water and the fire, or 
it will drive no ships for them. Electricity is the power that can 
light up our streets and homes, but if we merely believe this and 
do nothing more, we shall remain in the dark until doomsday as far 
as electric light is concerned. 

Salvation is something more than merely an imaginary blissful 
condition in the next world which may be attained by acknowledg- 
ing that Jesus is the Christ. There is much in this life from which 
one needs to be saved in order to fit him for the anticipated glory 
in the next. The first step towards salvation is a belief in God, the 
Father, and in his son Jesus Christ, through which men are saved 



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124 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

from the doubts, fears and superstitions of the world. Next cornea 
a consciousness of sin from which men desire to be saved, 
this comes through a sincere repentance and a turning away from 
sin, which is salvation from sin in the future; but by looking back 
the penitent sees a past life of sinful practices, the consequences of 
which he desires to escape. On account of his sincere repentance 
the way is opened, and baptism for the remission of sins by one 
having authority is administered, and he is saved from the conse- 
quences of past sins and is made white through the blood of the 
Lamb. Is there yet other things from which salvation is desirable? 
0, yes, one of the worst things that stand in the way of advance- 
ment — the sin of ignorance. Salvation from this comes through 
the gift of the Holy Ghost, which "shall teach you all things, and 
show you things to come." 

There is yet another salvation that applies to all alike, whether 
they be wicked or righteous; this is brought about independent of 
the one who receives its benefits; it is redemption from that con- 
dition most dreaded by mortals — salvation from death and the grave 
through the resurrection, brought about by the atoning blood of 
Christ, when all will be brought before the judgment seat to be 
judged according to the deeds done in the body. "As in Adam all 
die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive." 

It might be supposed that this would complete the principles 
of salvation. But no, Paul says, "Therefore leaving the principle* 
of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying 
again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith 
toward God, of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of 
hands, and of the resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judg- 
ment. And this will we do if God permit." 

How are we to go on to perfection? By saving ourselves, with 
the help of the Lord, from all evil passions incident to fallen human 
nature. 'To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in 
my throne." First, it is necessary to be saved from worldly pride. 
"Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, 
shall in no wise enter therein." Then salvation from avarice is 
essential. "If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast and 
give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come 
and follow me." Are any given to a hasty temper? salvation ia 



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TO HIM THAT OVERCOMETH. 125 

needed. "Whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause 
shall be in danger of the judgment." Do any hold malice? "But 
I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you." Are 
any drunkards? "No drunkards shall inherit the kingdom of God." 

These evil tendencies from which salvation is necessary, might 
be enumerated indefinitely. Not only these must be overcome by 
the aid of the Holy Spirit, but even the thoughts of the heart must 
be brought into subjection to the will of God. "For out of the 
heart proceedeth evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, 
thefts, false witness, blasphemies. These are the things which de- 
file a man." , 

Who can be perfect without overcoming these things? When 
men teach that all that is necessary to salvation is to believe in 
Jesus Christ, believe them not, for they are blind leaders of the 
blind, and all will fall into the ditch; but rather believe him who 
said, "And every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth 
them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man, which built his house 
upon the sand; and the rain descended, and the floods came, and 
the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell: and great 
was the fall of it." 



PROCRASTINATION. 



"Procrastination is the thief of time; 
Year after year it steals, till all aro fled, 
And to the mercies of a moment leaves 
The vast concerns of an eternal state. 
At thirty, man suspects himself a fool; 
Knows it at forty, and reforms his plan, 
At fifty, chides his infamous delay; 
Pushes his prudent purpose to resolve; 
In all the magnanimity of thought, 
Resolves, and re-resolves, then dies the same." 



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INSTRUCTIONS TO MISSIONARIES. 

REPORTED BY THOMAS HULL, GENERAL SECRETARY Y. M. M. I. A. 



[The remarks which follow were made at one of the meetings of the 
missionaries who were recently called to labor in the interest of the 
Mutual Improvement Associations throughout Zion. They are published 
to give the people generally, and the officers of each association partic- 
ularly, a more thorough understanding of the nature and importance of 
the mission of these brethren who are laboring among them. These ser- 
mons, coming as they do from authority, are also full of helpful counsel 
and advice to every worker in the cause, and apply to local officers and to 
their missionary aids as well as to the general workers to whom they 
were first addressed.— Editors.] 

REMARKS OP PRESIDENT LORENZO SNOW. 

This mission which you have taken upon yourselves by the 
consent and approval of the First Presidency is high and import- 
ant. There is something about it different from any mission ever 
undertaken by man. You go among the Saints, and I can scarcely 
think of any objects greater than those of these missionaries. We 
feel that you will make a grand success, because we sense and know 
that you have been called of God. The wisdom of man would never 
have thought of such a work as this. I am surprised when I think 
of its greatness. I can say that it is the very work that is neces- 
sary at this time: and I feel that you will enter upon it with your 
whole souls. Cultivate the Spirit of Jesus when he said he could 
do nothing except that which his Father gave him to do. 

Never mind your difficulties and apparent losses; sink your 
own interests, and your success will be grand and glorious, and the 
whole Church will feel the effects of your labors. 

Never mind the indifference of some of those amongst whom you 



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INSTRUCTIONS TO MISSIONARIES. 127 

will labor, and the little disappointments you will meet with; the 
Spirit of the Lord will be upon you, and you will stir up the spirits 
of those to whom you minister, and conquer their indifference; and 
before you leave the wards you will be satisfied you have accom- 
plished the work you have been sent to perform by the First Pres- 
idency of the Church and the General Board of the Young Men's 
Mutual Improvement Associations. 

You have the fullest authority conferred upon you, but you 
need not talk about this at all. You will discover that there is no 
need to talk about it; the Spirit of the Lord will confirm it, and the 
people will feel that you bear it, and this confirmation and feeling 
will be your authority. 

You will find some that think they know more than you'do, but 
if you will do your duty as suggested, before you leave them, they 
will feel that you have a little more than they have, and that you 
have blessed them and helped them. You will have no occasion to 
worry about entertainment and transportation: they may not al- 
ways be just what you would like, but you will get along, and you 
will really have nothing to worry about. No danger of mobs or 
anything of that kind. It will be like traveling over a conquered 
field, or a path of roses; yet you will have some things not quite so 
agreeable as you might desire. 

Try to make yourselves agreeable to those to whom you are 
sent. The humility you display and the Spirit of the Lord resting 
upon you, will show your fitness for the position you are called to 
occupy. Try to understand human nature and act accordingly, in 
order to make everyone happy and everything agreeable. 

I remember an incident related by Brother Geo. A. Smith: 

He was on a mission, traveling without purse or scrip. He 
had been turned away from several houses and badly treated. He 
had always told those to whom he applied for entertainment that 
he was a "Mormon," and after he had traveled some distance and 
the day was drawing to a close, he began to fear that he would ob- 
tain neither food nor shelter and perhaps be unable to accomplish 
his mission. In order to avoid this, he concluded to adopt another 
plan. Journeying a little farther, he came to a house and found 
the owner putting up a loom. Brother Smith went right to work 
and assisted him. After they had finished their task, he began to 



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128 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

talk to the man about his stock and his farm, and so forth. Dar- 
ing the conversation, it began to rain, and Brother Smith, who all 
this time had not mentioned that he was a "Mormon," started to go, 
but the man insisted upon his staying to dinner, and would not per- 
mit him to leave his house that night. 

There is a way to reach every human heart, and it is your bus- 
iness to find the way to the hearts of those to whom you are called 
on this mission. 

I was once traveling in a strange country on a mission, and 
had been refused entertainment many times, and my chances for 
sleeping in a hay-stack were very good. Presently I came to a 
hotel. We usually avoided such places, but my affairs were des- 
perate, and I approached the proprietor and told him that I was 
without means, preaching the Gospel, and asked him to give me en- 
tertainment. He replied that he was running his hotel to make 
money, and that I was very welcome to a room in his house and 
meals at his table upon payment of the regular prices for such 
commodities. I started to go away; but, upon a little reflection, re- 
turned to the man, and again told him that I was a humble elder of 
the Church of Christ, preaching the Gospel, warning the people 
aud calling upon them to repent and turn unto the Lord. I quoted 
to him the words of the Savior, recorded in Matt. 25, 31-46, where 
he tells of the coming of the Son of man in his glory, when he 
shall divide the sheep from the goats and shall bless those on his 
right hand because they ministered unto him, but shall cast out 
those on his left hand, because they ministered not unto him; and 
when those on his left hand shall ask when they saw the Son of 
man in want and ministered not unto him, he shall say unto them, 
"Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these,ye did it not 
to me." After having quoted these things, and borne testimony 
that I was a humble disciple of Jesus Christ, I started to leave him, 
but he called after me, saying, "Where are you going? Come in 
here and eat, and stay as long as you desire." I returned and was 
well entertained, and no word was ever said to me about paying for 
the same. 

President Taylor and myself were once traveling in the south- 
ern settlements. At one place, a meeting was called, and we ex- 
pected a good turn out of the people, but when we reached the 



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INSTRUCTIONS TO MISSIONARIES. 12 

meeting house there was no one there. By and by, an old lady 
came in, and after a little while a man and two or three children ar- 
rived. President Taylor went down to the door and acted as a dea- 
con and ushered in a few more people, but the congregation was ex- 
tremely slim. We had, however, a pleasant meeting after all; and, 
although you will sometimes find a touch of indifference, you may 
also have good meetings if you obtain the Spirit of the Lord. 

I feel in my heart to say, God bless you. You will be set apart 
before you go, and we shall pray for you and shall take a deep in- 
terest in you. Be meek of heart and humble. When you look up- 
on an audience, two motives may inspire you; first, that you may 
speak well and make a good impression upon the audience as an 
orator; and, next, the question will arise, what am I here for? To 
sow the seeds of life in the hearts of those who are in this audience; 
and the prayer should arise in your heart, "0 Lord, may it be so; 
may I have power through thy Spirit to touch the hearts of these 
thy people?" That very short prayer is all that an elder needs to 
'make. It is all you need to make. "May I say something to save 
these souls T This is what the First Presidency, the General 
Board and all your brethren want you to do. 

God bless you, my young brethren; and he will bless you, and 
fill you with his Spirit, and this will be one of the grandest 
missions of any ever undertaken. 

REMARKS BY PRESIDENT JOSEPH F. SMITH. 

When among the people in the stakes of Zion, if you meet 
with difficulties which you are unable to solve, it will not be very 
difficult on your part to apply to head-quarters, state the circum- 
stances and conditions as you find them, and if there is any thing 
wrong, we have the power to correct it, and we will be on hand to 
aid you. If you are not received kindly by the presiding author- 
ities of the Church, after taking up a kindly and diligent labor to 
get a good understanding, then report the matter, and we will 
labor with the Bishop or President of Stake, and help you. 

This is a great labor; one of incalculable worth and benefit in 
Zion. In order to succeed, you must be on the Lord's side; you 
must have the co-operation of the Spirit of God. You must feel 
the importance of your mission, and that mission is to vitalize those 



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130 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

who are charged with the responsibility and care of the young men 
of Israel. Your duty is to teach them how to do their work ef- 
fectively, and how best to accomplish the salvation of the young. 
Therefore, you must possess the spirit of this mission in your 
hearts; and, in order to do that, you must be prayerful and humble. 
Be genial and kind so that you may cope with all difficulties. Be 
not discouraged, but press on until all obstacles yield to your ef- 
forts. 

This mission is important for the reason that we have here at 
home thousands of young men who are unacquainted with the 
first principles of the Gospel, and could not give one intelligent 
reason for the hope that is in them. I am frequently in receipt 
of letters asking the simplest questions, which even a child in the 
Gospel should understand. 

Your duty is to educate the officers of the Mutual Improve- 
ment Associations in regard to the duties and labors devolving upon 
them by reason of their appointment to their positions, and to help 
them to be efficient in their work. It was discovered that some- 
thing of this kind was necessary. Many of the officers did not 
know enough about their work, so we are going to try to educate 
them. This I conceive to be a very important labor. We have 
thousands of officers, and the task will be a great one for you. 

In relation to the authorities of the Church, I desire to say 
that the Young Men's Mutual Improvement Associations are not 
part of the Church organization; they are auxilliary. They have 
sprung up from the necessities that have arisen, and are now as 
essential in their sphere as the quorums of the Priesthood; and yet 
if all these quorums were performing their duty as they should, 
there would be no necessity for these organizations. Being auxil- 
liary only, it is not proper for us to assume ecclesiastical authority. 
We are subject to the Priesthood, and must honor it. You must 
not ignore the local authorities, but you should set an example to 
the people in this respect. But if you find some that are indiffer- 
ent and cold, don't complain about them, but labor diligently to 
bring them to a correct understanding of your mission, and if un- 
successful, then report to us and we will see what can be done. 
First, however, honor the local authorities. Always honor the 
Priesthood, for God has established it in the earth. The weakness 



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INSTRUCTIONS TO MISSIONARIES. 131 

•of the instrument does not invalidate the authority which it holds. 
This is important; there is no more important principle than that 
of recognizing and honoring the Priesthood. Because of their 
failure to do this, many men, since the organization of this Church, 
have lost the faith. If we expect to stand and do stand, it will 
3>e by obedience to that principle. See that you honor the Priest- 
hood which you hold, in your own lives, and you will find it easy to 
honor it everywhere. God bless you. Amen. 

At the close of President Smith's remarks, President Snow 
arose and said, "What President Joseph F. Smith has said is the 
<Jospel of life. Do not forget it. One thing more I want to say, 
this is one of the most important missions that was ever given to 
the Latter-day Saints, the most sacred, and from which I expect 
the highest and most sacred results. 

"I do not wish you to go out without having your attention 
called to one thing, one thing that I want you to remember; and 
when you have an opportunity to speak, refer to it. That is the 
law of tithing. There is no sin that the Church is so generally 
guilty of as the breaking of this law, and there is no other law more 
important than this. The Church cannot exist nor progress unless 
the law of tithing is more generally observed than it has been. There 
lias been great danger that the Trustee in Trust could not meet his 
obligations, and that he would lose the confidence of financial men 
both in and out of the Church. Now all this arose, because the 
people generally neglected to pay their tithing. We can sanctify 
the earth by keeping this law. God bless you." 

REMARKS OP APOSTLE FRANCIS M. LYMAN. 

You have been instructed as no body of missionaries were ever 
instructed, and now, in commencing your labors, you must capture 
the superintendences of the stakes; you must win their hearts. 
In doing this, if none of you make mistakes, you will be a very for- 
tunate body of men, for no two superintendents are alike. When 
you have gained their hearts and they know who you are, it will be 
your duty to visit the presidencies of the stakes. You must ap- 
proach them in a manner to get their hearts. Then meet with all 
±he stake officers, and lay before them your mission, inquiring about 



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132 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

their work and how they are doing it. Instruct them wisely and 
carefully, and when you have captivated the superintendency and 
officers of the stake you will be ready to approach the presidents 
of the wards and repeat your efforts to gain their confidence. 

Be sure not to build up any barriers between you and your 
mission; yet you must not be cowardly and weak, but have strength 
combined with humility. Remember always that you are repre- 
sentatives of the General Board, but go not in a boastful manner. 
In your labors in stakes and wards, approach the work in such 
manner that you will grow, and not shrink, in the estimation of 
those with whom you labor. Go into a stake like a lamb, but come 
out like a lion. 

It does seem to me that this is one of the most delicate 
missions ever undertaken, because you labor among experienced 
people, and it is a superior work. Counsel together with the stake 
superintendents, and map out your program with them, posting 
them on all that you are doing. Exhibit the greatest possible hu- 
mility, and set the best example before the people; but do not make 
your example offensively prominent; let others discover your good- 
ness; don't boast of it. Work in harmony with the presidents and 
superintendents of stakes and get as much from them as you 
can possibly obtain. Be sure to carry from one ward to another 
the blessing and love of the presidency of the stake until they feel 
to lay their hands upon you and say, "God bless you, and help you 
in your labors/' 

There will come up in your minds and hearts instructions, 
theories, and counsels that you have not received here. God will 
inspire in your hearts a thousand splendid thoughts and ideas to 
assist you in your work, and you will be able to stir and move every 
soul in the stakes in which you labor. 

Your mission will be full of delicate and difficult duties, and a 
misstep will be a barrier to you; hence, go in all humility, let your 
power and oratory and wisdom be that which comes from the Holy 
Ghost. If you have sin lurking in your hearts that may prevent 
you from having the Spirit of the Lord, the people will discover it; 
but by humility and faithfulness, the Spirit of God will attend you, 
and every heart and every soul will be impressed with you, with your 
words, your spirit, and your work. Get every element of strength 



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INSTRUCTIONS TO MISSIONARIES. 133 

and influence in the stake arrayed on your side, because after you 
have gained the love of the authorities, you #till have to win the 
hearts of the young people. Your mission is to the sick: we want 
them reformed and brought in to enjoy the Spirit and power of God. 
It is not expected that you will educate, or correct, or regulate the 
presidents of stakes or bishops, but that you will obtain their help 
and be submissive to them, seek counsel of them, and get from 
them instruction and blessing. Be very prayerful. You must re- 
member your prayers night and morning, and in secret. Impress those 
with whom you associate with the idea that you are prayerful men; 
pray with the superintendents and with the presidents whenever 
you meet in council. Ask the Lord to inspire them as well as you, 
and you can make an impression on any young man you desire to 
approach. 

Your authority is of God, and the Church in which you are 
working is of God, and those with whom you are working are the 
children of God. Go in humility to them and love their souls and 
try to make everyone you meet your particular friend. The love 
of these young men will help your salvation. You will be remem- 
bered as you have never been remembered, and it will lay a founda- 
tion upon which you can surely build all your lives, and hundreds 
of people will remember you forever for this mission. It is one of 
the greatest privileges and blessings that has ever come to the 
young men of this Church, but remember, that without the Spirit of 
God, you can accomplish nothing. Whatever you have been taught 
here you will go into the field and teach. See to it that you cover 
the ground. See that every particle of material within your 
reach is utilized and made the most of. Take the boys into your 
hearts, and love them. Be wise, prudent and modest. Don't hunt 
for the follies and failings of the young people, and if any confide 
in you, never betray the trust; never tell anyone of the weaknesses 
confessed to you. Keep all such confidences and confessions sacred* 
Give God all the credit for all you accomplish. 

We send you forth, and bless you, to depend upon the Spirit 
and power of God, and to fulfill a unique and remarkable mission, 
such as has never been required of a similiar body of men. 



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THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. 

BY DR. J. M. TANNER, PRESIDENT OP THE STATE AGRICULTURAL COL- 
LEGE, LOGAN. 



The war now going on in South Africa between the English on 
one side and the Dutch, or Boers, as they have been popularly 
called, on the other, is creating an unusual interest in the Dark 
Continent, and is giving rise to many arguments as to the justifica- 
tion which England has in aggravating the Boers to a declaration 
of war. This war is also bringing prominently before the people 
of the world a history of the Dark Continent, * history whose 
interest increases as the development of the country goes on, and 
questions of great political importance arise. 

It would be difficult to appreciate all the causes which have 
led up to this war, without some knowledge of the early history of 
the people who founded South Africa. The question which now 
interests most people is, whether or not England has been guilty of 
a political crime, and whether she can find justification for the war 
which is now going on in that country. The question is argued 
from both sides, and these arguments depend largely upon the 
sympathy of those who undertake to treat the matter. But the 
justification of this war is a question, and for that reason has two 
sides. In America we have not been very greatly interested in South 
Africa. Neither its people nor its government has affected the af- 
fairs in this country, and therefore its history is little known to us. 

In 1497, the great sailor, Vasco de Gama, doubled the Cape of 
Good Hope. This was the period of its discovery. But no settle- 
ments were begun in that country until about 1652, when the Dutch 
began to colonize what is now known as Cape Colony. Holland, the 
country from which the Dutch came, was then a great sea power, 
having its territories and colonies in different parts of the world. 



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THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. 185 

These Dutch emigrants were not of the character of the Pilgrim 
Fathers; they were in a large measure a restless class of people 
with indifferent characters, and belonging to what was styled the 
lower orders. In 1686, they were joined by refugees from Prance, 
who took up their abode at Cape Colony after the revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes. Some Germans settled later in that country, 
and thus the Boers, as they are commonly called, are a mixture of 
the different races. The Dutch element, however, predominates 
almost entirely. Of course, in those times,' the country was 
inhabited by the negro, or African race, and the Africans who 
inhabited this part of the country were known as the Quaequae, 
afterwards called by the Dutch Hottentots. From 1652 to 1815, 
Holland ruled this colony very much as it governed her other 
distant colonies. The mother country prescribed just what class 
of crops should be planted, and so burdened the people with taxation 
that they became rebellious, and became imbued with more or less 
hatred or dislike for all systems of government. So that in time* 
they grew to be very unlike their ancestors. The Dutch are a 
quiet, peaceful race, with little inclination for outdoor sport, for 
hunting, shooting, horseback riding, while these became the pre- 
dominate characteristics of the Dutch in South Africa. 

In 1815, when the country was taken by England, Great 
Britain found these peculiar traits in the Dutch, which they have 
never yet been able to overcome, and a resistance in them which 
they have never yet been able to subdue. The Dutch, like others, 
found in the negro element an excellent slave; and so subdued the 
unfortunate race in South Africa, that involuntary servitude over- 
took the negro there as it overtook him here; but England at a 
very early period had contended against slavery, and, in 1834, suc- 
ceeded in emancipating the slaves in the possession of the Dutch 
colonists. This was perhaps the greatest cause of national pre- 
judices towards the English on the part of the Dutch. It was 
interfering with a somewhat sacred institution to them, and in the 
midst of this discontent, and a year or two later, they determined 
to leave English rule altogether, and took up their march northward. 
This exodus is known in history as the great Trek. The Boers took their, 
march in a north-easterly direction and located three or four hun- 
dred miles north in a country called Natal. But Natal was also 
full of resources, which invited the English into that country, and 



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136 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

it was not long before the British took Natal. This occurred in 
the year 1842. Those Dutch who found themselves unbearably 
aggravated by this acquisition to the British domain, determined 
to rid themselves again of the rule of the hateful Briton, and, in 
1843, took up their Trek again. Some of them took a westerly 
direction and settled in what is now known as the Orange Free 
State, across the Drakenberg, while others moved north across the 
Vaal into what is now called the Transvaal. Here the discontented 
Dutch undertook to establish themselves and enjoy that mode of 
life in which they had the greatest pleasure. These trekkers had 
no very great love for agricultural pursuits, but preferred to 
engage in the cattle industry, in which each burgher was allowed 
something like 3,000 acres of land. They preferred to settle upon 
these great ranches, sometimes at a considerable distance from 
their neighbors, and thus enjoy the solitude in which they seemed 
to have found the greatest satisfaction. They felt at last free 
from British dominion. But it was not long before they found 
themselves in a war with the surrounding native tribes, especially 
with the Zulus. The Dutch had always been stem and severe in 
their treatment of the negroes, and had meted out prompt and swift 
punishment for any encroachment upon their rights and privileges 
as they understood them. For miles around, the negro races were 
held in awe, and their frequent attempts to overcome the Dutch 
had proved utterly futile. The Dutch were excellent marksmen, 
having been trained for generations and from their youth to hunt. 
But in their new home, they finally found themselves so hard 
pressed that they were obliged to appeal to their English neigh- 
bors for assistance, and in 1877, after the sought for aid was 
furnished, the Transvaal was annexed to Great Britain. As soon 
as the dangers of the Zulus were removed, feelings of restlessness 
began to arise among the Dutch, and in 1881, the Dutch revolted 
against Great Britain and finally secured an independent govern- 
ment in all internal affairs, at the same time, they accepted the 
suzerainty of Great Britain. That is, all questions which had to do 
with the foreign policy of the little State must be referred to the 
Queen for her approval. During this revolt the celebrated battle 
of Majuba Hill took place, in which the English went down in over- 
whelming defeat. It was a remarkable battle, remarkable for 
several reasons. In the first place, it demonstrated very clearly 



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THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. 137 

that the Dutch were strategists of no mean order; and, in the 
second place, they proved themselves to be most excellent warriors. 
They are perhaps the best marksmen in the world. Whenever an 
Englishman was seen to lift his head above the rocks, he was killed, 
and, after the battle, an examination of the field was had, and it 
was discovered that a very large percentage of the English were 
flhot through the head. 

At the same time there arose in the minds of the Dutch the 
idea that they were unconquerable. At this time, Mr. Gladstone 
was in power, and he concluded to withdraw from any further con- 
test with these Boers, and their liberty was finally accorded to 
them, in the year 1884, in what was known as the London Conven- 
tion. Gladstone was a great home-ruler. He was never noted for 
a vigorous foreign policy, and to carry out the principles of home 
rule and to extend the franchise to English subjects, it became 
necessary, in his mind, to hold aloft the standard of liberty 
everywhere. What he would do for the unfortunate peasant who 
twenty years ago in England did not possess the franchise, he 
would aim, in some measure, to do abroad. To hold foreign 
peoples in arbitrary subjection was inconsistent with the advocacy 
•of those great principles of universal franchise which it was his 
glory to advocate. 

The Dutch would now have been permitted to get along in 
their own indifferent way, and lead the life most congenial to them, 
had it not been for some geological accidents by which the great 
gold fields of the Transvaal were opened. In 1886, came the dis- 
covery of gold in great quantities. With the discovery of gold 
came a great influx of population, especially English, and Johan- 
nesburg became a great mining center in which tens of thousands 
of people took up their abode. In the course of time the Uitland- 
ers, as the Boers called them, became more numerous than the 
Dutch themselves. Especially was this true of the voting popula- 
tion which is said to be in a proportion of two to one, in favor of 
the foreigners. The Uitlanders, very naturally, found obstacles 
in matters of government, and undertook to remove them. In the 
first place, they would naturally be free traders, desiring to secure 
their necessaries as cheaply as possible. On the other hand, the 
Dutch maintained a high tariff, not simply for the purpose of en- 
couraging any industries which they had in view, but for the pur- 



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138 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

pose of raising as much revenue as possible. The administration 
of justice, indeed all affairs relating to the government, were car- 
ried on in the Dutch language. Such a condition of affairs as this 
has, perhaps, never existed in the history of the world, a condition 
in which a majority of the people, superior in all that relates to 
civil progress and material prosperity, should become subject to an 
unprogressive race. The Uitlanders preferred to consider them- 
selves colonists, entitled to the same [rights and privileges as the 
Boers. The Boers, on the other hand, contended that they were a 
separate and distinct nationality; that the colonization period was 
past, and that they occupied the same position as the great nations 
of the earth. The Uitlanders contended that their position was 
analogous to tens of thousands who inhabited the United States, in 
colonial times, and who were admitted to all the rights and polit- 
ical privileges of the people, on the ground that they were colonists. 

Strained relations, therefore, continued to develop as early as 
1890, and there has been a constant demand for fuller political 
recognition on the part of the Uitlanders, and a stolid resistance 
on the part of the Boers. Such a relationship inverts all our 
theories of political equality, and subjects a progressive race to 
restraints and political servitude which they very naturally resent. 
If the Uitlanders were admitted to the full political rights of the 
Boers, then the latter must become the inferior and subordinate 
race, notwithstanding they regarded it as their own country in 
which they were entitled to all the prerogatives of an independent 
nation. In these strained relations, the utmost care was not taken 
on either side. Difficulties naturally arose, and a multitude of 
grievances were finally set forth by the Uitlanders, and the mother 
government was petitioned to intercede in their behalf. 

In the midst of these contentions, there was a very strong in- 
clination on the part of the Boers to take up another trek. They 
would go north into the Matabele land. They would go where they 
would be free to enjoy their own institutions, and their own quiet, 
undisturbed lives without any interference from the English. At 
the time they were evolving the idea of another migration in their 
minds, Europe was busily engaged in partitioning Africa among 
the great powers. The Matabele land, on the north of the Trans- 
vaal, had already attracted the great millionaire and South African 
promoter, Mr. Cecil Rhodes. He saw that the land was rich in its 



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THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. 139 

mineral and agricultural resources, and urged upon the English 
government the necessity of establishing a form of government 
and of promoting colonization schemes. To his proposal England 
turned a deaf ear. But Rhodes was not to be baffled. He applied 
to England for a charter, and incorporated an enormous company 
with a capital of some ten millions ot dollars. English settlers 
were invited into the country, mining and prospecting were carried 
on, and the natives were crowded back as the demands and re- 
sources of the country made it imperative that the English should 
have a fuller sway. It thus happened that the Boers of the Trans- 
vaal became, so to speak, hemmed in. The English government 
possessed colonies, now, to the south, and the chartered company 
owned an immense country to the north, a country which has sub- 
sequently been known as Rhodesia, in honor of the president of 
the chartered company, Mr. Cecil Rhodes. The Matabeles in time 
became troublesome, and Mr. Rhodes found it necessary to enlist a 
number of soldiers, more than eleven hundred, under the leader- 
ship of Dr. Jameson. The Matabeles were driven back, and Jame- 
son and his soldiers were masters of the situation. Mr. Rhodes 
now conceived the idea of forcing England to assume the attitude 
of a protectorate over her subjects in the Transvaal. An issue 
was to be made, and, after a crisis had been engineered, it was 
believed that England would be forced to intercede in the interest 
of peace and the protection of her snbjects against the aggres- 
sions of the Boers. The Uitlanders, at Johannesburg, were con- 
stantly holding meetings, and were arousing public sentiment, and 
the agitation among them became very general. They had shipped 
arms into the country, and in some measure prepared themselves 
for an uprising. Word was sent to Dr. Jameson that the Uitland- 
ers were now prepared to strike for their liberty. He was to take 
the initiative, on the north, and invade the Boer country, while 
they would attack the government of the Boers, on the south. The 
appeal to Dr. Jameson was for immediate action. He was made to 
believe that the war was on; and, without any instructions from 
Mr. Rhodes, though he acted in consonance with the plans which 
Mr. Rhodes intended should be ultimately carried out, he rushed 
with his force into the Boer country. Jameson and his men were 
at once cut off by the strategy of the Boers who took them priso- 
ners after a number had been killed in the contest. Jameson had 



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140 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

been made the dupe of the Uitlanders, the agitators in Johannes- 
burg, who, after inducing him to make these aggressive move- 
ments, left him entirely to himself. The raid thus became a ridicu- 
lous failure, and Jameson and his fellow-troopers became, through- 
out the would, largely the objects of ridicule. The trial and pun- 
ishment of the offenders clearly indicated that while England did 
not endorse it, she looked very charitably upon it, and the fifteen 
months imprisonment of Dr. Jameson clearly demonstrated that 
England was disposed to condone, as much as possible, such a gross 
national offense. 

This failure, on the part of the raiders, and Uitlanders of 
Johannesburgh, turned the tide for awhile in favor of the Dutch. 
The raid occurred in 1896, and for more than three years the Boers 
became masters of the situation. But the agitation grew greater. 
The political conditions were not only burdensome to the English, 
but they became well nigh intolerable. They were surrounded by 
Boer soldiers who patroled the entire country round about, and 
created a feeling among the Uitlanders that they were somewhat 
subject to a quasi or sort of military government. The English 
government, however, declared constantly its intention to maintain 
a conciliatory policy toward South Africa and to regain the reforms 
desired by friendly means. These assurances were given out by 
Mr. Chamberlain as late as March, the present year. A change, 
however, was made in the appointment of a high Commissioner to 
South Africa, when Sir Alfred Milner was appointed to that office. 
It became at once manifest to the Dutch, when he took up the agi- 
tation with the newspapers, that he evidently had a mission. 
His telegraphic dispatches were of the jingo type, and he became, 
not a concilatory factor, but, an agitator himself on the side of the 
Uitlanders. The Boers felt at once that in him, Mr. Chamberlain 
was showing his hand, and that he was determined to create a 
crisis which would make a conflict imperative. The Dutch became 
now more resentful than ever. The animosity toward the English 
was intense, and the feeling of resistance became wellnigh uni- 
versal. The paramount question through all the discussions lead- 
ing up to the present war was that of the franchise. If the Dutch 
made the franchise universal and admitted on easy terms the Uit- 
landers to its full enjoyment, they simply surrendered their national 
identity. It was not easy to hit upon a compromise, although the 



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THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. 141 

Boers offered better terms for naturalization, and, finally, under 
pressure, diminished the period of residence in that country from 
fourteen to five years. The terms, however, of naturalization were 
such as to force Englishmen, and other foreigners, to alienate 
themselves from the mother country. Of course, the idea of citi- 
zenship in the Boer republic in preference to that of the British 
Empire, was merely for temporary purposes, — was, in fact, a sub- 
terfuge to which, after all, few Uitlanders were very willing to 
resort, and the concessions now made by President Eruger did not 
satisfy the English government. The question of the franchise 
was set aside by Mr. Chamberlain, and the question of suzerainty 
brought forward. This question was one that offered an easier 
solution of so difficult a problem. Were not the Boers, after all, 
subjects of Great Britain? They were subjects of Great Britain 
when they inhabited Cape Colony. And was it not a legal and tech- 
nical principle of international law that a man did not lose his 
citizenship simply by migrating from his native land? Were the 
Boers not subjects of Great Britain when they took the Transvaal? 
Did they not, as subjects, do so, with full recognition of the para- 
mount authority of their mother country? While these discussions 
were going on, England was amassing troops on the frontier, pre- 
paring herself to enforce whatever demands she might choose to 
make later on. In the meantime, the Dutch had not been wise. 
The irritation in the administration of the law had become a source 
of enmity between the Uitlanders and the Boers. A man by the 
name of Edgar had been arrested and shot, and the story of his 
unjust treatment was circulated and repeated in the most sensa- 
tional manner. Again, there were many private interests to be 
adjudicated. The relationship between the miners and the govern- 
ment was to be established. Rights of private property were set 
up to be adjudicated by the judges; and, although these judges 
belonged to the Boers, the government began to mistrust even 
them, and by law undertook to control the judgments of the courts, 
placing the final adjudication of all matters of private rights in 
the hands of the Dutch parliament, rather than leaving them where 
they are left by all civilized nations— in the hands of the judiciary. 
It will be said that, in the strained relationship between the 
Boers and the English, the Boers were not wise. But mad men are 
never wise, and the Boers had been enraged: they had been goaded 



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142 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

by the Jameson raid, and by the open insults which they felt that 
Sir Alfred Milner was constantly heaping upon them, in order that 
the conditions might be pressed into a crisis which would force 
the intervention of England. England had not declared war, but 
she did what would be equivalent, in any other country on earth, to 
a declaration of war. So that the declaration, or ultimatum itself, 
and the question of who fired the first shot, became merely matters 
of detail. England forced the crisis. The impartial historian of 
the future will review the matter, perhaps, with more candor, 
and, perhaps, with more justice than partisans on either side at 
present. The war is now on, and it is a war, from all appearances, 
of greater magnitude than any that has been waged since the 
Franco-Prussian war of 1870-71. It will cost thousands of lives, 
and millions upon millions of treasure, and what seems to be more 
unfortunate than all, it will undoubtedly create a race prejudice, if 
not intense hatred among the Dutch in South Africa, that will give 
the English greater trouble than any they have experienced for 
years among their colonists. While England has been perhaps, of 
all colonial empires, the fairest and the most just of any on earth, 
it has nevertheless its faults. There can be little doubt, however, 
but that the country itself will be benefited by a change of govern- 
ment. But it will be said, in answer to these statements, that it is 
the old argument by which the means is justified by the end. 

But it is not a question of justification. It is rather one of 
explanation. The end must certainly aid us in weighing all the 
questions that have arisen in this unfortunate conflict, pro and con, 
and enable us to determine as correctly as one may determine 
political questions of that character, where the right and where 
the wrong lay. At the outset the Boers have shown themselves to 
be excellent strategists, but England cannot repeat the policy of 
Majuba Hill. She cannot surrender, and will not yield in her 
determination to carry on the contention to a finish. There can 
be but one result, and that is the overthrow of the South African 
Republic, the establishment in its stead of a British colony, and, it 
may be, that this colony will lead to a confederation of all South 
Africa. And thus the work of anglicizing the Dark Continent is 
moving rapidly on, and England will play the part, in the future, 
that she has played in the past— the part of the foremost colonizer 
in the world. 



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EDITOR'S TABLE. 



A BUSINESS VIEW OP THE WORD OP WISDOM. 

There are at least two ways to look upon the instructions that 
are given in the revelation. If the question should be asked, Why do 
you observe the commandment generally known as the word of wis- 
dom? it is probable that there would be various answers. One doe* 
it out of principle, because it is a command of God, and he knows 
that by obeying, he will be benefitted in health; he has faith that 
the promises will be given to him, and that he shall run and not 
faint. Another looks upon it in an economic light, having perhaps 
less faith, but being possessed of business acumen, he obeys be- 
cause it pays — it saves money. Young men should remember that 
both views are good. The first is the best, of course, for it covers 
the whole ground, it includes all the benefits of the second. But if 
you prefer to look upon the money side, well and good. You will 
gain value for all your effort, even looking at the subject thus. Sav- 
ing money is a virtue in itself; and, if it can be done by simply 
obeying a command of God, which, besides, promises other rich 
blessings, is it not doubly worth your while? 

The following is told by Gollis P. Huntington, and gives an idea 
of how he gained his first conception of the value of money, and 
shows the wisdom of saving it rather than spending it for some- 
thing of no special value. When he was a lad he, like many other 
country boys, had none too much spending money. There was to 
be a church festival in a nearby church which he much desired to 



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44 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

attend. He went to his father and asked him for a dollar, in order 
that he might attend the entertainment. His father replied, "If 
you really want to go to the festival, you will go out and make a 
dollar." 

The lad, who was destined to dazzle the world with his great 
railway and financial operations, recognized the justice and reason- 
ableness of the remark, and went out and made the dollar, working 
earnestly and devotedly at farm labor. 

"But," says Mr. Huntington, "when the night of the festival 
arrived, and I went up to my room to dress, I thought to myself: 
'Now, Tve worked too hard for that dollar to squander it on some- 
thing that will do me no special good/ I saved that dollar, and," 
continued the capitalist with a twinkle in his genial eyes, 'Tve never 
been without a dollar since." 

Smoking, drinking, chewing; are they of any special value to 
you? They are not; but, according to the command of God, are of 
great detriment. Then, when you are about to indulge, why not 
employ Mr. Huntington's argument: "I've worked too hard for that 
dollar to squander it on something that will do me no special good," 
(but rather an injury,) and save your dollar, and never be without 
money after? In addition, at least some of the promised blessings 
of the word of wisdom are likely to follow unsolicited. 

Recently, Mr. Huntington administered a rebuke to a gentle- 
man who entered his room smoking a cigar. This gentleman headed 
a committee which waited upon the financial magnate appealing 
for aid for some charitable institution. In presenting his plea, he 
waxed eloquent upon the signal manner in which Mr. Huntington 
had been blessed in worldly goods, and referred to the immense size 
of his fortune. 

"Yes," said Mr. Huntington, with a smile, "Fve got money, and 
have had lots of it; but do you know," and here his gaze rested full 
upon the gentleman who headed the committee, and who happened 
to be smoking a fragrant cigar, "I never had money to burn." 

Smoking is too common among young men. Why not stop it, 
and employ the argument of Mr. Huntington? It may make you 
wealthy. It will surely make you better. Do not burn your money, 
but save it, and by so doing gain the double advantage of obtaining 
both money and health, both temporal and spiritual blessings. . 



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BOOK REVIEW. 



Y. M. M. I. A. AND MISSIONARY HYMN AND TUNE BOOK. 

This is a collection of hymns and songs set to music and adapted 
especially for the use of Mutual Improvement Associations and mis- 
sionaries in their religious services and social entertainments. It 
contains some fifty-six songs which have come into popular use in 
the Church and Sabbath Schools and Mutual Improvement Associa- 
tions. The book has been compiled and arranged by Prof. E. Steph- 
ens, general music director for the Young Men's Mutual Improvement 
Associations and the leader of the Salt Lake Tabernacle choir. It is 
especially fitted in size for carrying about, and will, therefore, be- 
come popular with missionaries. George Q. Cannon & Sons Co., 
publishers, Salt Lake City; price, $3.00 per dozen. 



CHURCH CHRONOLOGY. 

We have received a copy of Church Chronology, second edition, 
revised and enlarged. It is a record of important events pertaining; 
to the history of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 
compiled by Andrew Jenson, Assistant Church Historian. The period 
covered is from the birth of Joseph Smith to the close of the year 
1898. In addition to the Regular chronology, it has an introduction 
containing diagrams of the First Presidency and their counselors, 
also of the council of the Twelve Apostles from the beginning unto 
the present time, with the dates of their entrance into office. Simi- 
lar diagrams are given of the first council of Seventies, the presid- 
ing bishopric, and qhurch historians and recorders. A novel feature 
is the publication of ordinations to the Holy Priesthood of leading 
men of the Church, intended to benefit all who desire to trace the 



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146 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

Priesthood which they hold, back to the Prophet Joseph. Bio- 
graphical notes, to this end, are given, which contain the ordinations 
of all the elders who have been sustained and are being susutained as 
the general authorities of the Church. In addition to the regular value 
of the work, to those who are interested in dates and statistics, it is 
published in an edition of 25,000 copies, and sold for the benefit of a 
church historian's office, soon to be built it is hoped, which shall be 
commensurate with the growing historical interests of the Church. 
Every purchaser, therefore, in buying the book, not only helps him- 
self to valuable data, but likewise aids in the building of a proper 
edifice for the important historical documents and offices of the 
Church. Deseret News Co., Salt Lake City, publishers; price, $1.25 



NOTES. 



To prevent evil is like doing good; to prevent good is doing evil. 

- Heaven never helps the man who will not act. — Sophocles. 

Water, falling day by day, 
Wears the hardest rock away. 

The secret in success is to do all you can without thought of fame. 
—Addison. 

He that revenges knows no rest; 
The meek possess a peaceful breast. 

To be thrown upon one's own resources is to be cast into the very 
lap of fortune.— Franklin. 

Worth makes the man, and want of it the chump; 
To win: Lay hold, hang on and hump. 



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NOTES. 147 

Give a boy enough love for any calling or place in life which he 
aspires to fill, and he will win it. 

The talent of success is nothing more than doing what you can do 
well, and doing well whatever you do, without a thought of fame. — 
Longfellow. 

There is no road to success but through a clear, strong purpose. A 
purpose underlies character, culture, position, attainment of whatever 
sort.— T. T. Munger. 

Fight hard against hasty temper. Anger will come, but resist it 
strongly. A spark may set a house on fire. A fit of passion may give 
you cause to mourn all the days of your life. Never revenge an injury. 

If you have an enemy, act kindly toward him, and make him your 
friend. You may not win him over at once, but try again. Let one 
kindness be followed by another, till you have compassed your end. By 
little and little, great things are completed. 

Mankind worships success, but thinks too little of the means by 
which it is attained — what days and nights of watching and weariness, 
how year after year has dragged on, and seen the end still far off; all 
that counts for little, if the long struggle does not close in victory. — 
H. M. Field. 

Life pulsates with chances. They may not be dramatic or great, 
but they are important to him who would get on in the world. Do not 
think that opportunities come to others and not to you. Fortune visits 
every healthy, determined soul many times; but, if she does not find it 
ready for its opportunity, she snatches her gift away and gives it to 
another. 

The goal of an education: The New York Tribune speaks of a 
student who asked the president of Oberlin college if he could not take 
a shorter course than that prescribed by the institution. "Oh, yes," was 
the reply, "but that depends upon what you want to make of yourself. 
When God wants to make an oak, he takes one hundred years, but 
when he wants to make a squash he takes six months." 



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IN LIGHTER MOOD. 



A teacher at Garden City said to her primary class the other day; 
"If your father gave your mother $7 today and $8 tomorrow what 
would she have?" 

And the small boy over in the corner replied, "She would have a 

fit." — Kansas City Journal. 

mm* 

It was a Connecticut boy who surprised his teacher in reading the 
other day by his interpretation of the sentence: "There is a worm; do 
not tread on him." He read slowly and hesitatingly, with that droning 
intonation and misplaced emphasis peculiar to the young idea when it is 
just starting to shoot: "There is a warm doughnut; tread on him." 

• ♦ * 

Farmer: "If I were as lazy as you Fd go and hang myself in my 
barn." 

Tramp; "No, you, wouldn't." 
Farmer: "Why wouldn't I?" 
Tramp: "Ef you was as lazy as me you wouldn't have no barn." 

• * • 

His wife: "And you are to defend that shoplifter?" 
The lawyer: "My dear, she isn't a shoplifter. She was formerly,, 
but she has saved so much money in the last ten years that she has be- 
come a kleptomaniac." 

• • • 

The New York Tribune prints an amusing story of the English Ad- 
miral De Horsey, who, some years ago, was admiral of the North Atlantic 
Squadron. He had been dining on shore at Port Royal, Jamaica. 

On returning to his flagship after dinner, his way to the boat led 
him across the barrack square. A black sentry of one of the West India 
regiments halted him at the gate with, "Who goes darr Great was the 
admiral's annoyance to discover that he had neglected to get the pass- 
word before leaving the ship. 

That's all right," he said, carelessly, hoping to overcome the man's 
scruples by his indifference; "you know who I am." 

"Dunno nobody, sah," replied the colored soldier, pompously; "you 
can t go in dar." 

"Why, I'm Admiral De Horsey." 
Well you can't go in. I don't care if you's Admiral De Donkey* 



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OUR WORK, 



A METHOD OP ROLL CALL. 



In many of the large associations, the matter of calling the roll on 
every night of meeting has become a source of mnch annoyance and 
waste of time. Various means have been adopted to overcome these 
objections. The best method that has yet come to light was presented 
at one of the late missionary meetings, by a model class of the Twentieth, 
Salt Lake City, ward. It consists in the use of "cards" and "attendance 
lists." At the first meeting of the season, in a new association, or at any 
meeting of an association already organized, a card'is distributed to each 
and every member of the association present, which card reads as fol- 
lows: 



WARD Y. M. M. I. A. 



Name. 



No.. 



MEMBER'S CARD. 



(Cross out corresponding number 
on roll call every Tuesday.) 



The secretary of the association enters the names in the order of the 
numbers upon the roll book, and the members retain the cards. The at- 
tendance list, in a tab, is passed around from one member to another, 
each member marking upon this attendance list a cross or a dash upon 



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160 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

the particular number corresponding with the card handed to the secre- 
tary. 

This attendance list is in the following form, and, as may be"seen> 
contains two hundred numbers: 

ATTENDANCE LIST. 

As the Tab is passed around, please mark out the number you have 
received. If you have no number, come to the secretary at the close of 
session and he will give you one corresponding to that on the roll book. 
Place a dash over your number if prepared, and a cross if unprepared. 



1 


26 


51 


76 


101 


126 


151 


176 


2 


27 


52 


77 


102 


127 


152 


177 


3 


28 


53 


78 


103 


128 


153 


178 


4 


29 


54 


79 


104 


129 


154 


179 


5 


30 


55 


80 


105 


130 


155 


180 


6 


31 


56 


81 


106 


131 


156 


181 


7 


32 


57 


82 


107 


132 


157 


182 


8 


33 


58 


83 


108 


133 


158 


183 


9 


34 


59 


84 


109 


134 


159 


184 


10 


35 


60 


85 


110 


135 


160 


185 


11 


36 


61 


86 


111 


136 


161 


186 


12 


37 


62 


87 


112 


137 


162 


187 


13 


38 


63 


88 


113 


138 


163 


188 


14 


39 


64 


89 


114 


139 


164 


189 


16 


40 


65 


90 


115 


140 


166 


190 


16 


41 


66 


91 


116 


141 


166 


191 


17 


42 


67 


92 


117 


142 


167 


192 


18 


43 


68 


93 


118 


143 


168 


193 


19 


44 


69 


94 


119 


144 


169 


194 


20 


46 


70 


95 


120 


146 


170 


195 


21 


46 


71 


% 


121 


146 


171 


1% 


22 


47 


72 


97 


122 


147 


172 


197 


23 


48 


73 


98 


123 


148 


173 


198 


24 


49 


74 


99 


124 


149 


174 


199 


26 


50 


75 


100 


126 


150 


175 


200 



A colored pencil attached to the tab may be used in marking out 
the numbers; or two pencils of different colors may be used to indicate 
"prepared" or "unprepared." If this latter method of marking is pre- 
ferred, the instructions on the attendance list should so indicate. 

This method of calling the roll is only suggested to the associations 
by the General Board, and is not recommended as a rule to be generally 



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OUR WORK. 151 

followed. Cards and attendance lists may be obtained at any printing 
office at very reasonable rates, especially if it should be decided by a 
stake to introduce the system in all its associations, when the printing 
could be done at one time, and cards could be furnished at 15 cents per 
hundred, and roll call pads, containing fifty sheets, for about the same 
price. 



A REBATE ON THE ERA. 



At a recent meeting of the General Board, it was decided to return 
to every association twenty-five cents on each subscription to the Era 
obtained in the ward where such association exists; provided, five per 
cent of the total Church population of such ward were secured as sub- 
scribers for the magazine. 

Last year this offer was made to the stakes, but was found to be 
somewhat unsatisfactory, and, in a measure unjust, because one or two 
associations which failed in securing the required number of subscribers 
were the cause of the whole stake failing in obtaining its rebate, not- 
withstanding many of the wards in such stake had fully performed their 
part. It has, therefore, been decided to offer to the wards the. same re- 
bate, where they secure the required number, that was offered to the 
stakes last year. The Era is already giving a rebate of twenty-five 
cents, to every subscriber in that it furnishes a manual free; and by the 
expenditure of a little effort on the part of the officers,an additional twenty- 
five cents may be obtained on each subscriber for the benefit of the local 
associations. It is an easy and effectual way of securing current expenses, 
and we hope to have it to say that over $1000 has been refunded to the 
associations on Volume 3. Who will.be first? 



THE NECESSITY OP OFFICERS' MEETINGS. 



Letters have been received from some of the M. I. A. missionaries 
now laboring in the field, complaing that some of the stake superinten- 
dencies are not thoroughly awake to the necessity of holding regular 
stake officers' meetings. In stakes of this class, also, as might be sup- 



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152 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

posed, the local association officers are not urged to hold snch meetings. 
The results to the cause of mutual improvement are disastrous, or not at 
all satisfactory, Stake officers are again urged to comply with this re- 
quirement, and to hold their stake meetings at least twice each month, 
or, better, once every week. It is impossible to keep pace with the 
progress of the work unless such meetings are held. It is here that the 
officers obtain an understanding of the work, where methods are dis- 
cussed, appointments made, reports given, and the general condition of 
the associations, their wants and failings, as well as advantages, are dis- 
cussed, and plans made for the betterment of associations which are be- 
hind, and the adoption of such methods as will generally advance all the 
organizations. 

It is absolutely necessary for the officers of the local associations to 
meet together, and in like manner discuss their plans and methods, and 
also the method of presenting their lessons, in order that they may have 
thrifty and prosperous gatherings. The time is past when all that 
was required of a president was to be present at the meeting and preside 
without doing anything further for the benefit of the association. He 
must now study, plan, and arrange his affairs so as to interest his member- 
ship and set his aids to work. This can be done in no way so effectively as 
by holding regular weekly officers' meetings. 



COLLECTION DAYS FOR THE GENERAL IMPROVEMENT 

FUND. 



Stake officers as well as officers of local associations are reminded 
that the first week in December is collection week for the general im- 
provement fund. This matter should be immediately considered by the 
stake superintendencies, who should thoroughly .'and properly instruct the 
presidents of associations to exert their utmost efforts to get every 
member to pay this small subscription during the weeks set apart for 
the collection, namely, the first week in December and the first week in 
February. It devolves first upon every officer himself to comply with 
this requirement, when he may consistently ask every member to do like- 
wise. All the money thus collected is to be sent to the treasurer of each 
stake who will forward the whole amount, as received, to the General 
Treasurer, Thomas Hull, Salt Lake City, Utah. The fund is used solely for 



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OUR WORK. 153 

mutual improvement purposes, and is accounted for at the officers' meet- 
ings at the annual conferences. Last season, the amount was reduced 
from fifty cents to twenty-five cents and more than double the number 
paid last year than paid the year before. It is to be hoped that the 
number this year may again be doubled, because we recognize that if 
the membership can be induced to help the cause financially, even to this 
small amount, they will take a greater interest in the progress and 
welfare of our associations. Again we urge the stake presidencies and 
the presidents of associations to take hold of this matter with a deter- 
mination to accomplish better results than ever before. 



ADVICE TO WRITERS. 



The following suggestions to young writers, was made among others 
some months ago, by the editor of the Cosmopolitan, and are worthy of 
special study: 

'Two chief defects seem to present themselves in your manuscript. 
First: Its uninteresting character. Second: A rambling disconnected 
style. Both arise, in a great measure, from the same cause. You failed, 
in beginning your manuscript, to think out clearly just what you desired 
to do. On the contrary, you evidently took up your pen and proceeded 
to put on paper such things as might chance to come into your mind 
while in the process of writing. 

'The first essential for good writing is clear thinking. If you do not 
know what you want to say, the chances are strongly against you saying 
it. Consequently, before beginning your description, you should have 
taken a sheet of paper and jotted down in regular order what seemed to 
you the important points of interest at your disposal. 

'The chief labor in writing is thinking. This must be done before 
you put the result on paper. If you had made any efforts to find the 
points of interest in the subject chosen, you would probably have dis- 
covered that you had taken a theme that was of trivial importance and 
of little interest to you. You cannot make soup out of stones alone. There 
are, in this world, an endless number of subjects of the widest interest. 
You must be familiar with some; and certainly can become familiar with 
many more. Select something that is worth while. If you find, after 
thinking it over, that your information is insufficient, visit a library, 
make a thorough study of the matter of which you are about to treat, 



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154 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

and then, with the fullest information in your possession, set about a 
careful analysis of all your points connected with it, using large brackets 
against the main heading, dividing it into such general headings as the 
subject seems capable of, subdividing these headings into minor ones, 
and these minor ones into still further ramifications of the subject. You 
will then have before you a bird's-eye view of your theme. You may 
now proceed to select what seem to you the chief points of interest, re- 
jecting those which are unimportant or trivial. 

"Your next thought will naturally be how to build up this informa- 
tion in a manner best calculated to attract and hold the attention of the 
reader. You will accordingly make a new group, marked 1, 2, 3, etc., 
in the order in which you propose to treat them. Then proceed to write 
your composition. You will find the labor a comparatively easy one, be- 
cause the work of preparation will have been done thoroughly. 

"When the last sentence of your composition has been written, ge 
back over the work and make a study of the faults of rhetoric, looking 
carefully to see if you have duplicated your ideas. Cut out unsparingly 
unnecessary words and phrases. Study how to express yourself with 
greater force, with more grace and elegance. Above all things, seek 
clearness of expression. 

"After you have done this; read your manuscript over again in order 
to get an idea of the general impression it would make on the mind of 
the average reader. Determine whether you have omitted anything of 
importance to your argument or description; and see if by any new 
arrangement a better effect might be produced upon the reader. 

"Then go over it to correct any faults of grammar or spelling. Final- 
ly, if you have the perseverence necessary for really good work, you 
will lock up your newly completed essay in a desk so that it will be hid- 
den from view, and sit down and make a new analysis of the subject with- 
out regard to the old one, repeating all the processes that have been 
described for your direction. You will be surprised at the marked im- 
provement that your second paper will present over the first. 

"Successful writing means work. * * * * Great geniuses do 
not have the power to throw off masterpieces. They are men who labor 
patiently, sometimes developing one thought through weary months. Upon 
one occasion, Daniel Webster, after an apparently extemporaneous speech 
in the United States Senate, was congratulated upon the genius that en- 
abled him to use an expression which seemed to his auditors to be par- 
ticularly felicitous. 'Extemporaneous?' he replied. *Why, that was the 
work of my three weeks' fishing trip last summer;' thus illustrating the 
saying that genius is an infinite capacity for taking pains." 



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EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 

BY THOMAS HULL, SECRETARY OF THE GENERAL BOARD OF Y. M. M. I. A. 



October 2Qth, 1899: A great battle is fought between the British and 
the Boers at Glencoe. The British charge up an almost inaccessible hill 
and drive the Boers from their position. The losses are heavy on both 
sides. The British general, William P. Symons is mortally wounded. 

21st: The British win another battle at Elandslaagte. 

22nd: The Boers are again attacking Glencoe with a force of 9000 
commanded by General Joubert and President Kruger in person. 

24th: President George Q. Cannon is attacked with pneumonia in 
New York City. * * * The British retire from Glencoe. 
There are persistent rumors in London of serious reverses to the British 
forces. 

25th: President McEinley issues the usual Thanksgiving day proc- 
lamation, designating Thursday, November 30th, as a day of thanks- 
giving for the nation. * * * . The report of the director of 
the mint shows the world's production of gold and silver during the year 
1898 to be as follows: Gold, $276,519,900, and silver 155,594,272 ounces 
fine. The United States, South African Republic and Australia, produced 
73 per cent of the product of the world in value. * * * General 
Symons the British officer wounded in the battle at Glencoe dies of his 
wound. 

30th: Apostle Marriner W. Merrill is chosen president of the Cache 
Stake of Zion, and he selects Joseph Morrell and Isaac Smith as his coun- 
selors. * * * Announcement is made in Washington of the 
engagement of Admiral Dewey to Mrs. W. B. Hazen, widow of General 
Hazen, formerly chief signal officer of the United States Army. * * * 
Fighting continues daily at Ladysmith between the British and Boers. 

31st: The British meet a serious defeat near Ladysmith. Two 
regiments and a battery of six guns are surrounded by the Boers, and, 



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156 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

after heavy losses and exhausting all their ammunition, are obliged to 
surrender. 

November 1st: From the report of the adjutant-general of the army, 
Brigadier-General Corbin, made public today, it is learned that the army 
is practically at its maximum strength. The military forces now in the 
service of the United States are as follows: regular army, 64,586; volun- 
teers, 34,574; total, 99,160. The monthly statement of the public debt, 
issued today, shows that at the close of business October 31, 1899, the 
debt, less cash in the treasury, amounted to $1,146,629,581, a decrease 
during the month of $2,766,199. This decrease is accounted for by the 
increase in the amount of the cash on hand, and in the increased redemp- 
tion of national bank notes: 

2nd: A voluminous preliminary report on the Philippines, signed by 
J. G. Sherman, George Dewey, Charles Denby and Dean C. Worcester, is 
submitted to President McEinley by the Philippine Commission. After 
briefly telling how the commission conducted the task imposed upon it, 
the report reviews at length the various rebellions in the islands up to the 
breaking out of the Spanish-American war; shows the relations existing be- 
tween Dewey and Aguinaldo, proving that never at any time were the 
Filipinos oftered independence by any representative of the American 
government, and that no alliance was ever entered into between the 
Americans and the rebels. The report goes on to show that from the 
time Aguinaldo arrived in the islands his determination was to attack the 
Americans and that many attempts were made to obtain arms, the lack 
of which alone prevented such attack. The many reforms undertaken 
by the Americans are traced, showing the improvement made in affairs 
in Manila, the establishment of native law courts there; the inauguration 
of municipal government in many places; the institution of public 
schools with an attendance of 6,000 students. The failure of the attempt 
at self-government in the[island of Negros, where it was undertaken under 
the most favorable conditions, and the necessity of American control 
there is shown, and on this point the report says: "Here the natives had 
adopted the extension of the American system, had adopted a local form 
of government, including a congress, and had raised the American flag. 
They believed themselves capable of managing their own affairs and 
asked for a battalion of troops to hold in check a mountainous band of fanat- 
ics. The battalion was furnished, but the people proved unable to carry 
out their programme, owing to ill-feeling among their own officials. The 
Americans remained popular. At the request of General Otis, anew and 
simplified scheme of government for the island, giving the people a large 
voice in their affairs, but placing an American in full control, was put into 



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EVENTS OF TEE MONTH. 157 

operation. It brought about satisfaction, and public order is better in the 
island today than at any time during the last twenty years. The flat 
failure of this attempt to secure an independent native government in 
Negros, conducted, as it was, under the most favorable circumstances, 
makes it apparent that here, as well as in the less favored provinces, a 
large amount of American control is at present absolutely essential to a 
successful administration of public affairs." The visits of Aguinaldo's 
envoys are discussed and it is stated that nothing was accomplished there- 
by, because those emissaries were without powers and came again and 
again merely for information. The commission says: "Courteous re- 
ception was accorded to the insurgent commissions and earnest appeals 
made to stop further bloodshed, all witnessing the spirit of patient con- 
ciliation, exhibited by the American commission in endeavoring to reach 
an amicable adjustment with the insurgents as well as the obduracy of 
Aguinaldo," and continues: "No better proof could be furnished that 
the primary object of this struggle is not, as is pretended, the liberty of 
the Filipino peoples, but the continuance of his own arbitrary and des- 
potic power. In any event the American people may feel confident that 
no effort was omitted by the commission to secure a peaceful end of the 
struggle, but the opportunities they offered and urged were all neglected, 
if not, indeed, spurned." The report reads as follows on the subjects 
named: 

THE PRESENT WAR. 

"Deplorable as war is, the one in which we are now engaged was 
unavoidable. We were attacked by a bold, adventurous and enthusiastic 
army. No alternative was left to us, except ignominious retreat. It is 
not to be conceived that any American would sanction the surrender of 
Manila to the insurgents. Our obligations to other nations and to the 
friendly Filipinos and to ourselves and our flag demand that force should 
be met with force. Whatever the future of the Philipines may be, there 
is no course open to us now except the prosecution of the war until the 
insurgents are reduced to submission. The commission is of the opinion 
that there has been no time since the destruction of the Spanish squadron 
by Admiral Dewey when it was possible to withdraw our forces from the 
islands either with honor to ourselves or with safety to the inhabitants." 
And further: "Should our power by any fatality be withdrawn the com- 
mission believe the government of the Philippines would speedily lapse into 
anarchy, which would excuse, if it did not necessitate the intervention of 
other powers and the eventual division of the islands among them. Only 
through American occupation, therefore, is the idea of a free self-govern- 



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158 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

ment and united Philippine commonwealth at all conceivable. And the 
indispensable need, from the Filipino point of view, of maintaining Ameri- 
can sovereignty over the archipelago is recognized by all intelligent Fil- 
ipinos, and even by those insurgents who desire an American protectorate. 
The latter, it is true, would take the revenues and leave us the responsi- 
bilities. Nevertheless they recognize the indubitable fact that the Fili- 
pinos cannot stand alone. Thus the welfare of the Filipinos coincides 
with the dictates of national honor in forbidding our abandonment of the 
archipelago." 

THE INABILITY OF THE PEOPLE TO MAINTAIN INDEPENDENT GOVERNMENT. 

"The masses of the people are uneducated. That intelligent public 
opinion on which popular government rests does not exist in the Philip, 
pines. And it cannot exist until education has elevated the masses, broad- 
ened their intellectual horizon and disciplined their faculty of judgment. 
And, even then, the power of self government cannot be assumed with- 
out considerable previous training and experience under the guidance 
and tutelage of an enlightened and liberal foreign power. For the bald 
fact is that the Filipinos have never had any experience in governing 
themselves." 

THE VALUE OP THE ISLANDS. 

The commission gives a general view of the value of the islands, 
their general richness in agricultural and forest products, their mineral 
wealth and their commanding geographical position. They state that 
the Philippines should soon become one of the great traders of the east. 
Manila is already connected by new steamship lines with Australia, India 
and Japan and she will become the natural terminus of many other lines 
when a ship canal connects the Atlantic with the Pacific. It cannot be 
doubted that commerce will greatly increase and the United States will 
obtain a large share in this. * * * The announcement is 
made that the three ex-cruisers of the Spanish navy at Manila — the Ida 
de Cuba, hla de Luzon, and Don Juan de Austria — were ready to proceed 
to Manila and join Admiral Watson's squadron. The reconstruction of 
the vessels has been under the supervision of Lieutenant Hobson. The 
vessels will be placed on blockade duty in the Philippines. The three 
cruisers were sunk at Cavite by the ships of Dewey, and the estimated 
cost of repairing the ships exclusive of armament is $304000. * * * 
Aguinaldo has issued a proclamation announcing that the American Con- 



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EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 159 

gross will meet in December to decide whether the "imperialist policy" 
and "this bloody work" are to be continued. He exhorts his soldiers to 
conduct themselves so that Congress will consider them worthy of inde- 
pendence, and requests the priests to abstain from politics and to redeem 
the church from the name the misdeeds of the friars have given it. 

3rd; At a Cabinet meeting in Washington the preliminary report 
of the Philippine Commission is approved; the status of our insular pos- 
sessions in relation to the postal union is discussed, and the question of a 
civil government for Cuba receives attention. 

5th. An important move is made in the Philippine campaign. A 
fleet of transports and gun-boats leaves Manila for Dagupan one of the 
insurgent strongholds in the north of Luzon, and it is believed that the 
purpose of the expedition is to move down the Dagupan-Manila railroad 
toward Tarlac, in order to prevent Aguinaldo's forces from making 
another base farther north. 

6th: At Bacolod, in the' island 'of Negros, the autonomous govern- 
ment of the Filipinos is established. General Smith, governor of the 
island of Negros, administers the oath of office to the judge of the su- 
preme court, who, in turn, swears in the governor, three judges, twelve 
councilmen, the auditor and the secretary of the interior. The natives 
of the entire island attend the ceremony. The officers from Iloilo are also 
present Three days of feasting will follow in celebration of the new 
government. 

7th: Ezra Thompson, the Republican candidate, is elected mayor of 
Salt Lake City. * * * General Wheaton's expedition to the 
north of Luzon, lands at Dagupan. * * * The United States 
cruiser Charleston which has been patrolling the northern coast of Luzon, 
was wrecked on a reef off the northwest coast. All on board were saved* 

8th: The following cablegram is received at the War Department 
from General Otis: 

Manila, November 7th. 
The following received from Negros, dated today: 

To the President of the United States: 

The civil governor, judges and secretaries who con- 
stitute the new government of this island, in taking 
possession thereof this day, have the high honor of affec- 
tionately saluting your excellency, and trust that in the 
inauguration of this form of government, based upon 
the liberal and democratic institutions which have made 
that great republic so grand and prosperous, that a 



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160 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

new era will open up to this region which will en- 
able it to reach the legitimate goal of its inspiration. 

Menecio Severilo. 

* * * it is officially announced that an agreement, subject to 
the approval of the United States, had been arrived at between Great 
Britain and Germany, by virtue of which the Samoan act is repealed and 
the islands of Upolu, Savaii and the small adjacent islands fall to Ger- 
many as free property, and the island of Tutuila and the subsidiary is- 
lands go to the United States. Great Britain, it is added, renounces any 
claim to the Samoan Islands, and Germany, in turn, renounces any claim 
to the Tonga Islands and to Savage Island in favor of Great Britain, and 
also cedes Chousel and San Isibel, the two eastern islands of the Solomon 
group with their insular surroundings to Great Britain. 

9th: Admiral Dewey and Mrs. Mildred Hazen are married in Wash- 
ington. * * * The war department has definite information 
locating Aguinaldo at Bayombong, to which place it is expected the in- 
surgent capital will be shifted and the efforts of the American military 
f orces will be directed towards that place. It is felt that the. war is Hear- 
ing an end. 

12th: The American forces under Colonel Bell entered Tarlac, the 
recent seat of the so-called Filipino government, without opposition. 
Aguinaldo with his army had fled. 

13th: Aguinaldo and his army are now surrounded by the Ameri- 
can forces and his capture seems certain. 

15th: Secretary of the Treasury L. J. Gage publishes the announce- 
ment that the treasury department is ready to purchase any part or all 
the $25,000,000 in government bonds of the 4 per cent funded loan of 
1907, or the 5 per cent loan of 1904. 

16th: The vigorous prosecution of the Philippine campaign con- 
tinues. General McArthur begins his northward advance from Tarlac 
and will press on to Bayombong. 



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IMPROVEMENT ERA. 



Vol. m. JANUARY, 1900. No. 3. 



EXPERIENCES IN THE LIFE OF PRESIDENT 
WILFORD WOODRUFF* 

BY ABRAHAM 0. WOODRUFF, OF THE QUORUM OF TWELVE APOSTLES. 



FIRST YEAR OF MISSIONARY LABOR-GUIDED BY A LIGHT 

FROM HEAVEN— SYSTEM OF SUMMARIZING 

THE YEAR'S WORK. 



[The first of a number of short sketches from the busy and crowded 
life of President Wilf ord Woodruff, promised in the prospectus for Vol. 
m, is here presented, to be followed by others which have been selected 
and compiled from his journals, by his son, Apostle A. 0. Woodruff, 
especially for the Era. — Editors.] 

President Wilf ord Woodruff kept a faithful journal from his 
boyhood until the last day of his life. In presenting to the readers 
of the Era this, the first article on this subject, I have chosen his 
record for the year 1835, his first year in the missionary field. 



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162 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

My reason for doing so is that the record for this year is indicative 
of the life which [followed, an evidence that the character of 
Wilf ord Woodruff was of an unchangeable nature, and that his love 
for God and his fellow-men, and his faith in the Gospel of Jesus 
Christ did not fluctuate. 

The first page in this day book reads as follows: 

"Home of Brother Wright, Seven miles east of Liberty, Clay 
Co., Mo., Jan. 13, 1835. 

"This is the first mission, or the commencement of my travels 
to preach the Gospel of Jesus Christ, on the 13th day of Jan., 1835. 
I commenced traveling in company with Harry Brown as my 
partner. We now intend, if the Lord will, to visit the Southern 
States. May God grant us wisdom and make us meet for our 
master's use and assist us to rightly divine the word of truth and 
render to every man his portion in due season, that our garments 
may be clean of the blood of this generation." 

During this year my father met for the first time the late 
President Abram 0. Smoot, my grandfather Smith, and many other 
men who became noted for their usefulness and love of the Gospel. 
Among the many interesting incidents of this year, the following 
is recorded under date of Sunday, Nov. 15: 

"Preached at Brother Clapp's on the attributes of God, and 
baptized five persons, then mounted our horses and rode to Clark's 
River. I was in company with Brother Seth Utley and four other 
brethren and two sisters. We rode to the creek but could not 
cross without swimming our horses, and a heavy rain had fallen 
the night and day before. Night was overtaking us and as it was 
dangerous for the sisters to attempt swimming their horses, we 
tried to head the creeks sufficiently to ford them. In the attempt, 
both the darkness and a heavy storm of wind and rain overtook us, 
and we lost our way. We had neither fire, light nor road, but 
were sitting astride our horses in rain and wind, creek, mud, water 
and tree tops. The sisters had more the appearance of fishermen 
than travelers. I thought of Paul's perils by water. But the Lord 
doth not forsake his Saints even in their severest troubles; for 
while we were in the woods, groping as the blind for the wall, 
suffering under the blast of wind and rain, suddenly a light shone 



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EXPERIENCES IN THE LIFE OF PREST. WOODRUFF. 163 

round about us without either sun, moon or stars, so that we were 
able to reach a house where we received directions and procured 
some torches to serve us as lights. We went on our way rejoicing 
although the rain and wind beat upon us and the darkness returned. 
We reached Mr. Henry Thomas' house at about 9 o'clock at night, 
without much harm, after being five hours in the storm, riding, as 
was judged, twenty miles, and fording creeks and branches twenty 
or more times without murmuring, either male or female, and felt 
to thank God for our preservation." 

Perhaps it would be of interest, especially to our missionaries, 
to present herewith a synopsis of my father's labors for 1835. 
He himself prepared it at the close of the year and from it we may 
compare the system of preaching the Gospel without purse and 
scrip in that day, with the system frequently adopted in later 
years: 

"On the night of the last day of December and of the year of 
our Lord, 1835, 1 perused my journal and found it to contain the 
following account of my travels and proceedings in the year 1835, 
commencing the 13th of January, 1835, making one year, twelve 
days excepted. 

"Traveled three thousand two hundred and forty-eight miles, 
divided in the following manner: from 13th of January to the 28th 
of June, traveled one thousand eight hundred and four miles while 
holding the office of a priest; two hundred and twelve miles in 
Missouri with Elder H. Brown; six hundred and fifty-six miles in 
the Arkansas Territory; six hundred and eight with Elder Brown 
and forty-eight alone; nine hundred and forty in Tennessee; seven 
hundred and sixty with Elder Warren Parish and one hundred and 
eighty alone. 

"Traveled from the 28th of June to the 31st of December, 
after holding the office of an elder, in the states of Kentucky and 
Tennessee, principally alone, one thousand four hundred and forty 
miles. 

"I held one hundred and seventy meetings, divided in the 
following manner: while a priest, ten with Elder Brown, fifty-six 
with Elder Parish, and fourteen alone. One hundred while holding 
the office of an elder, principally alone. 

"I baptized forty-three, eight while a priest and thirty-five 



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164 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

while an elder; three were Campbellite priests; was an assistant to 
Elder Brown while baptizing two in Arkansas; also assisted Elder 
Parish while baptizing eighteen persons in Tennessee and Kentucky. 

"I procured twenty-four subscribers for the Messenger and 
Advocate and two subscribers for the Star. 

"I procured seventy-three signers to the petition to the 
Governor of Missouri for redress of wrongs done The Church by the 
Jackson County mob, ten in Missouri, fifty-six in Arkansas and 
seven in Tennessee, while a priest. 

"I wrote eighteen letters, eight while a priest, ten while an 
elder, and received ten. 

"I ordained two teachers and one deacon. 

"I expelled seven members from The Church, but not while 
hope remained. 

"Held three debates. 

"Three companies in the form of mobs gathered together 
against me; at one time the company consisted of about five 
hundred men, led by a Baptist priest. 

"The before mentioned is the account of my proceedings of 
the year 1835, which had born its report to heaven of me and all 
other men, and could it not have borne more welcome news? Ah, 
it cannot be recalled. The sable shades of night have already 
spoken the departure of 1835, and the queen of the night is issuing 
forth in her brilliant light to welcome the dawn of 1836. Cod, 
enable my heart and hands to be clean for a year to come." 



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SPIRITUAL SIDE OF BURNS. 

BY C. W. NIBLEY. 



Why is the poet, Robert Burns, so universally honored? Here 
is a man dead more than a hundred years, and yet on each recur- 
ring 25th of January, throughout the English-speaking world, there 
are gathered together men and women who celebrate the day of his 
birth and who delight to do him honor. Surely he must be a re- 
markable man who has so long kept love in the hearts of the chil- 
dren of men. There is a secret here, if we might only find it. So 
many phases of his life, too, against him— his dissipation, his wrong 
associations! He is not loved and honored for these failings, but 
in spite of them. At this point of the world's history, the object 
all the world seems most to honor is wealth. The man who 
is the possessor of many dollars — and we do not much care how 
he got the dollars — is the man to whom the world now takes off its 
hat. I suppose in Burns' time, too, there was a similar feeling. 

The richest man in Edinburgh —how much above Burns was 
he? Doubtless he could scarcely afford to notice Burns. And yet 
now we ask, who was the richest man in Edinburgh? Who among 
the wealthy, was the wealthiest? Alas! we do not know; they are all 
long ago decently forgotten, as they should be. The temporal is 
ever the thing that perishes; it is the spiritual only that giveth life 
and lives. Even in the great field of politics, we can not remember 
who was Premier in Burns' time; or whether it was "Willie Pitt or 
Charley Fox," or both. 

Bums had a deep spiritual nature, and it is to that more than 
to all else to which I attribute the lasting quality of his work. He 
was not a mocker and scoffer, as he is often thought to have been, 



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166 IMPRO VEMENT ERA. 

but he had no patience with the cant and hypocrisy of his day. 
Neither could he accept the narrow creeds of the churches. 
Especially hateful to him was that Calvanistic idea of predestina- 
tion which destroyed the free agency of man. Hear how he 
satirized that doctrine in Holy Willie?* Prayer: 

Thou, wha in the heavens dost dwell, 
Wha, as it pleases best thyseP, 
Sends ane to heaven, and ten to hell, 

A' for thy glory, 
And no for ony gude or ill 

The/ve done afore thee'. 

On the other hand, we have in his Cotter's Saturday Night 
such a portrayal of the true spirit of religion as has been seldom 
given to this world. After he had written his Holy Wittifs Prayer 
he was persecuted by the local clergy, some of whom Burns 
considered were themselves guilty of evil. He justifies his course 
in a letter to a friend, in these lines: 

I own 'twas rash, an' rather hardy. 
That I, a simple, kintra bardie, 
Should meddle wi' a pack sae sturdy, 

Wha, if they ken me, 
Can easy, wi' a single wordie, 

Lowse h-11 upon me. 

But I gae mad at their grimaces, 
Their sighan, cantan, grace-prood faces, 
Their three mile prayers, an' hauf-mile graces, 

Their raxan conscience, 
Whase greed, revenge, an' pride disgraces 

Waur nor their nonsense. 

But lest he should be considered as ridiculing religion itself, 
he adds these lines which show forth the true spirit of the man: 

All hail, Religion! maid divine! 
Pardon a muse sae mean as mine, 
Who in her rough imperfect line 

Thus daurs to name thee; 
To stigmatize false friends of thine 

Can ne'er defame thee. 



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SPIRITUAL SIDE OF BURNS. 167 

Then we have such glimpses of love, tenderness, pathos, pity 
for the little hopping bird, when the cold winter storm is raging: 

Ilk happing bird, wee, helpless thing, 
That, in the merry months o' spring, 
Delighted me to hear thee sing, 

What comes o' thee? 
Whare wilt thou cow*r thy cluttering wing, 

An' close thy e'e? 

The spirit of forgiveness, too, is not wanting; listen to this: 

Then gently scan your brother man, 

Still gentler sister woman: 
Tho' they may gang a kennin wrang, 

To step aside is human: 
One point must still be greatly dark, 

The moving why they do it: * 

And just as lamely can ye mark, 

flow far perhaps they rue it. 

Who made the heart, 'tis He alone 

Decidedly can try us; 
He knows each chord — its various tone, 

Each spring, its various bias: 
Then at the balance let's be mute, 

We never can adjust it; 
What's done we partly may compute, 

But know not what's resisted. 

Burns has an eye to see through all sham and show. In an 
age when the nobility of Scotland were all but worshiped by the 
poorer classes, Burns refuses such homage unless the titled one is 
worthy thereof: 

Ye see yon Birkie ca'd a lord 
Wha struts and stares and 'a that, 
Tho' thousands worship at his word 
He's but a coof for a' that. 

I am told that in one of the text-books on moral philosophy, 
in use in the public schools of some of the states, the following 



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168 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

lines of our poet on "moral duty" are printed in one of the lessons: 

The great Creator to revere, 

Must sure become the creature, 
But still the preaching cant forbear, 

And ev'n the rigid feature: 
Yet ne'er with wits profane to range, 

Be complaisance extended; 
An Atheist's laugh's a poor exchange 

For Deity offended! 

When ranting round in pleasure's ring, 

Religion may be blinded; 
Or if she gie a random sting, 

It may be little minded; 
But when on life we're tempest-driv'n, 

A conscience but a canker — 
A correspondence fixed wi 1 Heav'n, 

Is sure a noble anehorl 

In the inequalities of Fortune's favors, his great, just soul, with 
true spiritual insight, gives forth its lamentation in this wise: 

See yonder poor, o'erlaborM wight, 

So abject, mean, and vile, 
* Who begs a brother of the earth 

To give him leave to toil; 
And see his lordly feUovyworm 

The poor petition spurn, 
Unmindful, tho' a weeping wife 

And helpless offspring mourn. 

My comments must be exceedingly brief, to bring out in one 
short article so many selections to show that it is because of their 
deep spiritual nature that his verses are so loved and his name so 
honored. 

The Scriptures prophesy of a time when the enmity that ex- 
ists between man and beast shall be taken away— when peace shall 
reign, and the Spirit of God shall be in every heart. Even the 
beasts shall not harm nor destroy. The lion and the lamb shall lie 
down together. 

This beautiful spiritual thought occurs to Burns as his plough- 



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SPIRITUAL SIDE OF BURNS. 169 

share turns up the nest of the little field-mouse, and when the 
mouse, panic-stricken, runs in terror away. To man was given 
dominion, it is true, but why this abuse of power? 
Listen to these lines on that subject: • 

I'm truly sorry man's dominion 
Has broken Nature's social union, 
An' justifies that ill opinion, 

Which makes thee startle 
At me, thy poor earth-born companion, 

An' fellovMTiortall 

Again, what better or truer gospel could be preached than 
this: 

To make a happy fire-side clime 

To weans and wife, 

That's the true pathos and sublime 
Of human life. 

Thoughts of what we understand to be the united order, or 
brotherhood of man, occur to him, too, as witness the following: 

Lord help me thro' this warld o' care! 
I'm weary sick o't late and air! 
Not but I hae a richer share 

Than mony i there; 
But why should ae man better fare, 

And a' men bri there? 

Why indeed should one man fare so much better than another, 
if all are equally good, willing and obedient unto the extent of the 
ability that God has endowed us with? And yet he cannot be made 
to believe that such unjust conditions will always continue. Nay, 
on the contrary, he knows they cannot last forever, and with true 
poetic insight, almost with the voice of a prophet and seer, he 
breaks forth into prophetic song: 

Then let us pray, that come it may, 

For come it will for 'a that, 
* * * * * 

When man to man the world o'er, 
Shall brothers be and a' that. 



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170 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Sorely the millennium were here, if man to man the world over 
would brothers be, and all which that implies. 

This, then, can be accepted as certain, that any book will last 
in proportion to its true spiritual worth. Byron rhymes most 
beatifully — is a cultured poet, but how many read Byron now? 
Alas! he is of the earth earthy, too much of the world, the flesh 
and the devil. There is nothing or next to nothing, of the spirit- 
ual in Byron. 

Carlyle's Sartor Resartus and his Oliver Cromwell will be read 
with great and increasing interest for many years yet, but his 
Frederick the Great, although its author bestowed great pains upon 
it, will sooner lose its interest. The reason is that Cromwell fought 
for his Puritan religion, and Sartor is full of beautiful spiritual 
thought, while Frederick fought for dominion and glory. 

Notwithstanding the spiritual side of Bums, we must however 
sorrowfully confess that he made of life a failure. 

The chief reason therefor is not hard to find. His aim, his 
purpose in life, was not single. It is written, "no man can serve 
God and mammon." Burns unfortunately vacillated in his course. 
He knew his duty but could not resist temptation. 

The wedge, if it has one edge, will split the log, if you keep 
hammering. But if it is turned part one way and part the other, 
you may hammer it to little purpose except to batter and destroy 
it. "If thine eye be single, thy whole body will be filled with light." 

Burns failed as many of us may fail, in trying to serve two 
masters. It can never successfully be done. 

But for the beautiful songs he gave us, for his fund of mirth 
and humor, and, above all, for the spiritual truths that he taught 
us, we will revere his memory, and for many ages yet to come, 
there will be celebrations of his birthday when many other more 
blameless poets are decently forgotten. 



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ACTS OF SPECIAL PRO VTOENCE IN MIS- 
SIONARY EXPERIENCE 



CHILDREN RESTORED TO HEALTH. 

BY GEO. H. ISLAUB, AUSTRALIAN MISSIONARY. 



We have had a remarkable evidence of God's power being 
manifested through his authorized servants in this dispensation. 
It is not the first by any means, since I have been on my mission, 
but this particular case has its peculiar features, so I will relate 
it 

There is a family here in Brisbane, Australia, by the name of 
Lind. They joined The Church some three or four years ago, but 
for the past two years they have not associated with the Saints, in 
fact the husband had requested that his name be taken from the 
books.- The matter was brought to my attention, and I concluded 
to take up a labor with them, so I called on them one day. Brother 
lind, (I will call him brother), was out, and his wife received me very 
coldly. I visited with her for sometime, and after some persuasion 
secured her consent to call on them some evening when he was at 
home. I did so, and had a long night with them, leaving some- 
what encouraged. During our conversation Brother Lind boasted 
that since he had left the Church, he had prospered more than when 
he was in full fellowship with the Saints. I warned him against 
boasting, saying that God had his own way of humiliating his chil- 
ren. 

A few days after this, his second youngest son took suddenly 



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172 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

ill. The doctor was called in, and did all he could for the child, 
but finally informed the parents that he could not hold out any 
hope for its recovery. The night previous, the mother dreamed she 
had sent for the elders, and, as a result, the child improved. The 
following morning, the child feebly asked for "Brother Islaub to 
come." Nothing had been said to him of the elders, and he had 
only seen me on two occasions. The dream and the child's request 
impressed the mother, and about noon she sent for me to come 
over. My companion and myself immediately answered the call. 
It was about one mile from our quarters. Upon our arrival we 
found a very sick child. The mother, almost overcome with grief, 
requested us to administer unto him provided we thought it would 
avail anything. I asked her if she had faith; she said she had. 
Then I told her that if she had faith that through the administra- 
tions of the elders he would be healed, it would be so. We offici- 
ated in the sacred ordinance, and three days following the child 
was up and dressed. 

Then followed the sickness of the youngest son. He too was 
suddenly taken ill. He had not been blessed and named, so we de- 
layed until the following day that the consent of the father might 
be obtained in having hun blessed by the elders. We called the 
following day and performed this ordinance, and also administered 
to him. The next day we also called and found that the child had 
become much worse. For some reason, we were not asked to ad- 
minister to it on this occasion, though we remained two hours, and 
even suggested that the ordinance be performed, for we felt the 
influence of evil prevailing around the child. However,, we de- 
parted feeling that the mother had soon forgotten the testimony 
of God's power in the restoration of her other son. 

Next day, about noon, we were summoned to the house with 
the request to hasten. Upon arrival we found the child in the 
throes of death. The doctor had been there, and had told the 
mother he had no hopes for his recovery. The poor mother was 
distracted, and well she might be, for death had surely laid his 
cruel hand upon her child. I became filled with an influence that I 
could not resist, and said: "I will not give up that child." I told 
the mother to take the child in her arms, to summon all the cour- 
age and faith she could, and, if it was God's will, the child would 



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ACTS OF SPECIAL PROVIDENCE. 173 

be restored. We proceeded to attend to the ordinance of admin- 
istration. My companion applied the oil, but could hardly speak the 
words necessary in doing so. I was mouth in the administration. 
We had no more than placed our hands on the head of the child, 
and I had pronounced the words, "in the name of Jesus Christ and 
by authority of the Holy Priesthood, we command the power of 
death that is upon this child to be stayed," than I felt that I had 
been seized by an evil power. Great beads of perspiration stood 
out all over me, and I felt as though I would be overpowered. 
With a tremendous effort I resisted it, keeping my hands on the 
child's head and pronouncing the rebuke, and sealing God's bless- 
ings upon the almost lifeless child. I then staggered to a chair 
and called for a drink of water; after which, I went out into the air 
and soon revived, though all that day and night I felt tired and 
languid as a result of an experience I shall never forget. The ex- 
perience of my companion was almost identical. 

That night the parents sent word that the child was doing 
nicely, and that it was in sweet sleep, so we did not call on them 
till the following day. When we called the next day, we found 
the child with a pleasant smile to greet us. The cold death-look 
had left its face, and was replaced by the pink tint of health. The 
parents were very profuse in their thanks and praise to the elders 
for the restoration of their children. We reminded them that to 
God should be given all the glory, that they must give him thanks 
and praise as we were only humble instruments in his hands, and, as 
we gave him praise, so must they give him the honor. I am in 
hopes that this evidence of God's power being in the Church will 
awaken an interest in these people, and I have no doubt that it will. 

These are the sweet periods of a missionary's life; to partake 
of the sweetness of the Divine Spirit, is worth more than the riches 
of worlds to a humble elder. Of course, during my experience in 
the Church I have seen many very remarkable demonstrations of 
God's power, and this experience is only an additional testimony 
that the gifts of the Spirit are in the Church; but it is pleasing to 
learn that our lives are so far approved of our Divine Parent, that 
he manifests himself through his servants. 

I desire that this experience shall impress itself upon my chil- 
dren, that they may grow in that faith for which their father gave 



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174 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

up father, mother, brothers and sisters to embrace, and again left 
wife and children and the comforts and pleasures of a happy home 
to carry to a world fettered with the bonds of sin and wallowing 
in the mire of superstition and unbelief. 



HIS INSPIRATION. 



A writer in Success, who visited Sir Thomas Lipton on the 
Erin, gives the following on the early struggles of the baronet, 
when he did not own a floating palace or a cup challenger: 

"I remember, as if it were yesterday," said Sir Thomas, "how 
utterly hopeless my financial condition seemed to be when I was a 
boy of fifteen in New York. I had run away from home to see the 
world. My experiences were anything but pleasant, without work 
as I was, a stranger in a great city. I got used to living on a few 
cents a day, but when it came to such a pinch that I couldn't buy 
a five-cent stamp to carry a letter to the old folks in Glasgow, I 
very nearly gave up. I really think that decided me to go back. 
It accentuated my homesickness. I thought of the prodigal son. I 
borrowed five cents for that letter, and resolved to get back as soon 
as a chance offered. I can tell you I was glad when I once more 
set foot on the other side. I had refrained from telling my people 
how hard up I had been. This was largely a matter of pride with 
me, but another consideration was their feelings. I would do any- 
thing rather than distress them. So I stepped up, on my arrival, 
as jauntily as you ever saw a lad, and when a proposition was made 
to me by my father, soon after my home-coming, to set me up in a 
small grocery, I jumped at the chance." 

"Was that the beginning of your fortune?" 

"Yes. I made money from the start. I put in practice what 
I had seen abroad— such as displaying goods attractively in win- 
dows, keeping the place as neat as a pin, and waiting personally on 
my customers. Every dollar that I earned I saved— not that I 
really loved money myself. That was not my inspiration,— it was 
my father and mother." 



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RELIGION ON SAMOA. 

BY W. 0. LEE, SAMOAN MISSIONARY. 



So far as outward appearances are concerned, the Samoans 
are a very devout and a strictly religious people. One cannot help 
realizing this on first acquaintance with them because of their famil- 
iarity with the scriptures, and their greeting to strangers, which 
is always mingled with thanks to the Lord for the preservation of 
their own and their visitor's lives. Every night, as darkness comes, 
each house in the village is lighted by a lamp, or a fire made with 
cocoanut shells, and the family devotional evercises begin, some- 
times by reading an extract from the Bible, and always by singing 
a hymn followed by prayer. We believe that the London Mission- 
ary Society are entitled to the credit of introducing this pleasing cus- 
tom which we found universal among the natives. There is but one 
objectionable feature in connection with it, and that is the publicity 
of each family's devotion, on account of the houses being open all 
around. Where so close together, the praying in one house is 
marred by the singing in the next. However, the Samoans have be- 
come so accustomed to this confusion that it does not seem to affect 
them. In fact, like most colored races, they dearly love this out- 
ward show of what may, or may not, be an inward grace. 

One of the most remarkable things to a foreigner who has 
been taught to look upon the natives as ignorant, and classed with 
the heathens, is their perfect familiarity with the contents of the 
Bible. Most of the present generation learned their A B Cs, or as 
the Samoans would say ohamaleemalei, out of that good book. 
It was also their first, second, third and fourth reader, and, there- 
fore, no wonder they are so familiar with the letter, if not the spirit, 
of the scriptures. 



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176 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

The rapidity with which the natives can turn to any chapter, 
or verse, of any book in the Bible, is a surprise to all strangers not 
familiar with the custom among the Protestant Sunday schools, of de- 
voting a portion of the exercises of each week to seeing which mem- 
ber of the higher class can turn quickest to any chapter and verse 
given out by the teacher. We doubt if another people can be found 
who are more careful than the native Samoans in observing the Sab- 
bath day as a day of peace, and rest from temporal labors, and a 
day given up to the worship of God. It is true that they have not 
all come to a unity of the faith in Christ, but, in all our travels 
among them, we found but one skeptic, as an exception to the rule 
of general belief in the Bible, and the worship of God according to 
the rules and regulations of the three distinct bodies of religious 
worshipers known as the Protestants, the Catholics and the Latter- 
day Saints. 

THE PROTESTANT CHURCHES. 

The Protestants were the first to commence proselyting on 
Samoa. About the year 1830 or 1833, native missionaries from 
Tahiti came to Samoa representing the London Missionary Society, 
and ever since they have been nicknamed the "Tahitian" Church, 
and among the natives are so called to this day. These, with a few 
Wesleyans from Tonga, comprise the Protestant churches. There 
seems to be an understanding between these two sects to the effect 
that the former shall enjoy all the privileges on Samoa, while the 
latter is allowed the same on Tonga, for purely economic reasons. 

The London Missionary Society, through its missionaries dur- 
ing the last seventy years, has succeeded in reducing the native 
dialect into a written language. They have translated and printed 
what is generally considered a very good translation of the Bible, 
together with a treatise thereon, not so good, and quite a number 
of works on educational subjects. 

The Tahites, or Protestants, are by far more numerous than 
all other sects on the islands at the present time, and they 
have what is probably one of their strongest organizations on Sa- 
moa. In almost every village there is a native Protestant teacher 
who is at once the spiritual teacher and the day school teacher of 
the village. Boys that are apt to learn are adopted by him, and 



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RELIGION ON SAMOA. 177 

receive special care and training, and if they still continue bright 
and quick in their studies, at sixteen years of age, they are sent to 
Molua, the Protestant training school for native missionaries on 
Upolu. Here they take a four years' course in theology, and the 
common branches of education, under white teachers, and at the ex- 
piration of that time, are considered ready to fill any vacancy as 
village pastors, or as missionaries to any other group of islands. 
In this way the Protestants get the cream of the brainy ones for 
their work, and the schooling makes them more intelligent than 
their fellows. There is also the respect shown the religious office, 
and a small salary attached that make it a very desirable position 
for the ordinary native. It is understood that in time of war these 
village pastors are free from military duty, and the natives have 
been taught to give a tithe of their food to the village teacher, and 
to those dependent upon him, so that, to a great extent, he is also 
free from the manual labor necessary to gain a livelihood. The 
Protestant work is looked after by some eight or ten missionaries 
who are salaried, and well taken care of, by the London Missionary 
Society, and they live in ease, dress well, and are accompanied by 
servants wherever they go. 

THE CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

Next to the Protestants, numerically, are the Catholics, repre- 
sented by the Jesuit fathers from France. The very appearance 
of these men with their black beards, black gowns, and care-worn 
faces on which thef e is no trace of a smile, repels one from their 
presence. They commenced their work some years after the coun- 
try had become Protestant. It is said that their entrance into the 
religious life of the natives was opposed most vigorously by the 
dominant church, which opposition has continued ever since. This 
feeling of enmity between Protestant and Catholic, has had much 
to do with the recent internecine wars on the islands over the king- 
ship question, (Malieatoa being a protestant, and Mataaf a a Cath- 
olic,) since each sect was fearful of its rights, privileges, and 
property if the other should have a representative on the throne. 

The Catholics have a number of fine concrete churches, which, 
with their stained glass windows and interior decorations, far sur- 



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178 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

pass any others on the islands. On account of the natives being 
fond of bright colors, pomp, show and ceremony, we often wondered 
why it was that the Catholics did not make greater headway and 
more converts. Hovever, as is usual with this sect, their converts 
are converted in very deed to Catholicism, and they pride them- 
selves very much upon the fact that there are many more 
Catholics than members of any other Christian sect on the earth at 
the present time. To the native mind, that is one great proof of 
truth and right, and they take great pleasure in asking one the 
question, for personal gratification: "Which sect has the greatest 
number T 

While the Catholics are more exclusive than the Protestants, 
yet we have often been most hospitably treated by them, and we 
have many converts who were previously members of the Catholic 
church. 

THE LATTER-DAY SAINTS.— THEIR HISTORY IN SAMOA. 

Last, but not least, except in numbers, among the religious 
bodies on the islands, are the Latter-day Saints. There is quite a 
romance attached to the begining of our work on the islands; briefly 
it is as follows: 

In the year 1857, when Johnston's army came to Utah, the 
Elders on missions in foreign lands were called home. We believe 
this request was generally obeyed, but there was one Elder, Walter 
Gibson by name, on the Sandwich Islands who chose to ignore 
the request of President Young, in this matter, remaining 
on the islands. Seemingly he took it for granted, as did many 
of the enemies of the Saints, that their extermination was sure. On 
the islands and among the natives, this ambitious schemer saw op- 
portunities for wealth, fame and personal aggrandizement enough 
to satisfy the most ambitious of men. He succeeded to a most re- 
markable extent. He became very wealthy and rose in political 
power untO he became the king's prime minister. It seemed, for a 
long time, as though the Lord had forgotten this man who had thus 
usurped the authority of the prophet of God in establishing on 
Hawaii a church of bis own after the pattern of The Church, ex- 
cept that he sold the offices of the Priesthood at varying prices ac. 



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RELIGION ON SAMOA. 179 

cording to the importance of the office. Then he robbed the over- 
confident native Saints by inducing them to buy an island, as a 
gathering place, which was deeded to himself, thus furnishing him 
with the necessary wealth and prestige to begin his political career. 

Some day when the history of Walter Gibson shall be written, 
it will furnish another most forcible proof of the folly in any man 
deserting the work of the Lord for the things of this world, and 
vainly imagining within his heart that he can make a counterfeit of 
the genuine church. He was cast out of The Church, and, in the 
end, was banished by his political opponents from the islands, and 
died an exile from what had almost been his own kingdom, in the 
streets and gutters of San Francisco, without home, without friends, 
and almost forgotten. 

During this man's power he sent two native elders, Eimo Belio, 
and S. Manoa, to open a mission on the Samoan Islands. While these 
native elders were not properly sent by this usurper, yet they had 
previously been ordained to the priesthood, and labored with zeal and 
considerable success. The last mentioned, however, transgressed, 
leaving the former to prosecute the work alone. Much credit and 
honor is due to Elder Kimo Belio, for the good work he did on 
Samoa. Unaided and alone, after his companion sinned, he succeeded 
in establishing a strong branch of The Church on the island of 
Tutuila. Had he lived to continue his labors, who can tell what we 
would have found when we went there twenty-five years later to 
assist in reopening the mission, in the place of the scattered sheep, 
who, for the greater part, had wandered back into their former 
folds! But Lamafa, If opo, and many others, together with the long 
since repentant Manoa, held themselves aloof from all other sects, 
still hoping, praying and sending occasional letters to The Church 
on Hawaii beseeching in most earnest pleadings that a white shep- 
herd might be sent to gather them together again, and lead them 
in the true way. 

It was the reading of these letters, at the Sandwich Islands 
mission, by Elder Joseph H. Dean, that created in his heart a desire 
to reopen the work on Samoa. In 1888, he was set apart for that 
purpose, together with his wife Florence, and they landed on the 
ittle island of Aumm. This island is separated from the larger 
sland of Tutuila by a channel about a mile wide. Both of these 



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180 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

islands, if the proposed division takes place, will be given to the 
United States. It was here that they found a nucleus of The Church 
in a few of the remnants of Belio's flock, who received them with 
tears of joy and child-like rapture. Pour months later, when our 
party arrived to assist President Dean in his labors, we found him 
with a nice little branch of the Saints on Aumm. He had become 
quite proficient in the language because of the similarity between 
the Hawaiian and the Samoan dialects. Neither language nor space 
will allow us to describe, in this article, the peculiar feelings of our 
hearts, and the strange sights that we beheld with our eyes as our 
boat rode over the breakers, and the anchor was dropped in the 
surf, in front of the only village on the little island of Aumm, our 
first home on Samoa. All the village turned out that day and we re- 
ceived a royal welcome. Big, brown-skinned, natives waded out 
to our boat, and, locking their hands behind their backs, invited us 
to kneel on their hands, put our arms around their necks, and ride 
ashore. We men folks gladly availed ourselves of this opportunity, 
but Sister L., demurred, until the thoughts of two long weeks on 
the ocean, with that dreadful longing to reach land once more, 
was too much for her, when she too took her first man-back ride 
from boat to shore. Then came that wonderful, joyous greeting 
with the natives. From a Mr. McFarland, a quarter-cast, on the 
same vessel returning to the islands, we had learned the native 
greeting, but the way we saluted the native women with a long 
drawn-out tarloifa-ta-mari-ta-i was undoubtedly, as Brother Dean 
said afterward, one of the most laughable things that he had ever 
heard. 

With Brother Dean as our teacher and critic, and the natives to 
practice on, with the aid of the native Bible and dictionary, we be- 
gan our daily exercise in the native language. For physical exer- 
cise, we went out each day into the forest and cut sticks and logs 
for our first meeting house. After its completion, President Dean took 
the other brethren, crossed over the channel to the island of Tutuila, 
and they made a complete circuit of that island, holding meetings, 
in nearly every village, being well received by the majority of the 
natives, and baptizing some before they returned. 

During the absence of the brethren on Tutuila, we felt the 
weight of a responsibility entirely different from anything else in 



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RELIGION ON SAMOA. 181 

our experience. When Sunday came, we took charge of the meet- 
ings, and strange are the stories that our companions are wont to 
tell of how we made up in gestures what we lacked in words, in the 
earnestness to deliver the first message to the natives without an 
interpreter. It was during this time that Mr. Clark, the senior 
member of the London Missionary Society, hearing of our work on 
Aumm, came from Apia to investigate the new religion on the 
islands. 

One day we received a call from him, and, naturally, our con- 
. versation drifted onto religious matters. Before going, he asked 
the question, "Do you expect to establish your Church here?" 

To which we replied, "Most certainly; we have come five-thous- 
and miles for that purpose." 

"Then," he said, "I have come ten-thousand miles to stop you." 

He had recently returned from his vacation in England. We 
met Mr. Clark many times after this, and each time we had more 
converts, more branches, of The Church; and, lastly, our headquar- 
ters was established on the island of Upolu, within three miles of his 
own. It was also during these first two months that we heard of 
an agent of the Tamasese government being sent to arrest us, but 
before he reached Aumm, his government had fallen, and the Ger- 
mans were compelled to bring back and re-establish Malieatoa as king 
of Samoa. 

Within six months we had a number of converts on Tutuila- 
and we moved headquarters to Vatia on that island. While at this 
place, Elder Brigham Smoot, of Provo, was nearly drowned while 
bathing in the bay, on the day after his arrival. Through the bless- 
ings of the Lord, and our efforts, he was brought back to life again* 
Here it was that we witnessed the destructive hurricane of March, 
1889. Elders Dean, Wood and Beesley were on a trip to the island 
of Upolu arriving at Apia in our little boat, the "Faaliga," on the 
day before the hurricane. We were, therefore, eye witnesses of 
the effects of that terrible typhoon on the lives of the sailors, and 
on the vessels of the United States and German navies. The breth- 
ren had been led to make this trip to Upolu through receiving a 
letter from Ifopo, one of Belio's converts, who had been anxiously 
waiting with the other scattered Saints for the day when white 
missionaries would be sent to them. The joy of Ifopo on meeting 



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182 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

the brethren, was unbounded. From that time until his death, this 
devoted native gave his time, home, and all his energies to assist us 
in the work of the Lord. Among a people that are generally 
considered as unstable as water, this man, with many others, re- 
mained true and faithful to the end, passing through trials that 
would have tested the faith and endurance of many more favored 
Latter-day Saints. He and his associates were often driven from 
their native villages and made outcasts for the work's sake. 

After the arrival of Elders Solomon, Smoot, Booth and Ben- 
net, we were scattered. President Dean took the first two with 
Elder Wood and his family to Upolu, where they bought a piece of 
land, at Fagalii and built a rustic mission house which still remains, 
with additions, as our headquarters on the Samoan mission. 

Prom there Elder Wood went to the largest island of the group, 
Savaii, and was very successful in establishing The Church there. 
We remained with Elders Beesley, Bennett and Booth on Tutuila and 
Aumra. From this time the work spread rapidly all over the islands, 
until, when we gathered at mission headquarters for October con- 
ference, 1891, we numbered twenty-one Elders, one sister and two 
children, with hundreds of native converts, and branches of The 
Church on all of the islands except Manua. The authorities refused 
to let us proselyte there because of an agreement between the chiefs 
and Protestants that no other sect should be allowed on the two 
islands in that group. 

Meantime, President Dean and family had returned to Zion, 
leaving ourselves to continue the work. Elders Smoot and Butler 
were laboring under difficulties to establish the work on the Friendly 
Islands, (Tonga,) five hundred miles south of Samoa, and Elders 
Damron and Seegmiller were preparing for their journey to reopen 
the Society Islands (Tahiti) mission, whence Elder James Brown 
and others were banished, in the early fifties, leaving large branches 
of native Saints that were afterwards visited and taken by the 
Josephites. 

Thus the work grew in numbers and spread over the islands re- 
gardless of all efforts to stop it. To the credit of the Catholics, 
let it be said that they left us alone. But the Protestants, in their 
native newspapers, republished all the old lies, and many new ones 



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RELIGION ON SAMOA. 183 

that we' had never heard of before, concerning the prophet Joseph 
Smith and the Latter-day Saints. 

Our Elders had many interesting fireside discussions with the 
Protestant native teachers, who, seemingly, were tanght that when 
they left their training school, they were equal to any white mis- 
sionary. They often came to us with all the assurance in the world 
expecting to prove it. The writer had the pleasure and satisfaction of 
accompanying President Dean on the first trip made by our Elders 
around the island of Upolu. At one village where we stayed over 
night, in the house of the village chief who was also head chief of 
the district, we were visited at night by some twenty Protestant 
native teachers who had been moving a white missionary and his 
family from one station to another. Hearing of the advent of 
Qfatfean Mamona (Mormon missionaries) in their district, they de- 
sired to interview them and confound them in argument. That this 
was their object, we soon discovered, as they began to ply questions 
from all sides of the house which was now filled with the teachers 
and villagers banked upon the outside, curious to hear the discussion. 
President Dean, who, through many years of experience on Hawaii, 
had become familiar with the native character, requested the teach- 
ers to choose one of their number as spokesman, and then questions 
would be asked back and forth, without confusion. This rule was 
adopted, and their spokesman asked his first question which was 
answered by Brother Dean. 

To illustrate his replies he placed some pebbles in a row on 
the mat in front of him and stated that we could easily understand 
how the native teachers had received their authority from the white 
missionaries, and they from the Society in London, and they back 
to Martin Luther, but there the chain of succession, like the row 
of pebbels, ceased. 

"Now," said he, "where did Martin Luther get his authority 
to organize the Church of Christ on the earth?" 

After consulting with his companions, their spokesman 
answered, "From the Bible," which was objected to, and passages 
were quoted proving for what purpose all scripture is given to man. 

Then he said, "He received his authority from the Holy 
Ghost." Objected to again, and proofs quoted from the scriptures 
showing the various offices of the Holy Ghost. Then he ventured 



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184 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

the assertion last of all, that Luther, feeling the weight of his own 
sins, prayed earnestly to the Lord until he felt in his heart that he 
was forgiven, and, therefore, his authority was assured. This last 
weak reply was objected to by Elder Dean, and as he began to 
prove from the Bible that divine authority does not come to man 
in that way, the native teachers became excited, and tried, by 
asking all sorts of questions, to turn the tide in their favor, but in 
vain. Then the chief reproved them for not abiding by the rules; 
at which their spokesman turned on him with abusive language, 
and was in turn ordered out of the house, with the declaration by 
our host that, "today I was a Taluti-Protestant, but now I am a 
'Mormon."' After the natives began quarreling among themselves, 
we retired, and let them settle their contention. The end of the 
matter was that the teachers, after inducing their spokesman to 
apologize to the chief, and vainly trying to persuade him to recon- 
sider his threat to join us, they went away and sent three elders, 
or retired teachers, men of great influence, to labor most of that 
night and part of the next day to calm the anger of their much- 
coveted member. 

While we did not baptize our friend, yet the incident did us a 
great amount of good. The news of the affair preceded us around 
the island, and we found the natives anxiously waiting to see us 
and to hear all about the controversy with the teachers. 

The Protestants have done their work so thoroughly on Samoa 
that we often felt to say, "What a pity that they lacked divine 
authority, and divine wisdom in the doing of these things, so that 
their work would not have to be done over again P All this, because 
men choose to take upon themselves the authority to preach in the 
name of Jesus and interpert the Holy Scriptures, forgetting that 
"no man taketh this honor unto himself, but he that is called of 
God as was Aaron." 

As to the future of the Samoans and the permanency of our 
work among them, we cannot hope for the best results, until they 
are separated from their native customs. Many of these are in 
opposition to gospel teachings, but so strong are they that it 
seems almost impossible to wean the natives away from their 
tattooing, eating things strangled, and blood, their marriage cus- 
toms, etc. 



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RELIGION ON SAMOA. 185 

Just what effect the division of the Islands among England, 
Germany and the United States will have upon the religions phase 
of the Samoan question, we cannot determine now, but no doubt it 
will be interesting to see these various forms of modern govern- 
ments exercised so close together, and coming so closely in con- 
tact with each other every day. 

It would be cruel to bring the Samoans to our cold climate 
where they* would have to work eight or ten hours a day, instead 
of a few hours now and then, for a living, as they do on Samoa. 
Our ceaseless work would crush their spirits, and create dissatis- 
faction. Some day, a more natural gathering place for them 
might be found in Central or South America, when our mission- 
aries go into those countries where the climate will be similar to 
their island home, and where they can be reunited with their 
American brethren, the Lamanites, and Ephraim will teach them 
until they race more become a white and a delightsome people. 



LOVING WORDS. 



"Loving words will cost but little, 

Journeying up the hill of life; 
But they make the weak and weary 

Stronger, braver for the strife. 
Do you count them only trifles? ' 

What to earth are sun and rain? 
Never was a kind word wasted, 

Never was one said in vain. 

"When the cares of life are many, 

And its burdens heavy grow, 
Think on weak ones close beside you,— 

If you love them, tell them so. 
What you count of little value 

Has an almost magic power, 
And, beneath their cheering sunshine, 

Hearts will blossom like a flower." 
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WALKS AND TALKS WITH UNBELIEVERS. 

BY J. H. WARD. 



I. 

You need not throw down this article carelessly. It will do 
you no harm. It assumes no dictation. It is simply the honest, 
home-like talk of a walker on life's road, to be read by the young 
who need friends — by the middle-aged who have none too many 
— by all who wish to know and appreciate the truth, but who in 
the bustle of life have not taken time to gather the pearls scat- 
tered along life's wayside. You say you do not understand it. 
Who of us does? There is something so much beyond, as yet un- 
revealed to human minds, that one has scarcely time to stop and 
think about it. 

Yes, my young friend, we are walking along. The road turns 
now to the right and then to the left. It is not altogether smooth, 
yet we can pick our way along, if we heed where we set our feet. 
There are thorns, thick-set, along the road —their points stand 
ready to lascerate all who would force their way through, without 
regard to paths. And there are others on this same road; some 
are old, some are middle-aged, and some are young with you. 
There are flowers and beauties along the roadside, but few of us 
see them. There are hidden beauties which must be sought out — 
there are countless bowers behind the thorns — there are mossy 
banks at the foot of many of these old oaks, where friends can 
sit and be happy. We run from the cradle to the grave, reaching 
for some hand in the distance — striving to gain a place on some 
vehicle far ahead, swiftly flying still farther from us. Few of our 



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WALKS AND TALKS WITH UNBELIEVERS. 187 

earthly hopes are ever realized. How the [dreams of our youth 
recede! The song of love dies out, and there sweep over the soul 
storms of passion, dark shadows driven by fierce blasts. 

It is then that the unbelief, of which we seemed so proud, 
shows itself in all its terrible hideousness. Why, I observe, my 
friend, that the unbelief, of which you boasted the other day, 
seems now, in the hour of perplexity, to afford you no consolation. 
What is this that you are reading in the hope of relief from the 
sorrows that oppress you? 

"The Vision of Mirza, as written by Joseph Addison." 

I am glad you find comfort in this kind of reading. For 
though it may be only the dream of the poet, it shows conclusively 
that your mind needs that consolation which religion alone can 
give. It also shows that the author had views on human origin 
and destiny that so-called Christians seem to have ignored or for- 
gotten. Strange it is that unbelievers, who reject God's word, will 
accept the same truths when presented under the form of a vision 
or a dream! 

But let us read: "I had often been told that the rock before 
me was the haunt of a genius; and that several had been enter- 
tained with that music, who had passed by it, but never heard that 
the musician had before made himself visible. When he had raised 
my thoughts by those transporting airs which he played to taste 
the pleasures of his conversation, as I looked upon him like one 
astonished, he beckoned to me, and by the waving of his hand 
directed me to approach to the place where he sat. I drew near 
with that reverence which is due to a superior nature; and as 'my 
heart was entirely subdued by the captivating strains I had heard, 
I fell down at his feet and wept. The genius smiled upon me with 
a look of compassion and affability that familiarized him to my 
imagination, and at once dispelled all the fears and apprehensions 
with which I approached him. He lifted me from the ground, and 
taking me by the hand, 'Mirza/ said he, 1 have heard thee in thy 
soliloquies: follow me/ 

"He then led me to the highest pinnacle of the rock, and 
placing me on the top of it: 'Cast thy eyes eastward,' said he, 'and 
tell me what thou seest/ 'I see', said I, 'a huge valley and a pro- 
digious tide of water rolling through it.' The valley that thou 



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188 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

seest/ said he, 'is the Vale of Misery, and the tide of water that 
thou seest is part of the great tide of Eternity/ 'What is the 
reason/ said I, "that the tide I see rises out of a thick mist at one 
end, and again loses itself [in a thick mist at the other? 'What 
thou seest/ said he, 'is that portion of eternity which is called 
Time, measured out by the sun, and reaching from the beginning 
of the world to its consummation. Examine now/ said he, 'this sea 
that is bounded with darkness at both ends, and tell me what thou 
discoverest in it/ 'I see a bridge/ said I, 'standing in the midst of 
the tide/ The bridge thou seest is human life; consider it 
attentively/ 

"Upon a more leisurely survey of it, I found that it consisted 
of three score and ten entire arches with several broken arches 
which, added to those that were entire made up the number about 
an hundred. 'But tell me further/ said he, 'what thou discoverest 
on it/ 'I see multitudes of people passing over it/ said I, 'and a black 
cloud hanging on each end of it/ As I looked more attentively I saw 
several of the passengers dropping through the bridge, into the 
great tide that flowed underneath it; and upon further examination, 
perceived there were innumerable trap-doors that lay concealed in 
the bridge, which the passengers no sooner trod upon, but they 
fell through them into the tide and immediately disappeared. 

"I passed some time in the contemplation of this wonderful 
structure, and the great variety of objects which it presented. 
My heart was filled with a deep melancholy; to see several dropping 
unexpectedly in the midst of mirth and jollity, and catching at 
everything that stood by them to save themselves; some were 
looking up towards the heavens, some were in a thoughtful posture, 
and some who were in the midst of a speculation, stumbled and fell out 
of sight; multitudes were busy in the pursuit of bubbles that 
glittered in their eyes and danced before them, but often when they 
thought themselves within the reach of them, their footing failed 
and down they sank. The genius, being moved with compassion 
towards me, bid me quit so uncomfortable a prospect. 'Cast thine 
eyes on that thick mist into which the tide bears the several gen- 
etations of mortality that fell into it/ I directed my sight as I 
was ordered, and I saw the valley opening at the farther end, and 
spreading into an immense ocean, planted with innumerable islands 



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WALKS AND TALKS WITH UNBELIEVERS. 189 

that were covered with fruits and flowers, and interwoven with a 
thousand little shining seas that run among them. I could see per- 
sons dressed in glorious habits, with garlands upon their heads, 
passing among the trees, lying down by the side of fountains, or 
resting on beds of flowers, and could hear a confused harmony of 
singing birds, falling water, human voices and musical instruments. 
Gladness grew in me at the discovery of so delightful a scene. I 
wished for the wings of an eagle, that I might fly away to those 
happy seats; but the genius told me there was no passage to them 
except through the gates of death that I saw opening every 
moment upon the bridge." 

Well, we have read enough; the above gives hints at pre-ex- 
istence; man's present state and his glorious destiny. It seems to 
me, my friend, that you are not so much of an unbeliever as you 
profess to be. Perhaps we will talk again. 



WE ARE NOT HERE TO SIGH. 



"We are not here to sigh and moan 

And make our kindred sad: — 
We're here to do the best we can 

Toward making others glad. 
Cheer up, cheer up, and do not fret, 

If things don't come your way; 
Be glad that some one else has luck, — 

You'll have your turn some day. 
But until then just try to be 

As cheerful as you can, 
For gloomy ways and gloomy speech 

Are man's worst gifts to man!" 



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WORK, AND KEEP YOUR PROMISES. 

BY HEBER J. GRANT OF THE QUORUM OF TWELVE APOSTLES. 



I desire to impress upon the minds of the young men the 
fact that there is no telling when or where benefits may accrue to 
them or their associates, or at some future time even to their pos- 
terity, provided they faithfully do their best in the daily battle of 
life. I will give some personal experiences to verify this. 

In 1890-91, earnest efforts were being made to establish the 
beet-sugar industry in our territory. Because of the financial 
panic of 1891, many who had subscribed for stock were unable to 
pay their subscriptions, and I was sent east to secure the funds 
needed to establish the industry. Having failed in New York and 
Hartford to obtain all of the money required, I was subsequently 
sent to San Francisco where one hundred thousand dollars was 
secured from Mr. Henry Wadsworth, cashier of Wells, Fargo & 
Go's bank in that city. I am confident that my having been faith- 
ful when a boy in his employ, at the time he was agent of Wells 
Fargo & Co., in Salt Lake City, had some influence in causing him 
to loan to my associates such a large sum, at a time when there 
was a great demand for money. 

One of the parties who signed bonds with me when I engaged 
in the insurance business, was Brother Horace S. Eldredge, and as 
each bond required two signatures, he suggested that I ask Captain 
William H. Hooper to sign with him. I explained that I knew the 
Captain only slightly, and feared he would not care to become one 
of my sureties. Brother Eldredge thought otherwise, so I solicited 
the Captain's signature, but he promptly declined. I walked direct 
to my office and had been there but one or two minutes when a 



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WORK; AND KEEP YOUR PROMISES. 191 

messenger from the Deseret National Bank, where I had just left 
the Captain, called and said that Mr. Hooper desired to see me. 
My answer was that I had just seen the Captain and our conversa- 
tion had been of such a character that I had no particular desire 
for another interview. The messenger insisted that he had seen 
the Captain since I had, and I finally concluded, therefore, to call 
again. On reaching the bank, the Captain said: "Young man, 
give me those bonds." He signed them, and then said, "When you 
were here a few moments ago, I did not know you. I have met 
you on^the street now and then for a number of years, and have 
spoken to you, but really did not know you. After you went out, 
I asked who you were, and learning that you were a son of Jede- 
diah M. Grant, at once sent for you. It gives me pleasure to sign 
your bonds. I would almost be willing to sign a bond for a son of 
Brother Jedediah if I knew I would have to pay it. In this case, 
however, I have no fears of having that to do." He related a 
number of incidents about my father, which showed the Captain's 
love for, and confidence in, him. What the Captain told me, 
filled my heart with gratitude to God for having given to me such 
a father, and Captain Hooper's remarks have never been forgotten. 
They impressed me with a strong desire to so live and labor that 
my children would be benefited, even after I have passed away 
from this life, by the record which I shall hav£ made. The action 
of Captain Hooper profoundly impressed me with the benefits de- 
rived from having a good father. Although my father died when 
I was a babe nine days old, twenty years after his death I was 
reaping the benefits of his honesty and faithful labors. The inci- 
dent referred to above happened twenty-three years ago. Many, 
many blessings have since come to me because of the honesty and 
integrity of my father. 

While working in the same building with A. W. White & Co. 
and also Wells Fargo & Co. (although I was not employed with 
bank work, except the collecting in the latter bank,) I learned quite 
well, by assisting the book-keepers and tellers, the banking business, 
which knowledge qualified me to accept a situation as acting cash- 
ier of Zion's Savings Bank and Trust Company, during the absence 
of my predecessor on a mission to Europe. Had I not been willing 
to sacrifice a portion of my unoccupied time while in White's and 



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192 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Wells Fargo's banks, I would not have been qualified to accept the 
position in Zion's Savings Bank. _*: 

I maintain that jt is the absolute duty of each and every 
member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to so 
order his life that his example will be worthy of the imitation of 
all men, thus bringing credit and blessings to himself and his pos- 
terity and also making friends for the work of the Lord, which 
should be the loftiest ambition of every Latter-day Saint. 

In line with the lesson taught in "Never Despair," quoted in 
my last article, I desire to impress upon the minds of the young 
men that because they have not succeeded in the past, or have 
failed to live proper lives, they should never feel that there is no 
hope for them in the future. There is no teaching of our Lord 
and Master, Jesus Christ, which is plainer than that laid down by 
him to the effect that there will be none of our past sins held 
against us, provided we repent and forsake them, in the future 
laboring diligently for the right. 

Look not mournfully into the past; it comes not back again. Wisely 
improve the present; it is thine. Go forth to meet the shadowy future 
without fear and with a manly heart. 

I commend my readers to learn by heart and put in practice 
the inspiring poem by Longfellow, 'The Psalm of life/ 9 I will 
quote two verses, not that they are better than the others but they 
are more applicable to the subject on which I am writing: 

'Trust no future howe'er pleasant, 
Let the dead past bury its dead, 
Act, act in the living present, 
Heart within and God overhead. 

"Let us then be up and doing, 
With a heart for any fate, 
Still achieving, still pursuing, 
Learn to labor and to wait." 



It has been said, "All things come to him who waits," but I 



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WORK, AND KEEP YOUR PROMISES.. 193 

have no faith in this saying, unless in connection with the instruc- 
tion contained in the lines: 

"Still achieving, still pursuing, 
Learn to labor and to wait." 

I have pleasure in quoting from the National Fourth Reader 
an article which greatly impressed my youthful mind: 

DANIEL WEBSTER AT SCHOOL. 

When Webster first entered Phillips Academy, at Exeter, he was 
made, in consequence of his unpolished, country-like appearance, and be- 
cause he was placed at the foot of the class, the butt of ridicule by some 
of the scholars. This treatment touched his keen sensibility, and he 
spoke of it with regret to his friends where he boarded. They informed 
him that the place assigned him in the class was according to the stand- 
ing regulations of the school, and that by diligence he might rise above 
it. They also advised him to take no notice of the laughter of the city 
boys; for, after a while, they would become weary of it and would cease. 

The assistant tutor, Mr. Emery, was informed of the treatment which 
Webster received. He, therefore, treated him with special consideration, 
told him to care for nothing but his books and predicted that all would 
end well. This kindness had the desired effect. Webster applied himself 
with increased diligence and with signal success. He soon met with his 
reward which made those who had laughed at him hang their heads with 
shame. 

At the end of the first quarter, the assistant tutor called up the class 
in their usual order. He then walked to the foot of the class, took Web- 
ster by the arm, and marched him, in front of the class, to the head, 
where, as he placed him, he said, 'There, sir, that is your proper place." 
This practical rebuke made those who had delighted to ridicule the coun- 
try boy feel mortified and chagrined. He had outstripped them. 

This incident greatly stimulated the successful student. He ap- 
plied himself with his accustomed industry, and looked forward with 
some degree of solicitude to the end of the second term, to see whether 
he would be able to retain his relative rank in the class. Weeks slowly 
passed away; the end of the term arrived, and the class was again 
summoned to be newly arranged, according to their scholarship and de- 
portment, as evinced during the preceding term. 

While they were all standing in silence and suspense, Mr. Emery, 



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194 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

their teacher, said, fixing his eye at the same time upon the country boy: 
'Daniel Webster, gather up your books and take down your cap." Not 
understanding the design of such an order, Daniel complied with troubled 
feelings. He knew not but what he was about to be expelled from school 
for his dullness. 

His teacher perceived the expression of sadness upon his counte- 
nance, but soon dispelled it by saying: "Now sir, you will please pass 
into another room, and join a higher class; and you, young gentlemen,'' 
addressing the other scholars, "will take an affectionate leave of your 
classmate, for you will never see him again!" As if he had said: "This 
rustic lad whom you have made the butt of ridicule, has already so far 
outstripped you in his studies, that from your standpoint, he is dwarfed 
in the distance, and will soon be out of sight entirely. He has developed 
a capacity for study which will prevent you from ever overtaking him. 
As a classmate you will never see him again." 

It would be interesting to know who those city boys were who made 
the young rustic an object of sport. What have they come to? What 
have they accomplished? Who has heard of the fame of their attain- 
ments? Scholars should be careful how they laugh at a classmate be- 
cause of his unpolished manners or coarse raiment. Under that rough 
exterior may be concealed talents that will move a nation and dazzle a 
world, when they, in turn, might justly be made a laughing stock on 
account of their inefficiency. 

Webster having learned the lesson "to labor and to wait," the re- 
sult was that he became one of the greatest statesmen of America* 
one of the foremost men of his or any other age. Some of his great 
speeches are marvels of eloquence, and make plain to all who read 
them the wonderful ability which he possessed. 

The following from the Cosmopolitan quoted in the Decem- 
ber Era, is of interest in this connection, 

"Successful writing means work. * * * * Great geniuses do 
not have the power to throw off masterpieces. They are men who labor 
patiently, sometimes developing one thought through weary months. Upon 
one occasion, Daniel Webster, after an apparently extemporaneous speech 
in the United States Senate, was congratulated upon the genius that en- 
abled him to use an expression which seemed to his auditors to be par- 
ticularly felicitous. 'Extemporaneous?' he replied. 'Why, that was the 
work of my three weeks' fishing trip last summer;' thus illustrating the 
saying that genius is an infinite capacity for taking pains." 



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WORK, AND KEEP YOUR PROMISES. 195 

Not only are the words from I Chron. 22: 16, "Arise there- 
fore, and be doing, and the Lord be with thee," true as to the 
benefits which will come to us in this life, but the Lord has prom- 
ised if we are faithful here that we shall be rewarded in the life to 
-come: 

''Whatever principles of intelligence we attain unto in this life, it 
will rise with us in the resurrection; 

"And if a person gains more knowledge and intelligence in this life 
through his diligence and obedience, than another, he will have so much 
the advantage in the world to. come. 

'There is a law irrevocably decreed in heaven before the foundations 
•of the world, upon which all blessings are predicated. 

"And when we obtain any blessing from God it is by obedience to 
that law upon which it is predicated." (Doctrine and Covenants, Sec. 
130: 18-21.) 

I assert with confidence that the law of success, here and here- 
after, is to have a humble and a prayerful heart, and to work, 
work, WORK. 

"Blessed work! If ever thou wert curse of God, 
What must his blessing be?"— J. B. Silkirk. 

The Lord is no respecter of persons, and will give success to 
all who work for it. If I can only impress upon the minds of the 
youth of Zion the eloquence, the inexpressible eloquence of work, 
1 shall feel fully repaid. 

"Adverse circumstances should not discourage us. If there is ever 
a time to be ambitious, it is not when ambition is easy, but when it is 
hard. Fight in darkness, fight when you are down, die hard and you 
won't die at all."— Bebchbr. 

"He who has resolved to conquer or die, is seldom conquered, such 
noble despair perishes with difficulty." — Corneille. 

"What are the aims that are at the same time duties? They are 
-the perfecting of ourselves, the happiness of others." — Kant. 

I hope that no young man will throw away any of his time 
waiting for "something to turn up." I commend to all the words 



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196 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

of Sidney Smith: "In order to do anything worth doing, we must 
not stand shivering on the bank and thinking of the cold and 
danger. Jump in and scramble through as well as you can." And 
also the following, by the same author: "Let every man be occu- 
pied in the highest employment of which his nature is capable, and 
die with the consciousness that he has done his best." Let us en- 
deavor to discover the occupation for which we are best suited by 
the natural abilities which the Lord has given us, and then labor to 
improve upon these talents. 

'Tor what doth it profit a man if a gift is bestowed upon him, and 
he receiveth not the gift? Behold he rejoices not in that which is given 
unto him, neither rejoices in him who is the giver of the gift." (Doctrine 
and Covenants, Sec. 88£33. 

Being an only child, my mother reared me very carefully; in- 
deed, I grew more or less on the principle of a hot-house plant, the 
growth of which is "long and lanky," but not substantial. I learned 
to sweep, and to wash and wipe dishes, but did little stone throw- 
ing, and little indulging in those sports which are interesting and 
attractive to boys, and which develop their physical frames; there- 
fore, when I joined a base ball club, the boys of my own age, and 
a little older, played in the first nine, those younger than myself 
played in the second,and those still younger in the third and I played 
with them. One of the reasons for this was that I could not throw 
the ball from one base to the other; another reason was that I 
lacked physical strength to run or bat well. When I picked up a 
ball, the boys would generally shout, "Throw it here, sissy!" So 
much fun was engendered on my account by my youthful companions 
that I solemnly vowed that I would play base ball in the nine that 
would win the championship of the Territory of Utah. 

My mother was keeping boarders at the time for a living, and 
I shined their boots until I saved a dollar, which I invested in a base 
ball. I spent hours and hours throwing the ball at a neighbor's 
barn, (Edwin D. Woolley's,) which caused him to refer to me as the 
laziest boy in the Thirteenth Ward. Often my arm would ache so 
that I could scarcely go to sleep at night. But I kept on practic- 
ing, and finally succeeded in getting into the second nine of our 



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WORK, AND KEEP YOUR PROMISES. 197 

club. Subsequently I joined a better club, and eventually played in 
the nine that won the championship of the Territory. Having thus 
made good my promise to myself, I retired from the base ball 
arena. 

I have never seen the day when I was not willing to do the 
meanest work, (if there is such a thing as mean work, which I doubt) 
rather than be idle. The Lord has said through his inspired Prophet 
Joseph Smith: 

For behold it is not meet that 1 should command in all things, for 
he that is compelled in all things the same is a slothful and not a wise 
servant, wherefore he receiveth no reward. 

Verily 1 say, men should be anxiously engaged in a good cause, and 
do many things of their own free will, and bring to pass much righteous- 
ness; 

For the power is in them, wherein they are agents unto themselves. 
And inasmuch as men do good they shall in nowise lose their reward. 

But he that doeth not anything until he is commanded and receiveth 
a commandment with doubtful heart, and keepeth it with slothf ulness, 
thejsame is damned. (Doctrine and Covenants Sec. 58: 26-29.) 

I think this should apply also to boys, and when I think of the 
hours and days and weeks and months partially wasted by me, with the 
sole object of learning to be a baseball player, I am impressed with 
the thought that I was not anxiously engaged in a "good cause" 
neither following Sidney Smith's advice to be engaged in the high- 
est employment of which my nature was capable. I am convinced 
of the deep obligation which rests upon all parents and officers in 
the Y. M. M. I. Associations to exert the best energy of our minds to 
direct aright the labors of the youth of Zion. There was one things 
owever, accomplished by my experience as ball player, namely, 
the fulfilling of a promise made to myself. 

In my last article, I endeavored to impress upon the minds of 
the young men the necessity of being careful to fulfill all promises 
made to themselves so as to strengthen thereby, through the force 
of habit, the promises made to others. Every young man should 
do this, and also have an ambition to qualify himself for labor to 
the full extent of his ability, so that he will be able to accomplish 
all that is possible for him to do in planting the standard of truth 
firmly on the earth. 



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GOSPEL STUDIES. 



THE REALITY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF HEAVEN AND HELL. 

BY PROFESSOR N. L. NELSON, OP THE BRIGHAM YOUNG 
ACADEMY, PROVO. 



[In studying the following article, the young reader is cautioned 
that Professor Nelson is presenting old truths in a new way, and that in 
so doing, he places great stress upon self-effort, seemingly to the neg- 
lect of the mercy of God, without which all our work is as nothing. 
Let it be remembered that the words of Christ are true: "But lay up 
for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth 
corrupt, and where thieves do not break through and steal: for where 
your treasure is, there will your heart be also." 

That we are immediately rewarded or punished for our acts in this 
life, and that such reward or punishment is all that we will obtain 
throughout eternity, is an assertion that requires all the stress of 
modification that the author has placed upon it by employing the word 
"potentially." In the day of judgment, the righteous will undoubtedly 
awake to find to their credit many mercies that never were realized to 
them in this life — many blessings and glories that they had never dreamed 
of in this probation, while the wicked will, perhaps, discover that their 
evil actions have separated them further from the presence of God 
than they had ever comprehended in this world. 

The farmer who sows is not immediately rewarded, yet that act is 
the cause of his future harvest; he could not reap without sowing. By 
that act he is potentially — t. e. not positively but in possibility — 



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GOSPEL STUDIES. 199 

rewarded; bat what that reward shall be, great or small, depends much 
upon how he shall farther comply with the laws of nature in cultivat- 
ing his crop, and undoubtedly, in a greater degree upon the God of 
harvests who in tempering the earth and the elements, giveth the 
increase. So all our acts in this life are as the seed and the labor of the 
husbandman; but in the end, the reward is realized through the mercy 
and justice of Him who judgeth all men righteously according to the 
deeds done in the body. — Editors.] 

My next proposition is trite through constant repetition, and 
seems so much like a truism that my only reason for introducing it 
is that it needs enforcing. It is this: 

Every thought, word, and act of our lives immediately raises us 
toward Heaven or lowers us toward Hell- 

This is true not only of Heaven and Hell when considered as 
states of the soul, but also when considered as places of associa- 
tions; for there are large external beginnings of both Heaven and 
Hell right here in earth-life. 

Take two typical cases. Let the first be that of a man 
whom the Gospel has rescued from the depths of sin. What, we 
may ask, had taken place within him on the day he entered the 
waters of baptism? He will tell you he was a changed man. A 
new ideal of righteousness, crude and indistinct perhaps, had been 
created within him. This was the inner kingdom of God of which 
Christ speaks in Luke (17: 20-21). In other words it is the 
beginning of Heaven as a state of the soul. True to the law 
discussed in a previous article, he finds no more pleasure in old 
associations. He is seeking environments that shall correspond 
with the new state of his soul. Baptism is the first real step 
toward them. Communion with men and women of like ideals gives 
him ecstatic joy. Day by day as his knowledge increases, his ideal 
becomes clearer, and he seeks to make his life conform thereto. 
Soon he begins to long for Zion as a place more completely realiz- 
ing outwardly his spiritual state. Let us suppose that thus, 
precept upon precept, he grows in the conception as well as in the 
outward realization of Heaven until the highest associations of 
righteousness on earth are his to enjoy. 

What have been the rounds in the ladder of his ascent? Paul 
answers the question. The righteousness of God (i. e., the harmony 



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200 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

of the universe) has been made known to him from faith to 
faith. Ideals successively more perfect were given by the Spirit 
of Truth, just as each in turn was wrought out in conduct and 
association. Each step was accompanied by joy above and pain 
and unrest beneath: joy in the new-found inner Heaven; unrest till 
its corresponding outer associations were formed. Such is the 
history of a little part of the road to Heaven; the rest of the way, 
even to the highest glory, does not differ in kind — only in degree. 

Consider next an opposite case — that of Sidney Rigdon will 
do. Here was a man resembling in many respects the previous 
example in the degree of the Heaven-spirit and Heaven-associa- 
tion to which he attained. But when his day of trial came he fell. 
How far he fell, and whether at this day he is falling or rising, the 
Father of all knows. Sufficient for my purpose that a man who 
had the glories of the Celestial Kingdom opened to his vision, who 
conversed with heavenly beings, and who saw and heard things 
unutterable and unlawful to utter — sufficient for my purpose that 
such a man fell. 

What is the inner history of his fall? Just as in the first 
example light entered the mind creating successively a more per- 
fect ideal, so now with Elder Rigdon's first sin, darkness entered, 
obscuring his ideal and lowering the tone of his soul's Heaven. 
For what is sin but treason to our ideals; i. e., a refusal to 
conform in conduct to the righteousness of God which has been 
revealed to us?* In the first case there was joy above and unrest 
below. In the second, these feelings are reversed. The moment 
our inner Heaven becomes lower than our outer, we feel an unrest 
above. Our environments bore us. We can't stand to be so 
"good." We distrust our associates, or sneer at them as hypocrites; 
which latter judgment is a reflex from our own hearts: we should 
be hypocrites did we act as we lately acted and as our associates 
are acting. There is no remaining in such a state; we must either 



* The reader will see, by a little thought, that this definition is 
merely a new statement of the expression; "Sin is the transgression of 
the law." The "righteousness of God"— what is it but "law"? "Trans- 
gression" — but proving traitor to the heavenly ideal revealed to us? 



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GOSPEL STUDIES. 201 

repent, i. e., restore the brightness of our inner Heaven, or pass 
below where onr associations correspond with our ideals. 

Sidney Rigdon chose not to repent. It was inevitable there- 
fore that he most sink successively to lower levels. Every sin 
would lower his ideal, and the unrest caused by environments 
above would compel him to change his associations to match. Nor 
is there any resting place in this downward scale short of perdition. 
At any stage above the last, however, repentance — which begins 
by a change of attitude toward God and righteousness — may start 
the soul heavenward again. 

But we need not take extreme cases to illustrate the law that 
man rises toward Heaven or sinks toward Hell by every thought, 
word, and deed of his life. Let the reader appeal rather to his 
own experience. Happy indeed is he whose life is an unbroken 
ascent; woeful and deserving the pity of angels he whose inner 
and outer life succeed each other in an unbroken descent. If any 
thought can rouse in man the missionary spirit, the instinct to 
rescue, it must be this latter. 

For most of us, however, the course of life is zig-zag, now 
upward, now downward. Do you sometimes feel bored with the 
thought of family worship? Are you tempted to break the 
Sabbath day or refuse communion with the Saints? Be sure that 
the tone of your inner Heaven is lowered, and your impulse is to 
find associations to correspond. Most of us remember such times 
in our lives — downward tendencies mercifully checked perhaps 
through the chastening hand of our Father. Conversely, do you 
remember a time on your mission when you would willingly have 
walked a hundred miles to grasp the hand of a Latter-day Saint 
and partake with him of the Sacrament? That was strong evidence 
that your inner Heaven was more exalted than your outer. Why 
don't you feel so now? 

Blessed is he who daily takes stock of the sum total of 
harmony within him. His inclination or disinclination to pray is 
no doubt the best single ledger account of his standing; but the 
books he has appetite for, the companions and associations he 
chooses, the kind of food and drink that passes his lips, the 
thoughts and suggestions that arise in his mind, are all signs of 
his spiritual solvency or insolvency. Perhaps the best general 



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202 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

way to determine the direction he is going, is to consider day by 
day whether his joys or his pleasures predominate in life. The 
distinction between these two ideas is so rich in food for instruc- 
tion that I reserve it for a future paper. By way of a hasty con- 
clusion of this topic, it may be said that his life will be safely 
upward who strikes a trial balance every night; for we cannot 
well conceive in the same man a wisdom that would enable him to 
discover daily how he stands, and a folly that would keep him 
from heeding the lessons taught thereby. It is the man who 
drifts that is in danger. 

My next proposition may seem startling to some readers of 
the Era, but it ought not, for it is merely the truth of the last 
proposition put into a new form. It is this: 

We are rewarded or punished instantly for what we think, say, 
or do; potentially there is no other reward or punishment throughout 
eternity.* 

Scarcely a Sunday passes that we do not hear advanced the 
old sectarian doctrine of laying up treasures in Heaven, in the 
sense of storing something afar qffin time and space, the joy and 
glory of which we shall come into possession of by and by. So, 
too, Hell is painted only as a distant doom the punishment of 

*I use the word "potentially" here to forestall an obvious objection. 
Rewards and punishments as conscious realizations may be put off till the 
day of judgment. But even this will rarely be the case, save in part. 
Which of us does not begin to feel Heaven or Hell, at least in part, as 
soon as the act is done which brightens or darkens our souls? This 
qualification of the proposition is discussed further on. My purpose in 
this pointed statement is to bring before the reader the neglected truth 
that our thoughts, words, and deeds, daily and hourly pass judgment on 
our souls. Suppose the summons: 'This night shall thy soul be 
required of thee," — to be brought to you or me, and we should have to 
stand before the bar of God; would not our reward or punishment be 
there potentially in our own souls? Furthermore, was it not there and 
at least partially realized during life? But whether realized or 
unrealized until the judgment day, the fact remains, our rewards 
and punishments do actually begin, increase, decrease, and otherwise 
vary, as instantaneous effects of our thoughts, words and deeds. Future 
rewards and punishments are only awakenings; potentially we are 
already damned or blessed. 



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GOSPEL STUDIES. 203 

which may be escaped for a time, but which will eventually over- 
take the sinner. 

The evil of this partially true, partially false conception lies 
in the fact that it lulls effort here and now. The rich man who 
gives a million to charity mistakes the laudations given him on 
earth for a foretaste of what will be his reward in Heaven; where 
as the only "treasure" he lays up by it is in the extent to which 
his soul is enriched by the act of giving, which perhaps could not 
equal that of the widow who gave her two mites. Indeed, if 
vanity or worldly fame were in whole or in part the motive for 
the gift, the average of his soul's Heaven would be lowered, and 
therefore by so much he would actually be laying up his treasure 
in Hell. 

The habit of transferring our rewards and punishments to 
remote points in time and space, as one might convey earthly 
treasures to a bank, results in turning our eyes away from our 
daily lives — where they should ever be, watching the process of 
Heaven-making and Hell-making, as it goes on within us daily 
and hourly — and setting them upon creations of the fancy afar off, 
where, like spiritual misers, we tell over the treasures we have 
laid up to await our arrival; swelling our glories and exaltations, 
thrones and dominions, with no other let or hindrance than the 
ability of our speculative powers to soar and spread out; neglect- 
ing in the meanwhile the conquest of self, which alone can give 
us any degree of Heaven whatever. How many Latter-day Saints 
there are whose only preparation for Heaven is in being "good" 
and receiving the ordinances of the Temple; forgetting that 
ordinances do not confer exaltation — they merely furnish oppor- 
tunity to gain exaltation. 

With what an accelerated pace we shall aid in ushering in the 
Millennium, when the last vestige of this artificial conception shall 
be weeded out of our thinking; when in place thereof the true 
significance of Heaven and Hell shall be fully realized; which 
significance I take to be this: There are no "treasures" in Heaven 
for any man apart from those 'laid up" in his soul, no punishments 
in Hell save the discords accumulated within his own bosom; the 
only harmonies that will ever exist for him will be the sum total 
of those to which he daily attunes his soul; the only glories those 



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204 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

which make bright his spirit — the glories of intelligence daily and 
hourly achieved.* 

As before observed, we are in the very midst of Heaven's 
processes. Whoever forgets that earth-life is an integral part of 
Heaven-life — that Heaven is potential and may to a large extent 
become dynamic in our every-day associations — will wake up at 
some distant point in time, at which he is now fondly though idly 
gazing, and find that his Heaven remains yet to be begun. For it is 
a truth that we make our own Heaven — God furnishing the oppor- 
tunity (ordinances, Priesthood, endowments,) and the guide, (the 
Spirit of truth). Heaven-making is in fact the only legitimate 
business of life; and Hell-making is nothing else than Heaven- 
making neglected. 

Whatever other books there may be out of which we shall be 
judged, certain it is that the Book of Life — as its name would 
indicate — is the record which each individual soul is daily record- 
ing in itself; and so absolute is this record that, as Christ said, we 
shall even have to account for every idle word we utter. In one 
particular this simile of a book out of which judgment is to be 
made, is at fault; for with such a record judgment can be rendered 
at best only at intervals; whereas in the life-record each of us is 
making, judgment is instantaneous: every thought, word or deed 
instantly conditions the sum-total of the Heaven or harmony 
within us, as surely, and effectually as a pebble cast into a pond 
changes the shoreline. 

And this is the essential essence of a man's Heaven or Hell— 
the harmony or discord which reigns at any moment within his 
own soul. For Heaven secured within him, he begins to live in 
Heaven, even though his externals be Hell. The more discordant 
his environments, the more narrowly circumscribed perhaps will 
be his Heaven — the more hedged in will be his soul-life; but small 



*Let it not be supposed, because I thus emphasize, self -effort, that I 
do not take the mercy of God into account. God's merciful guidance 
through the medium of the Spirit of Truth is the very source of the 
Heaven ideals, conforming to which constitutes "laying up treasures in 
Heaven." Furthermore, the conforming thereto is possible only as God, 
by the same means, gives us courage and fortitude. 



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GOSPEL STUDIES. 205 

though it be, the light within his bosom will be celestial light — 
differing in no respect from the light which shines from the 
throne of God; the warmth within him will be celestial warmth — 
differing in no respect from that which he would feel should he 
grasp the hand of angels. 

Nor is it to be understood that the Heaven-life within him is 
circumscribed in the sense that his soul's light does not shine out 
and his soul's warmth radiate. It is only that the medium about 
him is unfitted to perceive the light and warmth; as truly so, as 
that the glories of sunlight with its thousand hues and tints, 
would be but black darkness were there no eye to see them; or to 
put it in the language of scripture, "The light shineth in dark- 
ness and the darkness comprehendeth it not." It is only as the 
man moves into environments where harmony begins to take the 
place of discord, that he finds sympathy and companionship — that 
his light and warmth find an atmosphere for refraction and diffu- 
sion. He may have Heaven and the joy of Heaven within him, 
but he will never be at rest till he find Heaven also without him. 

Note, therefore, that I say the "essential essence" of a man's 
Heaven or Hell is the harmony or discord within him — they are 
not the all of his future states; for Heaven and Hell as external 
realities are but imperfectly realized here — the tares and the 
wheat grow together. Whether the tares get any pleasure from 
growing with the wheat or will have their pain increased by being 
collected to themselves, may be doubted; but there can be no 
question that the wheat suffers from the presence of the tares, 
and that its inner life will not expand to the full measure of joy 
and bliss till they be removed. In the sense, therefore, of an 
external Heaven and Hell, there are future rewards and punish- 
ments; but even these awards, which will be made on the day of 
judgment — what are they but the sum-totals of a million instanta- 
neous judgments, the effects of which for bliss or pain, have been 
with us internally, and partially if not completely realized, ever 
since the moment that the thought, word, or deed out of which 
they grew, took place in our lives? My proposition is therefore 
substantially true — and I know of no thought more significant in 
the shaping of our lives — viz: We are rewarded or punished 



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206 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

instantly for what we think, say, or do; potentially there is no 
other reward or punishment throughout eternity. 

But there is another aspect of Heaven and Hell equally signi- 
ficant in the shaping of our lives for eternity. It is an aspect 
which has been foreshadowed many timcte in this discussion, but 
which I now desire to state definitely, viz: 

At the judgment day a man will receive thai degree of external 
Heaven which corresponds with the Heaven he has accumulated with- 
in him; a higher or a lower degree would be in the nature of Hell 
(or discord) to him, by just so much as the difference between the 
status of his soul and his new environments; so, too, for him whose 
life has been negative, the degree of Hell to which he is doomed will 
correspond with the want of harmony in his life; a lower or a higher 
Hell, or any degree of Heaven, would be punishment both unjust and 
unmerciful* 

This proposition, so self-evident when stated as it is here, is 
far from being realized by many Latter-day Saints. "Lord, for- 
give us our sins, and when we have finished this life, save us in 
the Celestial glory," is a very familiar petition. If the prayer 
means, "Help us day* by day to put our lives in harmony with thy 
laws so that in a million years or so we may find our outer Heaven 
in the Celestial glory"—I have no objection to makaf But I 



* 'In fine, so great had been my iniquities, that the very thoughts of 
coming into the presence of my God, did rack my soul with inexpressible 
horror. Oh, thought I, that I could be banished and become extinct both 
body and soul, that I might not be brought to stand in the presence of 
my God" — Alma 36: 14-15. Is not this a true picture of how a soul 
would feel if placed in glory for which his inner life unfitted him? 
Would not the degree of his suffering correspond to the extent of the 
difference between the status of his soul and the nature of his 
environment? 

1 1 say a "million years or so," but I confess that it is really impossi- 
ble to make a clear judgment on this point. A million years seems a 
short time for so great a work, if intelligence comes to us as slowly as it 
comes on earth; but it is probable that we shall conform to the laws of 
God in a much accelerated ratio, as our eyes are opened to the real 
meaning of salvation and exaltation. 



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GOSPEL STUDIES. 207 

suspect these good people desire to make a sectarian leap from 
earth conditions into associations which only beings perfect as God 
and angels can endure. 

Think what would happen should their prayers be answered! 
Truth would buffet their imperfections on every side. Inexorable 
law, to a thousand expressions of which they have never learned 
to conform, would crush them to agonized helplessness. "God 
dwells in everlasting burnings." No man can behold his glory 
and live. Fire was the only comparison by which the Prophet 
could make us even faintly realize the gap between us and His 
perfection. Less awful would be most men's suffering were they 
placed in the abode of the damned— less awful because their 
inner life would still be nearer the discord of Hell than the perfect 
harmony of Heaven. But going to either place would entail an 
agony^which neither mercy nor justice can ever permit to happen. 
We shall go to that Heaven which is fitted to give us bliss. 

Foolish children that we still are! No sooner are we done 
believing in Aladdin and his wonderful lamp than we begin to think 
ourselves wise, and straightway give credence to marvels concern- 
ing Heaven and Hell more impossible than anything recorded in 
the Arabian Nights Entertainments. Consider for a moment what 
would be the nature of the segregation should this eternal judg- 
ment be passed on the Latter-day Saints now living, with just one 
day's notice. How many would go to a Celestial glory? A few — 
a very few — would no doubt pass to higher associations — to an 
external Heaven more perfect than The- Church today— their inner 
life being purer, more exalted than any outer life they have an 
opportunity to conform to. But many would be consigned to 
associations less perfect than they have here on earth, since their 
ideals today, are far below the external requirements made of 
them. For the most of us, there would-be a Heaven not differing 
much from the Church organization to which we are now striving 
to conform. The joys of the new life would be purer, since the 
tares would no longer be growing with the wheat. But as for the 
rest — the standard of truth, the opportunities to work out the 
Heaven-ideals within us, the sacrifices by which we overcome self— 
these would be much the same; for if they were much higher or 



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208 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

more difficult, there would be such a gap between us and them 
that they would be meaningless to us and therefore useless. 

What then? Was it a futile promise that we should inherit 
eternal lives in the Celestial glory? By no means. That is our 
destiny. We shall become like unto God when we have bridged 
the gap between us and God by self-effort guided and directed 
by his Holy Spirit— in short by doing just such unostentatious duties 
and making just such unheralded sacrifices as are daily required of 
us in this life. It may take us a long while to reach this goal; but 
let us not forget that potentially we are in Heaven from the moment 
we start toward U: and at any stage in our journey toward the Celes- 
tial Heaven we are in the highest glory and most perfect bliss that 
the universe can at that moment afford us. But we shall yet 
reach a higher and more perfect outer Heaven as day by day we 
build a more perfect inner Heaven, for there is no end to time, 
nor space, nor progress. 



MY PRAYER. 



If there be some weaker one, 
Give me strength to help him on; 
If a blinder soul there be, 
Let me guide him nearer thee. 
Make my mortal dreams come true 
With the work I fain would do; 
Clothe with life the weak intent, 
Let me be the thing I meant; 
Let me find in thy employ 
Peace that dearer is than joy; 
Out of self to love be led, 
And to heaven acclimated, 
Until all things sweet and good 
Seem my nature's habitude. 

John G. Whittibr. 



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SOUTH AFRICAN WAR 

BY DR. J. M. TANNER, PRESIDENT OP THE STATE AGRICULTURAL COL- 
LEGE, LOGAN, UTAH. 



IL 

Since the war broke out in South Africa there has been a gen- 
eral disposition on the part of the people of England to support the 
party in power. It is no longer a question of partisan politics, but 
a question of patriotism, a war in which the success of the Eng- 
lish arms is dear to the heart of every Englishman. On the other 
hand, it must not be supposed that the war is a popular one. Many 
of the Liberals are very strongly opposed to it; they thought that 
the war with all its harsh and unhappy consequences might be 
avoided by the exercise of some patience and diplomacy. 

The Uitlanders in South Africa saw in this division the prob- 
abilities of a longer delay in the adjustment of their difficulties 
than they wished for, especially in case the Liberals came into 
power. The Liberals are Home Rulers. The very questions that 
bear them up in the popular elections of England are questions 
that go to the fundamental rights of the Boers in the rule of their 
own country. The Uitlanders saw that as the wheel of political 
success turned round, sooner or later the Liberals would again be 
on top, and they had much less to hope for from them than from 
the Conservatives. The policy, therefore, of the Uitlanders was to 
force the questions to an issue, and force it as soon as possible. 
In the Foreign Minister, Mr. Chamberlain, they had a warm friend 
and sympathizer, and if they missed the opportunity of forcing the 



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210 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

issue during his administration, they might have to postpone the 
fulfillment of the hopes which they were building up, for an indefinite 
period of time. It became, therefore, an easy matter to increase 
the agitation in South Africa, to multiply difficulties, and to make 
an intervention on the part of another country almost an absolute 
necessity. But England had other reasons for preferring the war 
now. 

It will be remembered that in 1896, the Jameson raid revealed 
the fact that Rhodes and others were laying a scheme for an up- 
rising in which the Uitlanders would take the initiative and Eng- 
land be compelled to follow. The Jameson raid was a conspicuous 
failure. It was so bold and untimely as to create the most intense 
feeling of hatred on the part of the Boers for the English. Jame- 
son had not acted wisely, and about the only explanation that Mr. 
Rhodes could offer was that Jameson had upset his apple cart, 
and Rhodes' calculations were therefore all scattered, and it must 
necessarily take a long time before they could be gathered up and 
concentrated as Rhodes thought he had them concentrated at the 
time of the Jameson raid. 

This led to the unification of the Dutch throughout all South 
Africa, so that those who lived in Cape Colony under English Do- 
minion made their sympathy for their brethren in the Transvaal a 
political issue, and conceived the idea that the Dutch through all 
South Africa should be united in a common cause, with common 
interests— without undertaking to throw off English rule — in cer- 
tain national aims. This was called the "Africander Bund," and 
leading Englishmen saw that as this Bund become more powerful 
it might very easily lead to an alliance of all the Dutch in South 
Africa— an alliance that, in case of war, would group all the Dutch 
together in arms against the English. And again, it might be the 
initiative leading to a South African revolution. If the Dutch of 
Cape Colony, an English province, should rise in arms, the rebellion 
would be more formidable, because all the Dutch practically could 
enter the field, while of the Englishof Cape Colony there would be 
only comparatively few in numbers who would be prepared to 
take up arms. Soldiers would have to be provided from else- 
where. In Cape Colony there are two hundred and sixty-five thous- 
and Dutch and one hundred and ninety-four thousand English. The 



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SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. 211 

preponderance, therefore, of the Dutch over the English in this 
colony, and the disposition on the part of the former to take up 
arms being more general than it would be among, the English, 
might increase the difficulties which England would have to en- 
counter in case of a general uprising. 

It may thus be seen that those who most favored the aggres- 
sive policy of Mr. Chamberlain, and especially the Uitlanders, have 
been governed largely by the idea that it would be dangerous to 
postpone the war, and that the difficulties might by postponement 
be protracted for an indefinite length of time. The causus belli, 
however, of the war is to be found largely in the commercial dif- 
ficulties which the Uitlanders have to encounter. They [are de- 
pendent for their existence upon the outside world. Their bread- 
stuffs, their clothing, all implements, and most all of the necessa- 
ries of life come from abroad, and these are taxed as they pass 
through the different colonies on the road to the great city of 
Johannesburg. Long lists of grievances of a commercial character 
have been set forth by the Uitlanders as evidence of the oppres- 
sion they were under. Examples of this may be found in the tax on 
dynamite used for mining purposes. It costs there seventeen dol- 
lars per case, when it could be bought out of the state for less 
than ten dollars. And a concession on dynamite has been granted 
to a company which makes millions of dollars a year out of it. 
Enormous prices by reason of similar concessions are paid for 
candles. The railroads discriminate and charge as much for haul- 
ing freight a distance of forty-seven miles from the border of the 
Transvaal to Johannesburg as it costs to haul the same freight a 
thousand miles from the seaport. 

Those who undertake to justify England in this war claim 
that one of her purposes is also humanitarian; that the treking of 
the Boers was not simply for the purpose of migrating to a land 
wherein they could enjoy greater political privileges, but for the 
purpose of maintaining the institution of slavery,and that symptoms 
of slavery still exist in that country. This, of course, is denied by 
the Boers who undertake to show that the native service is simply 
a condition of employment. But it will hardly do to ascribe the 
English position in this war to the slavery question. There are 
those, no doubt, to whom this excuse appeals very strongly. 



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212 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Connected with the charge of slavery is also the charge that 
English missionaries have been treated very harshly by the Boers. 
Whatever that treatment may have been, it is certain that the 
missionaries manifest a strong dislike of a people into whose relig- 
ion they have been unable thus far to make any inroad. The 
Boers maintain strongly their faith, and it has been one of the 
leading causes of their union, and, no doubt, one of the leading , 
causes of the great treks which they have in the past undertaken. 
Before and at the opening of the war, the ministers certainly did 
all they could to create popular prejudices throughout England 
and America by writing in denunciation of the Boers, and wherever 
a missionary discussed the question, people generally expected to 
find him against the Boers and in favor of this war. But while 
the missionary sympathizers may justify the war in part on the 
grounds of the grievances set up by the missionaries, it is certain 
that the treatment of missionaries by the Boers has played really 
no part whatever in this matter. Besides, the grievance is old, for 
in recent years there has been but little conflict between the Boers 
and the missionaries. 

It is evident that even now, in the midst of war, the leaders 
among the Liberal party have not withdrawn entirely the strong 
opposition which they felt at its commencement. Bryce, the author 
of the "American Commonwealth," a prominent Liberal, has written 
a work upon "Impressions of South Africa." Bryce is very popular 
and considered a very impartial author. His book was published 
in 1898. Now that the war has broken out a revised edition is to be 
issued, and in it he says, speaking of the causes that led to this 
war: 

"The Boers made concessions, but the English held these concessions 
insufficient. In the course of this dicsussion the British ministry used 
language which led the Transvaal people to believe that they were 
determined to force the Boer government to comply with their demands; 
and they followed up their dispatches by sending troops from England 
to Africa. 1 ** They justified this action by pointing out (and the event 
has shown this to be the fact) that the British garrison in South Africa 
was insufficient to defend the colonies. But the Boers naturally felt 
that if they remained quiet till the British forces had been raised to a 
strength which they could not hope to resist, they would lose the only 
military advantage which they possessed. Accordingly, when they knew 



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SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. 213 

that the reserves were being called out in England, and that an army 
corps was to be sent to South Africa, they declared war, having been 
for some time previously convinced, rightly or wrongly, that the British 
government had resolved to coerce them. They were in sore straight, 
and they took the course which must have been expected from them, 
and, indeed, the only course which brave men who are not going to 
make further concessions could have taken." 

Continuing further, Mr Brycesays regarding the present situa- 
tion: 

"To some of us it appears a calamity for England also, since it is 
likely to alienate, perhaps for generations to come, the bulk of the white 
population in one of our most important self-governing colonies; it may, 
indeed, possibly mean for her the ultimate loss of South Africa." 

At the outbreak of the war, Mr. Chamberlain had but little to 
say, and the press indulged in some comment over his reticence, 
and wondered how it was possible that he could restrain himself 
from speech-making in which he frequently indulges, and in which 
his representations are of the most extreme character. Recently, 
however, he found it convenient to arrange for a speech at Leices- 
ter. He had been extremely goaded by certain portions of the 
continental press, and the attitude of some French papers was 
most exasperating to him. Indeed, the papers that indulged in 
extreme criticism and were attacking the person of the Queen, had 
descended to a vileness that, although not worthy of notice, was 
nevertheless extremely aggravating. The circumstances that led 
to the attack upon the Queen arose from the announcement that 
she would spend the coming winter in the Italian part of the 
Riviera, a warm and delightful country for those who delight in the 
sunshine during the cold wintry months of northern Europe. 

The Riviera extends from Genoa along the shore of the 
Mediterranean as far west as Nice, and, during the winter season, 
is perhaps as nearly Paradise as can be found in any part of the 
world. I suppose political conditions led the Queen to make the 
change and go to Italy instead of to France, especially since the 
French were very critical toward the English at the outbreak of 
the war. Some of the most disreputable, as well as the lowest, 
French journals, began an attack upon the person of the Queen, 
and made references quite vulgar in their character. 



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214 IMPRO VEMENT ERA. 

Mr. Chamberlain seems to have lost his temper, and he under- 
took in his speech to lecture the French, and, in his reference to 
France, made statements that were threatening in their character. 
He warned the French that such attacks "may have serious con- 
sequences if our neighbors do not mend their ways." He also 
spoke of the very friendly interest existing between England. 
Germany and the United States. He made reference to an Anglo- 
Saxon, or Tuetonic alliance. In the use of the word "alliance," he 
had accentuated perhaps too strongly the friendly interest between 
Germany and England, as a number of the German newspapers at 
once repudiated the idea that there was an alliance between Eng- 
land and Germany. However, he did represent that these three 
countries were practically in accord with reference to their foreign 
policy. Whether that accord of foreign policy will lead to an alli- 
ance, is yet to be seen. England had recently been treating Ger- 
many to high consideration. She has practically withdrawn her 
interest in the Samoan Islands on terms most favorable to Germany, 
and according to Germany's own wishes. The adjustment of the 
Samoan question between England and Germany, was evidently a 
stroke of high diplomacy on the part of England in her play for 
the friendly interest of Germany. 

That the Liberals will take every advantage of what they con- 
sider the mistakes of the Conservatives in this war, to strengthen 
their position, may be seen again from the remarks of Lord Rose- 
bery at Edinburgh, wherein he makes reply to Mr. Chamberlain. 
Lord Rosebery says: 

"We have no right to go into the gutters (speaking of the French) 
to fish up the derelict press of any country and to hold it up to scorn, 
as a motive of our policy. It is impossible that the Queen could be 
besmirched by such attacks, which only recoil on the attackers; but, 
whatever the degraded outburst may mean, it does not represent the 
best or highest opinion of France. We have been over-ready to flout 
other nations, and it is no wonder that Great Britain is unpopular 
abroad. I do trust that this undiplomatic frankness will cease, for 
these stinging words rankle long afterwards, and it is not for statesmen 
to speak under the passing irritation of the moment." 

The events of the war clearly demonstrate that England has 
again been guilty of the sin which has characterized her move- 



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SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. 215 

ments in almost every war of the last half of this century, namely, 
an underestimation of the strength of her enemies. At this time, it 
is not possible to give any very correct idea of what has actually 
taken place in the movements and contests on the battlefield. The 
Boers have moved their forces south into Natal, a British province, 
where most pf the fighting, up to- the present time, has taken 
place. There have been battles at Glencoe, Colenso and Estcourt. 
Seventeen thousand British are now shut up in Ladysmith, Eim- 
berly and Maf eking. The battle of Modder River is perhaps the 
most sanguinary struggle that has yet taken place, but the paucity 
of news from the seat of war is such that it is very difficult at this 
writing to give the results of the struggle. 

The British own the cable lines from South Africa, and the 
news that reaches us has, of course, a strong British coloring. 
Recent statements from the other side, show a wide discrepancy in 
the estimates, not only of the men lost, but in the size of the 
forces. Here is an example. The English say that from four 
thousand to nine thousand Boers occupied Talena Hill October 20th, 
under Lucas Meyer. The account of the Boers gives the number 
as about one thousand. In the attack made by General Symons 
upon the Boers, the English report says that from six hundred to 
nine hundred Boers were wounded. The Boer report says twenty- 
seven. The fact that the war office in England permits so little 
of the news coming from the front to be made known, indicates at 
any rate that the English are not meeting with that success which 
the f riends of England are looking for. 

It has been supposed that the Boers had deteriorated in the 
use of their arms, and were not the excellent riflemen that they 
were some years ago. When the battle of Majuba Hill was fought, 
in 1880, the Boers were victorious in a conflict against six hundred 
English soldiers, when their own soldiers numbered only one hun- 
dred and fifty. In the Jameson raid, however, fewer than thirty 
men were killed, and this small number is said to have been the 
result of a general deterioration on the part of the Boers in the 
use of the rifle. Many have supposed, therefore, that the Boers 
would be outmatched in markmanship, and, therefore, at a disad- 
vantage when they came to meet the English soldier on the field. 
All this speculation about the falling off in the standard of mark- 



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216 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

* 

manship of the people of the Transvaal seems to have been entirely 
misleading; and now the English are reminded that within the last 
year or two the Boers have been in constant practice, that they 
have been under the training of French artillerymen and German 
officers, and are constantly trained to a higher standard of mark- 
manship than was supposed to exist among them. It is hardly 
likely that the Boers will undertake the storming of the cities in 
which the British are shut up. That would entail a loss of men 
which they cannot afford, and it is said that even should they 
intend to storm Ladysmith, they have no bayonets with which to 
make a charge. 

There has been some thought that the natives would join the 
British in the present war. Certainly the British would offer no 
aid to such a policy as this, and have already probably informed 
the natives that in the absence of an attempt on the part of the 
Boers to invade their lands, they are to remain neutral. News, 
however, reaches us of an uprising among the natives, and an effort 
on their part to take sides with England. This would be somewhat 
of a serious movement to the Boers. The natives in recent years 
have been to some extent armed, and if they should attack the 
Boers on the rear the latter would be obliged in defense of their 
homes and families to withdraw a considerable portion of their 
army to defend the frontier against the negroes. On the other 
side, it is not unlikely that an effort to secure the assistance of 
the natives would result in disaffection among the Boers of 
Cape Colony, who might easily be induced to leave this British 
possession to join their brethren in the Transvaal. 

Indeed, it is already said that numbers of farmers from the 
northern part of Cape Colony have already cast their lot on the 
side of the Boers in the present war. At this time it is not possi- 
ble to determine just how many soldiers the Boers have in the 
field. Only the "first-call" men, about twenty-five thousand were 
summoned. The "first-call" men include those between the ages 
of eighteen and thirty-five. It is said, however, that five thousand 
of the second-called men have joined the army of the Boers with- 
out a summons, and that about ten thousand from Natal and other 
provinces have enlisted, so that the entire army must now aggre- 
gate somewhere in the neighborhood of forty thousand men. Eng- 



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SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. 217 

land expects to put eighty thousand men in the field, and at present 
it is doubtful whether the Boers will be able to resist this with a 
greater force than fifty thousand. The country, however, is moun- 
tainous, and the Boers must act largely on the defense; and if they 
maintain a stubborn resistance, the war is likely to result in a terri- 
ble loss of life and treasure. 



WHY DONT YOU LAUGH? 



Why don't you laugh, young man, when troubles come, 
Instead of sitting 'round so sour and glum? 

You cannot have all play, 

And sunshine every day; 
When troubles come, I say, why don't you laugh? 

Why don't you laugh? Twill ever help to soothe 
The aches and pains. No road of life is smooth; 

There's many an unseen hump, 

And many a hidden stump 
O'er which you'll have to jump. Why don't you laugh? 

Why don't you laugh? Don't let your spirits wilt; 
Don't sit and cry because the milk you've spilt; 

If you would mend it mow, 

Pray let me tell you how: 
Just milk another cow! Why don't you laugh? 

Why don't you laugh, and make us all laugh, too, 
And keep us mortals all from getting blue? 

A laugh will always win; 

If you can't laugh, just grin, — 
Come on — let's all join in! Why don't you laugh? 

— Independent. 



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THE LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY 
RIGDON. 

BY JOHN JAQUES, ASSISTANT CHURCH HISTORIAN. 



H. 

On Sunday morning, January 3, 1836, "President Sidney Rig- 
don delivered a fine discourse on revelation." 

In a council at Eirtland, on the 13th, under the hands of 
Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, and Hyrum Smith, several brethren 
were ordained to the High Priesthood and to be counselors in that 
stake of Zion. Also Joseph, Sidney, W. W. Phelps, David Whitmer, 
and Hyrum Smith were appointed to draft rules and regulations to 
govern the house of the Lord, which was done accordingly, and in 
a council on the 15th the rules were unanimously accepted. Presi- 
dent Rigdon, on his request, was administered to for a severe 
affliction in his face, which troubled him most at night, probably 
neuralgia. 

On the 16th, Joseph, Sidney and others attended a council of 
the Twelve, where some unpleasantness caused by harsh expressions, 
was mollified, and the brethren covenanted to be more regardful of 
each other's feelings, Joseph stating that he did not countenance 
harsh language, neither in himself nor any other man. 

The next day, Sunday, an excellent meeting was held, the 
brethren confessing their faults to each other. 

At meetings on the 21st and 22nd, at which the Presidency 
and others were present, the ordinance of anointing with oil and of 
blessing was attended to, many glorious visions were beheld, and 
the ministration of angels was enjoyed. On the 28th and 30th, 



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LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON 219 

the several quorums of the authorities of The Church met and were 
set in order. The holy anointing was further attended to and more 
angelic visions were beheld. A similar meeting was held on the 1st 
of February. 

The next day, in the school house, President Rigdon delivered 
an animated discourse, chiefly on the scattering and gathering of 
Israel, and "the Spirit bore record that the Lord was well pleased." 
During the same month a number of other meetings and councils 
were held, at which more visions were seen by some of the brethren. 

About this time, Joseph, Sidney, and other brethren were en- 
gaged in learning Hebrew, under the teaching of Professor Seixas. 

On the 25th, President Rigdon's wife was very sick, but after 
being administered to by Joseph and other brethren she began to 
recover. 

On the 3rd of March, the Presidency and several quorums met 
to consider certain resolutions concerning licenses, at which time 
Joseph said, "Equal rights and privileges, is my motto; and one 
man is as good as another, if he behaves as well; and that all men 
should be esteemed alike, without regard to distinctions of an official 
nature." Joseph was nominated as chairman of conference to sign 
licenses, and Sidney as chairman pro tern. 

On the 13th, the Presidency and Twelve decided that they move 
to Zion (Western Missouri) on or before May 15th, if the way waa 
opened before them. 

On the 18th, Sidney preached a fine discourse at the funeral of 
Susan Johnson. 

On the morning of the 27th, in solemn assembly, at the dedi- 
cation of the Eirtland Temple, President Rigdon opened and closed 
by prayer, and also preached two and a half hours, among other 
things showing that conflicting sects and parties and diversity of 
religious sentiment ever had obtained and ever would obtain when 
people were not led by present revelation. 

President F. G. Williams said that while President Rigdon was 
offering the first prayer, an angel entered the window, took his 
seat between Father Smith and President Williams, and remained 
there during the prayer. Many glorious visions were beheld, and 
Joseph said the temple was filled with angels. He offered the dedi- 
catory prayer. A bright light, like a pillar of fire, rested upon the 



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220 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

temple, and the people in the neighborhood "were astonished at 
what was transpiring." 

On the 29th, Joseph, P. G. Williams, Sidney, Hyrum Smith, and 
Oliver Cowdery met in the most holy place in the Lord's house, and 
sought for revelation concerning going west. During the meeting, 
Sidney washed the feet of Joseph Smith, Jr., and his father, also 
of Hyrum Smith. Joseph washed Sidney's feet, and Hyrum washed 
David Whitmer's and Oliver Cowdery's. The feet of many other 
brethren were washed also, on that day and the next. 

On the 31st, the temple services were repeated. 

In a Council meeting, April 2, Sidney Rigdon and F. G. Wil- 
liams were appointed a committe to devise means to discharge the 
debts of the printing company. 

On May 27th, Joseph Smith's grand mother, Mary Smith, died. 
Sidney Rigdon delivered the address at her funeral. 

Presidents F. G. Williams and Sidney Rigdon, June 16, pre- 
sided in a High Council meeting at the trial of Preserved Harris 
and Isaac Mc Withy. 

On the 25th of July, Joseph, Sidney, Oliver Cowdery, F. G. 
Williams and Hyrum Smith wrote to W. W. Phelps and others, in 
Missouri, advising them not to be the first aggressors, but to be 
wise and prudent, to preserve peace with all, and to stand by the 
constitution. Also one to John Thornton and others, of Liberty, 
Clay County, concerning the Missouri troubles. 

The same afternoon, Joseph, Sidney, Hyrum Smith, and Oliver 
Cowdery left Kirtland and in the evening took steamer at Fairport, 
arriving at Buffalo, N. Y., next evening. Thfence they took a line 
boat for Utica, arriving there on the morning of the 29th, then 
took rail for Schenectady, on the first passenger car on the new 
road, being six hours traveling eighty miles, and by rail also to 
Albany, arriving the same evening. There, next day, they went on 
the steamer Erie, which had a race with the steamer Rochester, the 
Erie arriving at New York a few hours ahead. Thence by steamer 
to Providence, and from there to Boston by rail, arriving at Salem, 
Mass., early in August. There they hired a house and engaged in 
preaching and teaching, returning to Kirtland in September. 

A conference in the house of the Lord, December 22, was 
attended by the First Presidency and other authorities of The 



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LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON. 221 

Church. The subject of the emigration of the poor to Zion, and 
their settlement there, from the churches abroad, was considered 
and motions were passed accordingly. 

On the 2nd of January, 1837, Sidney Rigdon was chairman at 
a special meeting of the "Kirtland Safety Society," when the old 
constitution, adopted November 2, 1836, was annulled and a "pre- 
amble and articles of agreement" were adopted of the "Kirtland 
Safety Society Anti-Banking Company." 

During the winter, many well attended meetings were held by 
the different quorums in the house of the Lord. The Kirtland 
high school was taught in the attic story. 

On the 1st of February, the firm of 0. Cowdery & Co., was 
dissolved by mutual consent, and the entire establishment was trans- 
ferred to Joseph Smith, Jr., and Sidney Rigdon, Warren 0. Cowdery 
to act as agent in the printing office'and book-bindery and as editor 
of the Messenger and Advocate. 

Preparatory meetings, with washings and anointings, having 
been had on April 3, 4, and 5, a solemn assembly of official mem- 
bers of The Church was held in the Lord's house, Kirtland, at which 
Presidents Joseph and Hyrum Smith, Sidney Rigdon and Oliver 
Cowdery addressed the assembly. 

In May, the Messenger and Advocate office and contents were 
transferred to Wm. Marks, of Portage. Presidents Smith and 
Rigdon continued the office by power of attorney. 

About this time a spirit of speculation crept into the quorums. 
On or about the 1st of June, the First Presidency set apart Heber 
C. Kimball and Orson Hyde to a mission to England, and on the 
12th, Hyrum Smith and Sidney Rigdon set apart Willard Richards 
to that mission. 

July 27, Presidents Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, and T. B. 
Marsh left Kirtland for Canada, but Joseph was stopped at Pains- 
ville by malicious lawsuits, so all returned to Kirtland. Next day 
they started again for Ashtabula, thence by steamer for Buffalo, 
going thence to Toronto, and returning the last of August to Kirt- 
land. 

At a conference held at Kirtland, September 3, Joseph Smith 
was presented as president and Sidney Rigdon and F. G. Williams 
as his counselors, the three to constitute the First Presidents of 



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222 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

The Church. F. G. Williams was not sustained. Other officers were 
presented and sustained. 

On the 10th, in an assembly in the Lord's house, Kirtland, 
President Rigdon read the rules and regulations of the house of 
the Lord, as passed January 18, 1836, which were received. Some 
misunderstandings and incorrect reports were corrected. 

September 17, at a conference in the house of the Lord, 
Kirtland, it was voted that Joseph and Sidney "go and appoint 
other stakes, or places of gathering." On the 27th, Joseph and 
Sidney accompanied by William Smith and Vinson Knight, started 
on that mission, arriving at Terre Haute, Indiana, October 12, and 
at Far West, Missouri, in the latter part of October, or early in 
November, and attending a meeting in that place on November 6. 

Next day at a general assembly or conference, President Rig- 
don introduced the business. Joseph Smith was accepted as presi- 
dent, and Sidney Rigdon as one of his counselors. F. G. Williams 
was objected to and rejected, and Hyrum Smith was chosen as 
counselor in place of Williams. President Rigdon and congrega- 
tion called on the Lord to dedicate the land for the gathering of 
the Saints and for their inheritances. 

President Rigdon attended a general meeting at Far West on 
the 10th, when the subjects of laying off cities, consecrating for 
public purposes, and the prospectus of the Elder? Journal, were 
considered. It was also voted that the city of Far West be en- 
larged to contain four square sections, or two miles square. 

In November, Joseph left Far West for Kirtland, arriving there 
on or about December 10. Sidney was probably with him. 

"On the 22nd of December," says Joseph, "Brigham Young left 
Kirtland in consequence of the fury of the mob, the spirit that pre- 
vailed in the apostates who had threatened to destroy him, because 
he would proclaim publicly and privately that he knew by the power 
of the Holy Ghost that I was a prophet of the Most High God, that 
I had not transgressed and fallen as the apostates declared. 

"Apostacy, persecution, confusion and mobocracy strove hard 
to bear rule at Kirtland, and thus closed the year 1837." 

Joseph continues: "A new year dawned upon the Church in 
Kirtland in all the bitterness of the spirit of apostate mobocracy; 
which continued to rage and grow hotter and hotter, until Elder 



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LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON. 228 

Rigdon and myself were obliged to flee from its deadly influence, 
as did the apostles and prophets of old, and as Jesus said, 'when 
they persecute you in one city, flee to another/ And on the eve- 
ning of the 12th of January, about 10 o'clock, we left Kirtland on 
horseback, to escape mob violence, which was about to burst upon 
us under the color of legal process to cover their hellish designs, 
and save themselves from the just judgment of the law. We con- 
continued our travels during the night, and at 8 o'clock on the 
morning of the 13th, arrived among the brethren in Norton town- 
ship, Medina county, Ohio, a distance of sixty miles from Kirtland, 
where we tarried about thirty-six hours, when our families arrived, 
and on the 16th pursued our journey with our families, in covered 
wagons, toward the city of Far West, in Missouri, passing through 
Dayton, Eaton, etc., to Dublin, Indiana, where we tarried nine days 
and refreshed ourselves. 

#< The weather was extremely cold, and we were obliged to 
secret ourselves in our wagons, sometimes to elude the grasp of our 
pursuers, who continued their race more than two hundred miles 
from Kirtland, armed with pistols, etc., seeking our lives. They 
frequently crossed our track, twice they were in the houses where 
we stopped, once we tarried all night in the same house with them, with 
only a partition between us and them ; and heard their oaths and impre- 
cations and threats concerning us, if they could catch us; and late in 
the evening they came in our room and examined us, but decided we 
were not the men. At other times we passed them in the streets, 
and gazed upon them, and they on us, but they knew us not. One 
Lyons was one of our pursuers." 

At Dublin, Indiana, Joseph and Sidney separated, meeting 
again at Terre Haute. After resting, they again separated, and 
continued their journey. 

Joseph crossed the Mississippi river at Quincy, Illinois, and 
arrived at Far West, March 14, being met a hundred and twenty 
miles on the way by brethren with teams and money and received 
at Far West with open arms, warm hearts, and great hospitality. 
Sidney was detained near Paris, Illinois, by sickness in his family, 
and afterwards at Huntsville, through his wife's ill health. Brig- 
ham Young, Daniel S. Miles, and Levi Richards arrived with Joseph 
at Far West; Sidney and family reached there April 4, having 



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224 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

had a tedious journey,and his family having suffered many afflictions." 

Joseph and Sidney presided at a meeting in Far West, April 
6, "to celebrate the anniversary of The Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints," etc. Various officers were appointed. 

On the 7th and 8th of April the general authorities of The 
Church held the first quarterly conference of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints, at Par West, which was attended by 
Presidents Smith and Rigdon. 

Early in April, Joseph and Sidney wrote a letter to John Whit- 
mer in consequence of his withholding the records of The Church 
in the city of Far West, asking him to give up his notes of Church 
history. 

A revelation was given, April 26, through Joseph to the 
First Presidency and all the officers and members of The Church 
concerning Zion and the building of a house of the Lord at Far 
West, and directing the First Presidency not to get into debt any 
more for the building of a house to His name, also concerning the 
appointing and building up of other stakes around there. 

On the 28th, Presidents Smith and Rigdon attended the High 
Council by invitation, and acted as counselors in an appeal case 
from the branch near Gymon's mill. 

For several days the first Presidency were largely engaged in 
writing Church history, and on May 5th, in writing for the Elders' 
Journal. 

On the 10th, President Rigdon, although suffering from a sevefe 
cold and hoarseness, delivered an address at the school house, eluci- 
dating the policy of both the Federal and Democratic parties, by 
whicl} address Joseph said, "I was highly edified." 

On the 12th, Presidents Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon at- 
tended a meeting of the High Council, concerning their pecuniary 
affairs, they being very poor. The Council made over to Joseph and 
Sidney each an eighty-acre lot, and also appointed a committee of 
three, who agreed that Joseph and Sidney should receive a just 
remuneration for their services for the year in the printing estab- 
lishment, and in translating ancient records, etc. 

On the 13th, Sidney preached the funeral sermon of Swain 
Williams, son of F. G. Williams, and on the next day was preparing 
and correcting matter for the press. 



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LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON. 226 

On the 18th, Joseph, Sidney and others left Far West to visit 
the north country and lay off a stake of Zion, making locations and 
laying off claims for the gathering of the Saints, the benefit of the 
poor, etc. They traveled to the mouth of Honey Creek, camping 
there for the night. 

On the 19th, they crossed Grand River, at the month of Honey 
Creek and Nelson's Ferry, then went eighteen miles up Grand River 
to Lyman Wight's, at the foot of Tower Hill, so named by Joseph 
because they found there the remains of an old Nephite altar or 
tower. There they camped. Then Joseph and Sidney went up the 
river to Wight's Ferry, which the brethren called Spring Hill, but, 
said Joseph, "by the mouth of the Lord it was named Adam-ondi- 
ahman, because," said he, "it is the place where Adam shall come to 
visit his people, or the Ancient of days shall sit, as spoken of by 
Daniel the prophet." 

On the evening of Sunday, 20th, they went six miles north 
and camped. On the 21st, they made some locations, and returned 
to Robinson's Grove, two miles, to secure some land near Grand 
River. In council they voted to secure the land between there 
and Far West, especially on Grand River. 

On the 22nd, President Rigdon went east with a company and 
selected some of the best locations in the country. Next day all 
traveled east locating lands on Grove Creek and near Adam-ondi- 
ahman. Joseph and Sidney went to Col. Wight's toward evening. 

On the 24th, Sidney and company went to Grove Creek to 
finish surveying, returning on the 28th to Far West. The company 
kept surveying, making locations, also building houses, etc., for 
several days. 

A conference was held near Lyman Wight's, Adam-ondi-ahman, 
on the 28th, and that stake was organized, with John Smith as 
president, and Reynolds Cahoon and Lyman Wight as counselors. 
Adam-ondi-ahman is beautifully situated, immediately on the north 
side of Grand River, Daviess County, Missouri, about twenty-five 
miles north of Far West. 

On the 4th of July, at Far West, there was a fine celebration* 
with a grand procession. The corner stones of the temple were 
laid, with much rejoicing, after which an oration was delivered by 
President Rigdon. 



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226 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

On the 9th, at a conference of the Twelve Apostles, at Far 
West, President Rigdon gave some counsel concerning provision 
necessary to be made for the families of the Twelve while laboring 
away, and advising them to instruct their converts to move promptly 
to the places of gathering, and strictly attend to the law of God. 

On the 10th, Joseph, Sidney, Hyrum, and G. W. Robinson visited 
Adam-ondi-ahman. 

In the latter part of this month, Judge Morin, of Mill Port, 
informed some brethren that the mob had determined to prevent 
the "Mormons" from voting at the election on August 6, and there- 
by elect Colonel William P. Peniston, who led the mob in Clay 
County. Judge Morin advised the brethren to go prepared for an 
attack, and stand by their rights. But the brethren hoped better 
things and paid little heed to his friendly counsel. 

On the 26th, the First Presidency, the bishop's court and others 
held a meeting at Far West, when various financial matters were 
considered and arranged.' 

Joseph and Sidney left Far West on the 28th for Adam-ondi- 
ahman to settle some Canadian brethren, returning on the 30th. 

On the 5th of August, Elder Erastus Snow and President Rig- 
don preached. Several were confirmed, among them F. G. Williams, 
he having been rebaptized. 

On the 6th, the citizens of Caldwell County, assembled at Far 
West, unanimously recommended Sidney Rigdon for postmaster of 
that place, W. W. Phelps having resigned. 

The citizens of Far West met and unanimously agreed to have 
a weekly newspaper, Sidney Rigdon to be the editor. It was also 
voted that a petition be circulated to locate the county seat at Far 
West. Joseph, Sidney and Hyrum advocated the measure and urged 
on the brethren to build and live in cities and cany on their farms 
outside, according to the order of God. 

This was the day of election. Toward mid-day, William B. 
Peniston mounted a barrel, harangued the electors, exciting them 
against the "Mormons," who, he said, were horse-thieves, liars, 
counterfeits, etc., boasting that he headed the mob to drive them 
out of Clay County and "would not prevent them being mobbed 
now." Soon quarreling, fighting and mobbing commenced. The 
county authorities said it was a premeditated thing to prevent the 



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LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON. 221 

"Mormons'' from voting. The mob collected with guns, knives, etc. 
The brethren of Far West hid their wives and children in a hazel 
bush thicket, and stood sentry over them during the night in the 
rain. 

On the 7th, reports came that two or three of the brethren 
had been killed at Gallatin, and others prevented from voting, and 
that a majarity of the Daviess County people were determined to 
drive the Saints from the county. Joseph, Sidney, Hyrum Smith 
and fifteen or twenty others started for Gallatin, to assist the 
brethren there, reaching Colonel Wight's that night, and learned 
that none of the brethren had been killed, but several were badly 
wounded. 

On the 8th, several citizens of Mill Port called, and it was 
agreed to have a meeting next day with some of the principal men 
of the county at Adam-ondi-ahman, at which a peaceable agreement 
was come to between the two parties. Joseph and his companions 
returned to Far West that night, 9th. 

On the morning of the 11th, Joseph and council and Almon W. 
Babbit left Far West to visit the brethren on the Forks of Grand 
River, who had come from Canada with Elder Babbit and had set- 
tled there, contrary to counsel. Joseph and council returned to 
Far West on the 13th, and were chased ten or twelve miles by evi- 
designing men, but eluded their grasp. When eight miles from 
home, Joseph and council were met by some brethren who said a 
writ had been issued by Judge King for his arrest and that of 
Lyman Wight, for attempting to defend their rights. The spirit of 
mobocracy continued to stalk abroad, notwithstanding all treaties 
of peace. 

On the 1st of September, the First Presidency, with Judge 
Higbee as surveyor, went north fourteen or fifteen miles, and ap- 
pointed a place for a city, and the brethren were instructed to gather 
immediately into it. The presidency returned to Far West by 
evening. 

There was great excitement at this time among the Missouri- 
ans. All of upper Missouri was in uproar and confusion. The mob 
was collecting all around, saying they meant to drive the "Mormons" 
from Daviess County, as had been done from Jackson County. 

On the 2nd, Joseph sent for General Atichison, of Liberty, 



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228 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Clay County, to see if he could not put a stop to the collection of 
people and to hostilities in Daviess County. The General arrived at 
Far West the next day. 

On the 4th, General Atchison was consulted with, who said 
he would do all in his power to disperse the mob. Generals 
Atchison and Doniphan (partners) were engaged as lawyers and 
counselors-at-law, to defend the brethren. The same day Joseph 
and Sidney commenced the study of law under the instruction of 
Generals Atchison and Doniphan. 

The result of the council with Generals Atchison and Doniphan 
was that Joseph and Colonel Wight volunteer to be tried by Judge 
King. Accordingly on the 7th, the trial commenced, William P. 
Peniston, the mobocrat being the prosecutor. The result, although 
there was no proof of crime, was that Joseph and Colonel Wight 
were held in five-hundred-dollar bonds. 

On the 2nd of October, Joseph, Sidney, Hyrum, Isaac Morley, 
and G. W. Robinson met the camp of emigrants about five hundred 
miles from Kirtland — about eight hundred and eighty-six miles the 
way they traveled — and escorted them into Far West. President 
Rigdon provided supper for the sick. Other brethren provided for 
the rest. 

On the 3rd, Joseph, Sidney, Hyrum, and Brigham Young went 
with the emigrants a mile or two and then returned to Far West. 

On the 24th, Thomas B. Marsh, formerly President of the 
Twelve, having apostatized since the conference, went to Richmond, 
and made affidavit before Henry Jacobs, justice of the peace, to 
vile calumnies, lies and slanders against Joseph and the Church. 

On the 31st, Colonel Hinkle, commanding the Caldwell Militia, 
Far West, made an unauthorized agreement with the State Militia, 
or rather mob leaders, to give up the Church leaders to be tried 
and punished. Colonel Hinkle and the officers of the governor's 
troops then waited upon Joseph Smith, and invited him to go into 
the camp for an interview; accordingly Joseph, hoping to settle 
the difficulties without the enforcing of Governor Boggs* extermi- 
nating order, accompanied by Sidney, P. P. Pratt, Lyman Wight, 
and George W. Robinson, went into the camp, when they were taken 
as prisoners of war, and treated with contempt, insult, taunts and 
sneers, and in the evening had to lie on the cold ground. 



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LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON. 229 

On the first of November, Hyrum Smith and Amasa Lyman were 
brought prisoners into camp, a court martial was held, and the 
prisoners were sentenced to be shot the next morning on the public 
square as an ensample to the "Mormons." General Doniphan said 
he would have nothing to do with such cold-blooded murder, and he 
would withdraw his forces. General Atchison withdrew when Gov- 
ernor Bogg's exterminating order was received. 

The militia then went into Far West, abused the inhabitants, 
and plundered their houses at pleasure. Eighty more men were 
taken prisoners, the remainder being ordered to leave and disperse 
on pain of death. 

On the 2nd, the martial law sentence not having been carried out, 
Joseph, Sidney, Hyrum, P. P. Pratt, Amasa Lyman, and George W. 
Robinson were taken from Far West, by the governor's troops, on 
the way to Independence, arriving there on Sunday, 4th. 

On the 6th, fifty-six more brethren were also made prisoners by 
General Clark at Far West, and started off for Richmond next day. 

On the 8th, Joseph, Sidney and the prisoners at Independence 
were started off for Richmond, arriving there on the 9th, where 
they were hand-cuffed and chained two together. While there in 
charge of Colonel Price, all manner of abuse was heaped upon them. 

On the 13th, Joseph, Sidney, and a number of others were placed 
at the bar of the court, Austin A. King, a Methodist, presiding as judge, 
The examination continued till Saturday, 24th, when several were ac- 
quitted. The remaining prisoners were released or bailed on the 18th. 
except Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Lyman Wight, Caleb Baldwin, 
Hyrum Smith, and Alexander McRae, who were held on the charge 
of treason and murder. Also P. P. Pratt and some others were 
sent to Richmond jail on similar charges. Those who were to go 
to Liberty jail were taken there about the end of the month, where 
they were closely confined and all personal communication with 
friends was cut off. 

About this time, W. G. McClellan, Burr Riggs, and others, 
plundered the houses of Sidney Rigdon and other brethren under 
pretense or color of law, or order from General Clark. 

Said Joseph: "Thus, in a land of liberty, in the town of Liberty* 
Clay County, Missouri, I and my fellow prisoners, in chains, dungeons 
and jail, saw the close of 1838." 



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EDITOR'S TABLE 



DEATH OP PRESIDENT FRANKLIN DEWEY RICHARDS. 



Just fourteen minutes after midnight, on the morning of 
December 9, 1899, Apostle Franklin Dewey Richards, President of 
the quorum of Twelve Apostles of The Church, died at his home in 
Ogden. He was born at Richmond, Massachusetts, April 2, 1821, and 
was the son of Phineas and Wealthy Richards. He was baptized by 
his father, in 1836, was ordained a seventy in 1839, an apostle in 
1849, and became president of the quorum of Twelve Apostles when 
Apostle Lorenzo Snow was chosen President of The Church, in 1898. 
He was buried in the Ogden Cemetery, his funeral being attended by 
President Snow, the Twelve, and large concourses of people. 

He filled many missions at home and in foreign lands, and his 
name is familiar to the Saints in all the world. It may truly be 
said that he served the people all his days, and that, too, in both a 
religious and a civil capacity. He held the important office of pro- 
bate judge in Weber County from 1869 to 1883. Among his other 
labors he was historian of The Church, and in this capacity did 
much to preserve valuable data, civil and ecclesiastical. He was 
also the president of the State Historical Society. 

He was among the first to recognize the value of mutual im- 
provement among the young people, and established and presided 
over a successful association in Ogden two years before the gen- 
eral movement was inaugurated forming these associations in 1875- 
He was ever after interested in them, and was a dear friend to the 
youth of Zion. 

He was an ideal Latter-day Saint. Kind, fatherly, loving — a 
man who won the respect and confidence of all who knew him. 



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EDITORS TABLE. 231 

When he spoke, all listened as to one who would utter only that 
which was good, and which would grieve none. He was thoroughly 
in accord with the^ spirit of Joseph Smith, his very being vibrating 
with the testimony of the prophet's divine mission. 

One of the sweet traits of Brother Franklin's character was 
the exemplification in his life of the saying of Job: "Though he 
slay me, yet will I trust in him." He bowed always to the will of 
God, and endured much, but by such humility and endurance set an 
example that has strengthened others to bear more joyfully their 
burdens of life, and to yield instead of breaking into pieces. He 
was for Zion, true and faithful under all circumstances, and was 
one of the noblemen of the human race. If such as he are not ex- 
alted in the presence of the Lord, who then on earth will ever gain 
a glory? Thousands will remember his fatherly advice, his inter- 
ested friendship, his kind words, his respect for authority and his 
deference for the servants of the Lord; and so remembering, will be 
better, and happier, and more charitable and loving, because Brother 
Franklin lived. 

The Church will greatly miss him, and in every home in Zion 
there will be felt an indescribable loss, as when one who is dearly 
loved has said his last good night. His example will shine out like 
a beacon light, and well may we all exclaim: "You may count me 
with him. I wish to be with him, to associate with such as he, in 
the Kingdom of God throughout the ages of eternity ." His memory, 
his character, his works, will be an inspiration to the living of noble 
lives by all who learn of him or knew him. 



AN AMERICAN PORT IN CHINA. 



Those who have studied the Philippine question and the prob- 
lem of expansion from a commercial point of view, have realized 
that the question of our possessions in the Philippines was but a 
preliminary step to something further. The war with Spain led to 
political conquest, and that political conquest will lead us into com- 
mercial struggles. Commercial interests are very likely to drive 



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232 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

us onward just as they have driven Germany, Russia, and other 
nations into an aggressive foreign policy, and the question now 
forces itself upon us, Do we also want a port in China? 

That country promises to be one of the greatest markets in 
the world, and about it are centered today the greatest commercial 
struggles of Europe. Russia has a port in China, and so have 
Prance, England and Germany, yet the commerce of Prance, Ger- 
many, or Russia in the Chinese Empire is not equal to that of the 
United States. 

In 1893, our trade in China amounted to eight million dollars, 
chiefly from cotton and woolen goods. Within six years it has 
grown to twenty million dollars, and this seems to be but a small 
beginning of American commerce in the Celestial Empire. 

Many advocates of expansion in the Philippines have had con- 
stantly in view its bearing on our Chinese trade. As neighbors to 
China, we shall feel that we are entitled to the highest commercial 
considerations. 

From what has been said, the far reaching consequences of 
the step which the administration has just taken can be readily under- 
stood. Our embassadors are instructed to obtain from Russia, 
France and Germany written assurances that our trade shall not be 
interfered with by any policy of annexation which may be followed 
by any of these nations. We shall stand shoulder to shoulder with 
England in demanding an open door, and the commercial interests 
of these two great Anglo-Saxon nations will demand from all other 
European countries adequate protection for their trade. One is 
naturally led to wonder whether the United States, when order and 
government are established in the Philippines, will not take the first 
opportunity to secure a port in China. At any rate, it is evident 
that no important changes can be made in that country without 
taking into consideration the interests of this country in that 
empire. 

Russia and Germany have all given assurances of their inten- 
tion to open the ports under their jurisdiction free to all foreign 
trade. Russia has taken great pains to assure the American people 
that there is a friendly feeling and interest in that country for the 
United States and that her ports are open to trade, and if the 
American people desire a "sphere of influence" it can be had in 



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EDITORS TABLE. 233 

Manchuria. This Chinese province is directly under Russian con- 
trol. Prance has made no reply. 

Strong hopes are now entertained that the Pacific will increase 
immensely in commerce with Asiatic countries, and there can be lit- 
tle doubt that the government will do everything in its power to 
promote American trade among our neighbors in the Orient. 



A QUESTION ON TITHING. 



A friend residing in Dingle, Bear Lake County, asks a question 
on tithing, and requests a reply through the Era. His inquiry 
reads: 

"Do people who are engaged in cattle and sheep raising, and 
who pay a tithing on their cattle or sheep, owe a tithing on the 
hay said cattle and sheep eat?" 

The answer is, "Yes; provided the hay is not purchased." The 
law of tithing is very plain: First, the Lord requires all the sur- 
plus property to be put into the hands of the bishop of The Church; 
"and this shall be the beginning of the tithing of my people; and 
after that, those who have thus been tithed, shall pay one-tenth. of 
their interest annually, and this shall be a standing law unto them 
forever, for my holy priesthood, saith the Lord." 

What is the tithing on the interest of the field? One-tenth of 
the hay, or grain, or vegetable product. 

What is the tithing on the interest of the cattle? ' Every tenth 
calf, every tenth pound of butter or cheese, and every tenth gallon 
of milk. 

In paying tithing, the point to remember is that all interest, 
increase and profit, should be tithed; and, further, the payment of 
tithing is a dealing with the Lord unto whom we owe it to be as 
liberal as he is with us, or in other words, to deal as liberally with 
the Lord as we hope that he will deal with us. 



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NOTES. 



Irresolute people let their soup grow cold between the plate and the 
mouth. — Cervantes. 

" Tis never offered twice; seize, then, the hour 
When fortune smiles, and duty points the way." 

Those love truth best who to themselves are true, 
And what they dare to dream of, dare to do. — Lowell. 

The high prize of life, the crowning fortune of a man, is to be born 
with a bias to some pursuit, which finds him in employment and happi- 
ness.— Emerson. 

There are few things more beautiful than the calm, resolute progress 
of an earnest spirit. The triumphs of genius may be more dazzling; the 
chances of good fortune may be more exciting; but neither are at all so 
interesting or so worthy as the achievements of a faithful, steady and 
fervent energy. — Dr. Tullock. 

The true key to happiness in this life, is to make others happy. 
Many people are discontented because they look around and find others 
whose circumstances seem to be more favorable than their own. Presi- 
dent Snow counseled the Saints, at the April conference, in 1899, to try 
to make others happy, and if they were in adverse circumstances, then 
to try to find some one whose condition was worse than their own. He 
asserted that pride is an abomination in the sight of the Lord. It is 
pride that would cause us to desire a better position than our fellows, 
but the Spirit of God will fill us with gratitude and thanksgiving, when- 
ever we contemplate the many blessings which are bestowed upon us by 
our Heavenly Father. A knowledge of the Gospel is of more value to 
us, provided we shall be faithful in keeping the commandments of God, 
than all other blessings. 



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IN LIGHTER MOOD. 



Employer: "You put that note where it will be sure to attract Mr. 
Smith's attention when he comes in, didn't your 

Office Boy: "Yes, sir; I stuck a pin through it and put it on his 
chair." 

* * * 

"How is this, John; what made you put the children to bed so soon?" 

asked his wife, on her return home. 

"Because they disturbed me in my writing, my dear." 

"And did they allow you to undress them quietly?" 

"No, that one in the corner screamed dreadfully." 

"That one in the corner?" She goes and peeps. "Why, bless me» 

what have you done, John? That's Freddie Squall, from next door!" 



A little boy with an interest in the meaning of familiar words, said 
to his mother: 

"What is the meaning of 'civil?' " 

"Kind and polite," answered the mother. 

A puzzled look brooded for a second on the boy's face. Then he said: 

"Was it a kind and polite war that was in this country once?" 



Herr Scheel tells of a conscientious cornet player in one of his 
orchestras who gave an unexpected rendering of a well-known passage. 

"Let's have that over again," requested Scheel, surprised at hearing 
a note which was not in the score. 

The note was sounded again and again. "What are you playing?" 
he asked at last. 

"I am blaying what am on ze paper," said the cornet player. "I blaz 
vat is before me." 

"Let me have a look." 

The part was handed to the conductor. "Why, you idiot," he roared, 
"can't you see that this is a dead fly?" 

"I don't care," was the answer; "he vas there, and I blayed him." 



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ANSWERS TO MANUAL QUESTIONS. 



A friend in Nephi, Utah, asks: "Question 17, Lesson 5, Manual for 
1899-1900, reads: In authority what quorum stands next highest to the 
Twelve?' Should this be answered as above or below the Twelve?" 

The answer suggests itself, the moment question 18 is read: "Next 
lower?" It is evident from this that question 17 means: "What quorom 
is Higher than the Twelve?" The order of the first three quorums of 
The Church is as follows: First Presidency, the Twelve Apostles, the 
Seventies. It is generally understood that the First Seven Presidents of 
Seventies with the senior president of the first sixty-four quorums of 
seventies, form the Quorum of Seventy, who, being unanimous, are equal 
in authority to the quorum of Twelve Apostles, or the First Presidency. 



We have been asked to answer question 18, lesson 6, in this season's 
Manual: What is that sealed part (of the Book of Mormon) said to have 
contained? The following quotation from II Nephi 28: 10, 11, is a com- 
plete answer: 

"But the words which are sealed he shall not deliver, neither shall 
he deliver the book. For the book shall be sealed by the power of God, 
and the revelation which was sealed shall be kept back in the book until 
the own due time of the Lord, that they may come forth: for behold, 
they reveal all things from the foundation of the world unto the end 
thereof. 

"And the day cometh that the words of the book which are sealed 
shall be read upon the house tops; and they shall be read by the power 
of Christ: and all things shall be revealed unto the children of men 
which ever have been among the children of men, and which ever will 
be, even unto the end of the earth." 



We have also been asked to explain question 8, lesson 5: "Until 
what time is this Priesthood to remain on the earth?" The intention of 
the question is evidently to draw out the statement of John the Baptist 



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OUR WORK. 237 

that this Priesthood "shall never be taken again from the earth until 
the sons of Levi do offer again an offering unto the Lord in righteous- 
ness." But the natural inquiry on rendering this answer, is: When the 
sons of Levi do offer such an offering, will this Priesthood then be taken 
away? 

A number of explanations have been offered, some of which we 
give in Order to show the variety of opinions: . 

1. Righteousness can not come by the law, therefore the sons of 
Levi can not under old conditions offer an offering unto the Lord in 
righteousness; hence the statement of the heavenly messenger is equiva- 
lent to saying that this Priesthood will never be taken from the earth. 
This, however, does not make it much clearer, because the time may 
come when, under new conditions, under a Gospel dispensation, the sons of 
Levi shall offer an offering unto the Lord in righteousness. If such a 
time may come, the query still stands unanswered. 

2. The words of Oliver Cowdery are quoted as the proper explana- 
tion: "He said, Upon you my fellow servants, in the name of Messiah, I 
confer this Priesthood and this authority, which shall remain upon 
earth, that the sons of Levi may yet offer an offering unto the Lord in 
righteousness.'" (Pearl of Great Price, p. 71; also note 2, Lesson 5, 
Manual 1899-1900.) This would seem to answer the question except for 
the fact that Brother Cowdery's rendition is not the authorized version 
of the words of John the Baptist. If Oliver was right, why not have 
the correct rendering in Section 13 of the Doctrine and Covenants? 

The inference that the word "until" conveys the idea that the 
Priesthood shall not remain after the sons of Levi make their offering in 
righteousness, is erroneous. Evidently John the Baptist only intended to 
give absolute assurance to the Saints, or to those who might become 
Saints, that the Priesthood would remain upon the earth for a sufficiently 
long period to accomplish all they could desire in righteousness, without 
intending to leave the impression that after that time it was to disap- 
pear. The Priesthood is to remain forever. 

4. Thfr Priesthood of Aaron, conferred on Aaron and his sons, will 
be taken away and the Priesthood of Elias take its place, as before the 
Mosaic law. 

5. The Aaronic Priesthood will not remain forever. The time 
must come when every son and daughter of Adam that will and can be 
saved, shall have been saved, when repentance and baptism, and the 
temporal duties now devolving upon us will no longer be necessary, 
when all the functions and duties exercised in the Priesthood will be in 
that higher division of God's authority which we are taught to call the 
Melchizedek Priesthood. When this time comes, although the same 



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238 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Priesthood (that is, authority or agency delegated by God to man) will 
exist, there will be no need of the particular functions in which it is 
now exercised, and therefore will not be exercised on this earth when it 
has reached its state of celestial perfection. We may, therefore, prac- 
tically say that it will be taken away, being an appendage to the Mel- 
chizedek Priesthood necessary for the temporal and imperfect conditions 
under which we now dwell. With Paul, we may conclude that when 
that which is perfect is come, that which is in part will be done away. 
Whichever of these is right, if any, matters little. We incline to 
the last named view, because when the sons of Levi do offer again an 
offering in righteousness to the Lord, the time may have come when the 
particular functions of the Aaronic Priesthood are no longer to be per- 
formed. Some may say that if sacrifices are to be restored, this Priest- 
hood will be needed, but it must be remembered that sacrifices were 
offered in the Gospel dispensations of Adam, Enoch and Abraham, long 
before the lesser Priesthood was conferred upon Aaron and his sons. Be 
that as it may, it matters not. It is wholly immaterial to the student 
of "The Dispensation of the Fullness of Times" whether or not the Priest- 
hood is to be taken away at the time inferred, so long as he is assured 
that it is to remain until the sons of Levi make an offering in righteous- 
ness. When that time comes, we will doubtless have further light 
upon it. In the meantime, question 8, lesson 5, should be answered by 
simply quoting the words of John the Baptist: 'Until the sons of Levi 
do offer again an offering unto the Lord in righteousness." 



BOOK REVIEW. 



A readable book, a useful addition to home literature, is 
"Sketches of Missionary Life," by Edwin F. Parry, recently of the 
Presidency of the European Mission. The little volume is divided 
into fifteen chapters, each full of incidents and experiences which 
tend to awaken faith in God, while at the same time they teach valu- 
able lessons. One good feature of the book is that it can be read 
and understood by the boys and girls, who become intensely inter- 
ested in the stories of the hand-dealings of the Lord with his serv- 
ants in the missionary field. The purpose in its publication was to 
supply "fresh reading matter of a wholesome character to the youth 
of Zion." The book well fills its mission. George Q. Cannon & 
Sons Co., Salt Lake City. Price, 50c. 



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EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 

BT THOMAS HULL, SECRETARY OF THE GENERAL BOARD OF Y. M. M. I. A. 



November 20th, 1899. Smallpox is reported to have broken oat in 
Sanpete County. Five cases are said to exist in the town of Sterling, 
and the place is quarantined. * * * General McArthur enters 
Dagupan finding it deserted. General Wheaton's troops had already been 
there and had withdrawn. * * * The German Emperor and 
Empress arrive in England on a visit to Queen Victoria. An enthusiastic 
welcome is accorded them. 

21st: Vice-President Garret A. Hobart dies at his home in Pater, 
son, N. J., at 8:30 o'clock this morning. President McKinley issues a 
proclamation to the people of the United States announcing the death, 
in which the following appears: 

In sorrowing testimony of the loss which has fallen 
upon the country, I direct that upon the day of the 
funeral the executive offices of the United States shall 
be closed, and all stations of the army and navy shall 
display the national flag at half-mast, and that the 
representatives of the United States in foreign coun- 
tries shall pay appropriate tribute to the illustrious 
dead for a period of thirty days. 

* * * General Lawton fe crowding the insurgent forces very 
hard. Reports from the field show great hardships suffered by the 
American troops on account of the rapidity of the advance. Many men 
and some officers are nearly naked, their clothing having been torn to 
pieces getting through the jungles, and are barefooted, their shoes being 
literally worn off their feet. 

22nd: Joseph E. Taylor is fined $150 for unlawful cohabitation. 
The court asks the accused for a promise to obey the law hereafter, 
but he refused to commit himself as to the future. 

23rd. The American forces continue to closely crowd Aguinaldo, 
and the rebellion is believed to be practically at an end. * * * A 
desperate battle is fought between the Boers and English at Belmont. 
The British win a great victory but it is dearly bought. 



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240 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

29th: In a great fire in Philadelphia, by which $2,000,000 of prop- 
erty is destroyed, the building of the great publishing house of J. B. 
Lippincott & Co., is completely ruined. 

30th: By a telegram from his wife, received this morning, it is 
learned that Oscar Eliason, the celebrated young Utah magician, has been 
shot and killed in Australia. No particulars are given. 

December 3rd: The report of the postmaster-general is made public. 
It shows the total expenditures for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1899, 
to be $101,632,160.92, while the receipts from all sources were $95,021,- 
38417, leaving a deficit of $6,610,776.75. 

4th: Congress opens in Washington. In the House of Representa- 
tives David B. Henderson, Republican, of Iowa, is elected speaker. When 
the roll is called, upon reaching the name of Brigham H. Roberts, of Utah, 
Representative Robt. W. Tayler, of Ohio, objects to his taking the oath 
and the representative from Utah is ordered, by the speaker, to stand 
aside. Upon the completion of the roll call a resolution referring the 
question of Roberts' admission to a committee is presented by Mr. Tayler 
and by agreement goes over for one day. 

5th: The House of Representatives adopts the Tayler resolution 
referring the Roberts' matter to a committee for investigation. * * * 
President McEinley transmits his message to Congress. The message 
opens with a tribute to the memory of the late Vice-President Hobart. 
Reference is then made to the unusual prosperity of the country; the 
business with foreign countries; receipts and disbursements of the gov- 
ernment. The President recommends the maintenance of the gold stand- 
ard, suggests that additional powers be given to national banks, and 
urges that Congress confer "the full and necessary power on the Secretary 
of the Treasury and impose upon him the duty to uphold the present gold 
standard and preserve the coins of the two metals on a parity with each 
other, which is the repeatedly declared policy of the United States." He 
calls attention to the value of an American Merchant Marine and the neces- 
sity thereof to a proper national development. Indirectly the President 
favors subsidies to increase the merchant shipping. Trusts are referred 
to and Congress recommended to ascertain and assert what power it pos- 
sesses to suppress unlawful and hurtful combinations. The message treats 
at length upon our fereign relations; the Philippine question; the peace 
with Spain; praises the volunteers; recommends liberal appropriation 
for the navy, and modifications in the pension laws; refers to affairs in 
Hawaii, and recommends a form of . temporary government for Porto 
Rico. 



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IMPROVEMENT ERA. 



Vol. HI. FEBRUARY, 1900. No. 4.^ 



*THE MANUSCRIPT FOUND." 

BY PRESIDENT JOSEPH P. SMITH. 



In January, 1885, under the somewhat peculiar circumstances 
of the times, I was sent on a mission to the Sandwich Islands. I 
sailed from San Francisco on the steamship Mariposa on the 2nd 
day of February following, remaining upon this mission until July, 
1887. Not long after my arrival on the islands, I received a com- 
munication from Elder George Reynolds, enclosing the following 
letter over the signature of James H. Fairchild, at that time 
President of the Oberlin College, Ohio, the same being a clipping 
from the New York Observer of February 5, 1885, which had also 
been copied into Frank Leslies Elustrated Sunday Magazine. 
Brother Reynolds suggested that I call upon Mr. L. L. Rice, of 
Honolulu, with the view of inquiring more particularly into this 
matter, which I did at the first opportunity. I subsequently nar- 
rated the circumstances of my interviews with that gentleman in 
a communication which was published in the Deseret News, over 
the nam, de plume "Islander," which gives a detailed account of a 



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242 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

subject which I think still possesses sufficient interest to be pre- 
sented to the readers of the Era. 

The following is Mr. Fairchild's letter: 

SOLOMON SPAULDING AND THE BOOK OP MORMON. 

The theory of the origin of the Book of Mormon in the traditional 
manuscript of Solomon Spaulding will probably have to be relinquished. 
That manuscript is doubtless now in the possession of Mr. L. L. Rice, of 
Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, formerly an anti-slavery editor in Ohio,* and 
for many years state printer of Columbus. During a recent visit to 
Honolulu, I suggested to Mr. Rice that he might have valuable anti-slav- 
ery documents in his possession which he would be willing to contribute 
to the rich collection already in the Oberlin College Library. In pur- 
suance of this suggestion, Mr. Rice began looking over his old pamphlets 
and papers, and at length came upon an old, worn and faded manuscript 
of about 175 pages, small quarto, purporting to be a history of the mi- 
gration and conflicts of the ancient Indian tribes which occupied the ter- 
ritory now belonging to the States of New York, Ohio and Kentucky. 
On the last page of this manuscript is a certificate and signature giving 
the names of several persons known to the signer, who have assured him 
that to their personal knowledge the manuscript was the writing of Sol- 
omon Spaulding. Mr. Rice has no recollection how or when this manu- 
script came into his possession. It was enveloped in a coarse piece of 
wrapping paper, and endorsed in Mr. Rice's handwriting, "A manuscript 
story." 

There seems no reason to doubt that this is the long lost story. Mr. 
Rice, myself and others compared it with the Book of Mormon, and could 
detect no resemblance between the two, in general or detail. There 
seems to be no name nor incident common to the two. The solemn style 
of the Book of Mormon, in imitation of the English scriptures, does not 
appear in the manuscript. The only resemblance is in the fact that both 
profess to set forth the history of the lost tribes. Some other explana- 
tion of the origin of the Book of Mormon must be found, if any explan- 
ation is required. 

James H. Fairchild. 

The letter to the News, under date of Honolulu, Sandwic h 
Islands, June 24, 1885, follows: 

On the morning of the 16th of April, my companion and I made our 
way to Punahou, about two miles from Honolulu, to the residence of Mr. 



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"THE MANUSCRIPT FOUND." 243 

J. M. Whitney, son-in-law of Mr. L. L. Rice, with whom the latter is at 
present living. 

On going to the honse we met a very aged, bnt intelligent-looking 
man at the rear of the dwelling, whom we found to be Mr. Rice. After 
introducing ourselves, I informed him that I had seen an article, published 
in the paper by Mr. James H. Fairchild, relative to Mr. Spaulding's ro- 
mance, from which it was alleged the Book of Mormon was derived, and 
that interest and curiosity had led us to call on him, in the hopes of see- 
ing it, and of having some conversation with him on the subject. He 
invited us into the parlor, and when we were seated he asked, 

"Are you Mormons?" 

Of course to this we had but one unequivocal answer. He then en- 
quired how long we had been in the country, our business, etc., to all of 
which we gave appropriate answers, so that he seemed satisfied that we 
had come no great distance for the special object of our visit. He then 
began to talk about as follows, to the best of my recollection: 

"I have no objection to showing you the manuscript; you shall see 
it, but it is of no value to anybody. I have, with others, compared it 
with the Book of Mormon, and I undertook to copy it, but ran out of 
paper before I got it finished and so discontinued it. There is not one 
word or sentence in it in common with the Book of Mormon. The only 
possible resemblance is: they both purpose to give an account of Ameri- 
can Indians. This manuscript is nothing but a simple story about the 
tribes of Indians supposed to have inhabited the country in the vicinity 
of Conneaut, Ohio, where some ancient mounds existed, and it is a very 
poor story at that. It came into my possession in 183 -, when Mr. Win- 
chester and I bought out the printing establishment formerly owned by 
Mr. E. D. Howe in Painsville, Ohio, in connection with a large number of 
old papers found in the place and turned over to us with it. I have had 
it ever since in my possession. I have looked at it scores of times, and 
often thought I would look into it to see what it was, but never did until 
a year ago, on the occasion of President Fairchild's visit. Since then 
I have often wondered that I did not long ago destroy it with other 
worthless papers. I have recently had letters from several parties mak- 
ing inquiries about this manuscript, and all desiring to obtain possession 
of it. Mr. Howe thinks he has a claim upon it, but I have told them all 
they cannot have it. When I get through with it, I shall most likely de- 
posit it in the Oberlin College Library, as I have promised President 
Fairchild." 

I remarked: "There is no use disguising the fact that we would like 
to obtain it, or a copy of it," to which he very emphatically replied: 
"Well, sir, you can't have it." 



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244 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

He went into another part of the house and soon returned with a 
parcel wrapped in a piece of old, brown wrapping paper, and fastened 
with an old, tow string. I judge the manuscript to be six and a half 
inches wide and eight inches long, and about an inch in thickness. Hold- 
ing the parcel before my eyes, he said: "This is just as I received it, and 
as it has been in my possession for over forty years, tied with that same 
string. You see that pencil writing? That was written there before it 
came into my hands." 

This writing in pencil, quite legible, was "Manuscript Story." "But," 
continued he, "this writing in ink I foolishly wrote there myself very 
recently; I suppose I ought not to have done it, but with that exception 
it is just as it came into my hands, and as it has remained for over forty 
years." 

This writing in ink was as follows: "Writingsrof Solomon Spauld- 
ing," and was inscribed partly over the "Manuscript Story" written 
in pencil. Mr. Rice then untied the tow string and took off the 
wrapper, when we saw a time-worn, dingy, somewhat dilapidated old 
manuscript. I glanced over a portion of the preface, which set forth 
that in consequence of the existence of large mounds in the vicinity of 
Conneaut, indicating the former occupation of the country by a numer- 
ous people, etc., the author had been induced to write, etc., etc. I do 
not pretend to give the text, but merely the sense as I gathered it from 
a hasty glance. Mr. Rice called our attention to the certificate on the 
last page, which was referred to by Mr. Fairchild in his article published 
in the New York Observer of February 5, 1885. This certificate gave 
the names of several persons, known to the writer and signer of the 
same, who had made affidavits, which the certificate says were "on file in 
this office," to the effect that they "personally know this manuscript to 
be the writing of Solomon Spaulding." The certificate and the signature 
are in the same handwriting, and are those of Doctor Philastus Hurl- 
burt, or rather, the signature is plain, "D. P. Hurlburt." 

Mr. Rice is now about 84 years of age, but he is in good mental 
and physical condition. He chatted freely relative to his early recollec- 
tions and acquaintances, not forgetting to give us his mind respecting 
plural marriage. He said: "I was well acquainted with Sidney Rigdon, 
both before and after he became a 'Mormon/ and I have heard him 
preach as a Campbellite and as a 'Mormon.' He was a very smart man, 
but I never knew the cause of his leaving your Church, or whether he 
ever denounced 'Mormonism' and the Book of Mormon or not." 

I said; "One cause of his leaving the Church was that he assumed 
to be the gaardian and leader of the Church after the death of the 



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"THE MANUSCRIPT FOUND." 245 

Prophet Joseph, while that authority had been conferred through Jo- 
seph Smith upon the Twelve Apostles; and that to my knowledge, Mr. 
Rigdon had never at any time denied or denounced either 'Mormonism' 
or the Book of Mormon." 

He said: "I was very well acquainted with Joseph Smith in Kirt- 
land, and I saw him once in Nauvoo." He was also quite well acquainted 
with Sister E. R. Snow Smith: he said she used to write poetry for his 
paper, and he always thought her "a very nice, intelligent young lady," 
and wanted to know if she was still living. As he had refused so em- 
phatically to part with the manuscript or allow it to be copied, I asked 
him if he would part with the copy he had made, so far as he had gone, 
for reasonable compensation for his time and labor. At first he refused, 
but after some talk on the subject, he promised to write Mr. Fairchild 
by the next mail, and if he made no objection he would perhaps do so. 

There is no doubt that this is the identical, much-talked-of, long- 
tost, much-believed, but very innocent "Manuscript Found." The facts 
already demonstrated beyond contradiction stamp its identity with un- 
mistakable certainty. In 1834, it was obtained by Hurlburt from 
Jerome Clark, at Hardwicks, New York, upon an order from Mrs. David- 
son, the widow of Solomon Spaulding, certified to as being the writing of 
Solomon Spaulding by several persons personally knowing the fact, and 
subscribed to by D. P. Hurlburt himself, by whom it was taken to the 
printing establishment of Mr. E. D. Howe, the reputed author of "Mor- 
monism Unveiled," and transferred to Mr. L. L. Rice on his purchasing 
the printing establishment, and by Mr. Rice preserved until now, with- 
out even knowing what it was, for some forty years. It seems that the 
hand of Providence is plainly visible, for some wise purpose, in the whole 
affair. And now it has been carefully examined and compared with the 
Book of Mormon by Mr. L. L. Rice, Mr. James H. Fairchild, President of 
the Oberlin College Library, Ohio, and by others, and by them declared 
without similarity in name, incident, purpose or fact with the Book of 
Mormon. Mr. L. L. Rice declared to Brother Farr and myself that he 
"believed it to be the only romance of the kind ever written by Mr. 
Spaulding; and", said he, "somehow I feel that this is a fact." 

From his remarks we inferred that it was his belief that the reason 
it was not published by Mr. Spaulding himself was because it was not 
worth publishing, "For," said he, "it is only a very simple story, and a 
very poor one at that." 

Taking this statement as the unreserved judgment of an old editor 
and a newspaper man, who has not only carefully read it and compared 
it with the Book of Mormon, but with his own hand copied about two- 



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246 IMPROVEMENT &RA. 

thirds of it, his opinion must be accepted as of great weight; and it cor- 
responds with the alleged message sent by Mr. Patterson with the Man- 
uscript, when it is said he returned it to Spaulding, "declining to print 
it," and said, "Polish it up, finish it, and you will make money out of it." 
It no doubt needed, and still needs, a great deal of "polish." 

On the first instant, (May 1st, 1885,) Brother Fair and I called 
again • on Mr. Rice, when he allowed us to examine the "Manuscript 
Found." We read the preface and two chapters of the manuscript, which 
we found what I would call rather a far-fetched story about the discov- 
ery of some "twenty-eight sheets of parchment" in an "artificial cave" 
about "eight feet deep," situated in a mound on the "west side of the 
Conneaut River." With this parchment, which was "plainly written up- 
on with Roman letters in the Latin language," was a "roll of parchment 
containing the biography of the writer." 

The first two chapters which we read purport to be a translation of 
this biography, which sets forth that the writer's name was Fabias, that 
he was "born in Rome, and received his education under the tuition of a 
very learned master, at the time that Constantino entered Rome, and 
was firmly seated as Emperor," to whom Fabias was introduced and was 
appointed by him one of his secretaries. 

Soon after this, Fabias was sent by Constantino "with an import- 
ant message to a certain general in England." On the voyage the 
heavens gathered blackness, obscuring the sun and stars, and a terrific 
storm arose which continued unabated for five days, when it lulled, but 
the darkness continued. They were lost at sea. They began to pray 
"with great lamentations," etc., when a voice came telling them not to 
be afraid, and they would be taken to a "safe harbor." For five days 
more they were swiftly driven before the wind and found themselves in 
the mouth of a very "large river" up which they sailed "for many days," 
when they came to a village and cast anchor. The natives were alarmed, 
held a council, and finally extended towards them the hand of friend- 
ship, made a great feast for them, sold them a large tract of land for 
"fifty pieces of scarlet calico and fifty knives," and established with 
them a covenant of perpetual peace. 

Not daring to venture the dangers and uncertainties of the unknown 
deep over which they had been so mysteriously driven, they concluded 
it better to remain than attempt to return to Rome, etc., etc. The 
ship's company consisted of twenty souls, seven of whom were young 
women who had embarked at Rome to visit their relatives in England. 
Luian or Lucian was the name of the captain of the vessel, and Trojen- 
ous was the name of his first mate; one of the sailors is called Droll Tom 



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"THE MANUSCRIPT FOUND." 247 

another Crito. There were three ladies of rank among the women. On 
motion of one of the sailors the women chose their husbands; Lucian, 
Fabias and -Trojenous were of course selected by the three ladies of rank, 
but six poor fellows had to go without wives, or marry the natives, etc. 

This is about the thread of the story so far as we have read. 

Among those who had written to Mr. Rice for the manuscript were 
Eber D. Howe, of Painsville, Ohio, (since which Mr. Rice informs me he 
had a stroke, and was supposed to be on his death-bed); Mr. A. B. Dem- 
ming, also of Painsville; Albert D. Hagar, librarian of the Chicago His- 
torical Society, Chicago; and Mrs. Ellen S. Dickenson of Boston, grand- 
niece of Solomon Spaulding. Mrs. Dickenson demanded that the manu- 
script be sent forthwith to her or to Mrs. Mclnstry, from whose mother 
it had been "stolen by D. P. Hurlburt." She also asserted that she is 
writing a book against the "Mormons," and desired the manuscript from 
which to make extracts, provided it is the one that Hurlburt stole "which 
she scarcely thinks is the one." Mr. Demming says he does "not think 
it is the Manuscript Found," for it is rumored that Hurlburt sold it to 
the "Mormons," and they destroyed it, which he says, "I believe to be 
true." He was nevertheless clamorous to have this manuscript sent to 
him immediately, for, writes he, "I desire to make extracts from it as 
I am writing a book, to be entitled 'The Death-blow to Mormonism.' " 
Joseph Smith of the Reorganized church did not ask for the manuscript 
for himself, but that it might be sent to the Chicago Historical Society, 
140 and 142 Dearborn St., Chicago, for preservation. Mr. Hagar, secre- 
tary or librarian of said society, desired it also sent there, and promised 
to defray the postage or expressage, and to have it neatly bound, etc., 
etc. But Mr. E. D. Howe laid claim to it on the ground that when he 
sold his printing establishment to his brother, from whom it was turned 
over to Messrs. Rice & Winchester, in 1839, the manuscript was inad- 
vertently turned over to them with the office. He further states in his 
letter that the manuscript was left in his office by D. P. Hurlburt, pend- 
ing efforts to obtain evidence against the Book of Mormon. Mr. Rice 
showed all these letters which we carefully read and noted. Mr. Dem- 
ming, who is a reverend gentleman, wrote two letters, both of which 
seemed to savor of a spirit smarting under the sting of conscious imbe- 
cility, and reeking with venom and the bitterness of gall. 

Mr. Rice informed us that his friends, among them the Rev. Sereno 
E. Bishop, of Honolulu, had advised him not to allow the "Mormons" to 
get hold of a copy of the manuscript. When I asked them for what reason, 
he replied, "What, indeed?" The old gentleman had a son in the States 
who is a minister, (to whom Mr. Demming's letters were addressed,) and 



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248 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

he wrote him to make enquiry respecting the existence of Messrs. 
Aaron Wright, Oliver Smith and John N. Miller, who testified to the 
identity of the manuscript as Spaulding's writings, and he found them 
to have been "veritable persons, but they are now all dead." This was 
the statement which Mr. Rice made to us. Here is a copy of the certifi- 
cate: 

"The writings of Solomon Spaulding, proved by Aaron Wright, 
Oilver Smith, John N. Miller and others. The testimonies of the above 
gentlemen are now in my possession. D. P. Hurlburt." (The signature 
is written as here given.) 

I made another visit to Mr. Rice a few weeks ago, and read several 
more chapters of the manuscript. 

We again took a good look at the manuscript, which had been 
returned to him by Mr. Hide, a minister to whom it had been loaned for 
a time, and by whom I suspect it was copied, although I do not know. 
We counted the pages and found 169 numbered pages and one and two- 
thirds pages not numbered, and two loose sheets not apparently belong- 
ing to the manuscript, which made in all 175; less pages 133 and 134 
which are missing. 

Mr. Rice said that when he was publishing a newspaper, the Re- 
publican Monitor, at Cazenovia, New York, he published a very interest- 
ing story entitled,"Manuscript Found," and some ten or fifteen years later, 
while editing the Ohio Star, at Ravenna, Ohio, he republished this story, 
which was a romance predicated upon some incidents of the Revolution- 
ary War. He was of the opinion that the name of this story by some 
means had been confounded with Spaulding's manuscript or writings, and 
that this is the only novel that Spaulding ever wrote. 

I also read another letter from Mr. A. B. Demming, fairly clamor- 
ing for the possession of the manuscript. He said he had called on E. D. 
Howe and D. P. Hurlburt, and spent several days with one and the other 
of them on the subject of the manuscript, and urged that it be sent at 
once to Mr. Rice's son, in Painesville, Ohio, with instructions to let no 
one know of the fact but Mr. Demming. 

On June 15th, 1885, 1 called upon Mr.Rice again in company with a 
couple of the brethren, to read a little more of the manuscript. He in- 
formed us that he had that day forwarded the original to the Oberlin 
College Library in care of a lady who was going there, and then made 
us the following proposition: to let me have the copy he had now finished 
provided I would have it printed verbatim, complete with erasures, or 
crossed out parts in italics,and explanation in preface: and after printing, 
to send fifty copies to Oberlin,twenty-five copies and the manuscript back 



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"THE MANUSCRIPT FOUND." 249 

to him. I accepted the proposition, and he was to draw up a paper set- 
ting forth these terms, and he would deliver the copy of the manuscript 
and a copy of the agreement into my hands at 6 p. m. 

When I returned at the appointed hour, he took me to his room and 
said: "Mrs. and Mr. Whitney (his daughter and son-in-law) have protested 
against my letting you have the manuscript until I get the consent of Presi- 
dent Pairchild. Now, in view of my promise to you, this places me in a very 
embarrassing position, for I want to please them, and I regret having to 
fail in my promise to you; but I think it best to postpone the matter for 
two or three weeks until I can hear from President Fairchild." 

"What reason," I asked, "do they give for their objection? We 
agree to your proposition; it is all your own way. The original is beyond 
our reach, and we could have no other than the most honest motives, 
with all the expense on our part, in carrying. out your proposition." 

The only answer was; "They are not as liberal as I am." I do not 
know whether this meant that they wanted something more for it, or 
that they were not as liberal in their sentiments or feelings toward us. 
I took the last meaning. 

I then said, "Well, Mr. Rice, my curiosity leads me to desire to read 
it, and I would be pleased if you would lend it to me to read." To this 
he consented, provided I would return it when I got through. So I 
brought it home with me, and had it from the evening of the 15th to 
the morning of the 21st, when I sent it back. I got home with the 
manuscript on the evening of the 16th. 

We read it. It is a shallow, unfinished story, but withall some- 
what interesting in parts/as containing some ideas which the author must 
have gathered from the traditions of the Indians. * * * 
Mr. Rice claims that his copy is verbatim et literatim copy, with scratches, 
crosses and bad spelling all thrown in. The names "Sambol," "Hamboon," 
"Labaska," "LaDcna," "Lamesa," "Mammoona," occur in the story, which 
might easily be changed. Mammoths were the author's beasts of burden. 
The two principal tribes of Indians were "Ohions" and "Kentucks,'' 
with numerous adjacent tribes — "Sciotams," "Ohons," etc. 



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THE METHODS AND MOTIVES OF 
SOENCE. 

BY DR. JAMES E. TALMAGE, PROFESSOR OP GEOLOGY IN THE 
UNIVERSITY OF UTAH. 



It is possible that a question may arise in the minds of some 
as to the propriety of this choice of subject for treatment within 
these sacred precincts.* The thought, if it occur at all, is 
probably dependent upon the very prevalent idea that science is a 
man-made system, of earth earthy; and that its study is attended 
with possible if not certain dangers to the faith which man 
should foster within his soul toward the source of superior knowl- 
edge and true wisdom. Indeed, there are many who openly 
declare that a man cannot be both scientific and religious in his 
views and practices. Yet there is probably little justification for 
this conception of supposed antagonism between the healthful 
operation of man's reason in his effort to comprehend the language 
of God as declared in the divine works, and the yearnings of the 
human heart for the beauties of the truth that is revealed by more 
direct communication between the heavens and the earth. It is 
not my purpose on this occasion to deal with the trite topic of 
religion versus science, but rather to speak of the motives that 
impel the scientific man in his labor, and the fundamental 
principles of his methods. Such an inquiry, if prosecuted in the 
spirit of scientific research, cannot be out of place even here; and, 
if the effort be strengthened by our instinct of reverence for truth 



♦Address delivered in the Logan Temple. 



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THE METHODS AND MOTIVES OF SCIENCE. 251 

and its divine source, it will be found to be friendly to faith and 
akin to worship. 

The word "science" with its many derivatives, and such com- 
binations as "scientific habits" and "scientific spirit" are of common 
usage today. In spite of the vague and indefinite way in which 
these and other expressions are used by those who are habitually 
inaccurate in their sayings and doings, the terms have come to 
have a meaning specific and definite. Science is not merely 
knowledge; a simple accumulation of facts, of however valuable a 
kind, would not constitute a science, any more than a collection of 
brick and stone, wood, iron and glass, sand, lime, and all the other 
necessary materials of construction, would constitute a house. 
The parts must be placed in proper relative position, and only as 
this true relationship is established and maintained, will the struc- 
ture approach completeness, or even the condition of convenient 
service. Science is collated knowledge; its materials are arranged 
in orderly manner, its facts are so classified and placed as to 
afford for one another the advantage of mutual support, as the 
walls bear the roof, and the foundations the walls. 

Our rational conclusions regarding the propriety of any 
occurrence or cause of action are based on two distinct mental 
processes: — (1) observation and apprehension of facts, and (2) the 
shaping of opinions and judgments in accordance with those facts. 
Concerning such Winchell has said, "Aptness, readiness, and 
spontaniety in the execution of those processes constitute what 
we mean by the scientific habit Eagerness to act on determina- 
tions reached by such processes is the scientific spirit. The scien- 
tific habit of mind is therefore the precise habit required for most 
just judgments within the sphere of all activities possessing an eth- 
ical character. * * * This spirit, first of all, loves the truth 
supremely. It feels that the passive acceptance of error is an 
affront to truth and intelligence. It therefore seeks earnestly to 
arrive at truth and to avoid error either in conception or conclu- 
sion. It therefore maintains a habit of watchfulness and scrutiny. 
It seeks to be accurate in its observation of facts, in its collocation 
of them, and in the inferences drawn from them. It is cautious; 
it pauses and reflects; it repeats its observations; it accumulates 
many facts to enlarge the basis of its generalizations. It enounces 



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252 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

inferences tentatively and verifies them at every opportunity. It 
refuses to swerve from the teachings of the evidence. Interest, 
prejudice, friendships, advantage, all must be pushed aside. An 
attitude of absolute indifference toward collateral ends must be 
maintained. It knows no motives but one, that is the exact 
truth. This is true judicial attitude. It is an ideal attainment. 
Probably under human conditions it is never reached; but the 
scientific spirit approaches it as the asymptote approaches the 
curve." 

This spirit is that of the just judge who is above all human 
temptation toward bias or prejudice, and in this degree well may 
we call it an ideal attainment. Man is a creature of bias, a bundle 
of prejudices, some of them good, many of them assuredly bad. 
The world teems with dread examples of this prejudice; we 
scarcely know where to look for unbiased decision. This spirit 
sits in judgment, but not as the dumb jury in the box, sworn to 
decide upon such evidence and that only, as sharp-witted lawyers 
are able to bring forward, or such as a biased judge may see fit to 
allow; compelled to ignore every fact, the admission of which haa 
been ruled out through some technical victory of the interested 
pleader; not sworn to render a verdict according to the law aa 
construed by the court, who may or may not be true and worthy; 
but sworn to try every issue by the most crucial tests, to search 
for evidence in every nook and corner of the world; to count no 
costs of court in securing testimony, to search not for evidence 
on one side alone, but for evidence though it prove or disprove, to 
construe the law in the spirit of the law-maker and according to 
equity, to strive not for triumph but for truth, to know no victory 
but the discomfiture of error and the vindication of right. This 
spirit will impel him upon whom it rests to a condition at least 
approaching absolute unselfishness; he must sink himself with all 
his desires and preconceived opinions, into oblivion. As he works, 
he is a machine finely constructed, nicely adjusted; responding to 
every manifestation of force, recording every movement, calm, 
deliberate, unemotional. Not as the magnetic needle, which is held 
by the attractive force of that greater magnet, the earth, so that it 
cannot move in response to another force, unless this latter be 
strong enough to overcome the earth's directive power; but like 



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THE METHODS AND MOTIVES OF SCIENCE. 253 

the astatic needle, the pronounced tendency of which to swing 
North and South is overcome, so that it is rendered free to recog- 
nize and obey the outer force. 

.With such purpose and motive the scientific man strives to 
develop his power of accurate observation, and to train his reason 
in the forming of judgments on the facts supplied through obser- 
vation. Every teacher knows how deficient is the ordinary student 
in the performance of these processes. Observations incomplete, 
and in other ways unreliable as a basis for opinion and judgment, 
are in the usual order. It is difficult to bring the mind into a con- 
dition of neutrality; we persist in thinking that we see things as 
we believe they ought to be, or perhaps as we would like to have 
them, rather than as they are. Lack of skill in observation, aided 
by active and untrained fancy, is capable of working miracles on a 
scale otherwise unknown. It is said that the veteran microscopist, 
Dr. Carpenter, once had his attention directed to the work of a 
young student, who offered for inspection a marvelous collection 
of drawings representing alleged revelations of the microscope; 
there were animals never seen before or since by others; and all 
of these he had discovered, so Dr. Carpenter was told by an enthu- 
siastic acquaintance, in spite of his inexperience and the imperfec- 
tions of his instrument. The master's reply was: "Say not in 
spite of but because of those disadvantages." 

May I offer another illustration? A tyro in the use of the 
microscope found a dead cat lying in a pool of water; the water 
was stagnant and filthy; he placed a drop under his glass, and saw 
to his amazement numerous living creatures darting through that 
liquid drop, which to them was a world, chasing, tearing, rending, 
•devouring one another. Those creatures he declared, though 
infinitesimally small, had all of them the general appearance of 
cats; the departed spirits of all the cat tribe were there congre- 
gated. Confident of the result of a further observation, he put the v 
-carcass of a dog in another pool, and when decay had reached a 
convenient stage he examined that water and demonstrated to his 
own satisfaction that the liquid was swarming with canine ghosts. 
Tis a pity he did not mix a drop of water from each of the pools; 
he might have heard the savage barks and have seen the fur fly. 
He confidently communicated to a friend that he had found the 



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254 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

land, or rather the water, of departed spirits. The friend pro- 
ceded to test his conclusions, and fully demonstrated their falsity. 
Wherein lay the error? Was it in the glass? No, the second 
observer used the same instrument; it rested with the man. One 
was in a fit condition to consider evidence and to give judgment, 
the other was prejudiced; one was sober, the other was drunken 
with the wine of his own bias; one was sane, the other mad. 
Even in the seemingly simple operation of sketching, but few are 
able to show a thing as it is; some features are sure to be exag- 
gerated, others suppressed; characteristics not appearing in the 
original are introduced, and essentials are entirely omitted. I 
speak not of the ideal representations in the work of the artist, 
his purpose is not so much to copy nature as to portray the beau- 
ties, which, while appealing to his trained eye, may be beyond the 
perception of others. 

But even the highest development of skill in observation does 
not insure correctness of judgment. We may err in interpreting 
the simplest facts, and the same fact may impress different people 
in m*any ways. A well-trained ear might be able to analyze the 
ticks of a telegraphic receiver, but a knowledge of the code is 
essential to a proper interpretation of the sounds. We blame the 
barometer as an untrustworthy instrument, if a rise be not fol- 
lowed by fine weather, or a fall by rain; forgetting that it 
revealed a change of atmospheric pressure only, and that the 
definite prophecy of fair or other conditions was not made by the 
barometer but by ourselves, as a judgment which was perhaps 
poorly supported. 

The cultivation of the scientific spirit has been objected to for 
many reasons. We are told that it is opposed to the poetic 
impulse and tends to quench the emotional fire which is essential 
to the growth of man's perfect nature; and that it is therefore 
bad. Such a conclusion is hastily drawn; it is contrary to fact. 
There is no truer poet than the man of science, he must needs 
indulge his imagination as much as does the singer who deals with 
sweet sounds, the one who pours out his soul in verse, or he who 
finds expression for his ideal in beauteous forms in stone, or in 
colors in canvas. But the scientific man knows that when he 
sings, the demands of melody and the requirements of harmony 



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THE METHODS AND MOTIVES OF SCIENCE. 255 

may lead him to exaggeration; he remembers that when he makes 
verses his ardor to secure rhythm and rhyme may intoxicate him; 
that in the use of chisel and brush he aims rather to please than 
to teach. 

As already stated, the purpose of art is not simply to imitate 
nature; else photography would be in higher esteem than painting; 
for it is an evident fact that the good photograph is a likeness 
representing the subject as it is, while the painted portrait is 
often an attempt to show forth the artist's ideal. Art strives to 
recognize and portray this ideal in nature. The mission of poetry, 
which is but one manifestation of the spirit of art, is to please, 
incidentally it may teach, but its prime purpose is not didactic. 
The poet's effort is to find and show forth beauty. And yet the 
scientist is poetically inclined; he is a lover of beauty in its high- 
est, purest phases. He stands side by side with his brother the 
poet, in the presence of the simplest manifestations of beauty, 
admiring the colors of the flower, entranced with the sweet song 
of the bird and the murmuring of the wind. But he goes farther 
than his brother, analyzes the color and the sound, and strives to 
trace these effects back to their causes. 

There are other and higher manifestations of beauty than 
those which appeal only to eye and ear, harmony of color and 
sound. There is the beauty of adaptation, the fitting of purpose 
to end, the existence and operation of law. To this, the highest 
type of beauty, the scientist is passionately devoted. He is a 
lover of beauty for its own sake; not because it pleases his eye or 
ear, but because it appeals to his reason and judgment; he loves it 
for its intrinsic worth. Novelty sways him but lightly; truths to 
others old and gray, are yet youthful and rosy to him; his affection 
knows no cooling as the charms of fresh acquaintance disappear; 
he cares less for the face and the figure than for the heart and its 
prompting. Tell me, which is the true lover and which the 
admirer only, he who is charmed by complexion and bust, or he 
who is attracted by the spirit, though it be encased in a body that 
is feeble and scarred? Let the poetic feeling be indulged; its 
indulgence oft-times marks the higher moments of our existence; 
but in these exalted states we do not work methodically and sys- 
tematically; as Winchell has said, were the Creator to unveil his 



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266 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

face to us, our power of work would be gone, we could do naught 
but worship. 

Again, I hear some say that this scientific tendency is of 
doubtful propriety, for being cold, calculating, discerning, judging, 
its devotee being cautious and at times even skeptical, he has no 
place in his soul for trusting, all-abiding faith; in other words, 
that the scientific spirit being in contrast with the poetic, is 
opposed to faith. The conclusion upon which such a statement 
rests is plain, that he who makes it classes faith as a poetic 
impulse, an emanation of the art spirit. As if faith were a mere 
emotion, its purpose solely to please; as if it had its foundation in 
the sweet but yet light bubblings of poesy. It has a deeper seat, 
a firmer anchorage. Liken it to a tree, then its roots penetrate 
to the profoundest recesses of the soil. The scientific spirit is the 
fruit of that tree. None sees more clearly than does the scientist 
the necessity of all-abiding trust, none recognizes more readily 
than he the existence of laws which he has scarcely begun to com- 
prehend, the results of which are nevertheless exalting. Faith is 
not blind submission, passive obedience with no effort' at thought 
or reason. Faith, if worthy of its name, rests upon truth; and 
truth is the foundation of science. 

The scientific worker pursues his investigation step by step, 
inviting inspection and criticism at every stage. He makes as 
plain a trail as he can, blazes the trees of his path through the 
forest, cuts his footprints in the rocks that others may more 
readily follow to test his results. He welcomes every new worker 
in the field, for the work of others will diminish the chances of 
error going undetected in his own. The scientific man welcomes 
the stimulant of competition, but he has no room within his soul 
for feelings of rivalry. 

In this day competition is severe, even fierce indeed; but the 
scientific spirit would make it friendly and ennobling. Its possessor 
acknowledges freely and gladly the aid he has gained from others. 
I see about me men who are ungrateful in the extreme, knowing 
only their own achievements, and having but a blind eye for all that 
was done before, and which made their work possible. They seek 
to blot out from the canvas on which they are permitted to work, 
the whole background of the picture, failing to see how they spoil 



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THE METHODS AND MOTIVES OF SCIENCE. 257 

their own foreground by so doing. I have little sympathy for the 
man who boasts that nothing was done in the field till he came in 
at the gate. And so of the bricklayer who thinks that he and he 
alone has reared the house, while but for the stonemason he would 
have had no foundation on which to build. The man who comes 
into position and immediately sets about demolishing the work of 
his predecessor, or, if he cannot dispense with it, who hides it, or 
disguises it, that it might appear as his own, has none of the 
scientific spirit, which is the spirit of manhood and of honor. 
Shame upon him who speaks slightingly of those who pioneered 
the way and made the path along which he travels with compara- 
tive ease! Double shame on the boy who sneers at the old-fash- 
ioned ways of father and mother; perhaps they were more typical 
representatives of the spirit of true propriety in their early days 
than is he in his. 

As with individuals so with institutions. There are some 
that seek to grow upon the ruins of others. The promoters of 
such see no good outside their own plans. They detest competi- 
tion, and feel that they have a patent to the field. They advertise 
by denouncing others. Modesty has not a seat within their walls, 
manhood resides far from them. Look at the business advertise- 
ments of the day: every manufacturer, merchant, or huckster 
warns you against all others of his trade. He is a paragon of 
perfection, and the only one of his kind. 

The scientific spirit acknowledges without reserve the laws of 
God, but discriminates between such and the rules made by man. 
It abhors bigotry, denounces the extravagances of the blind 
zealot, religious or otherwise, and seeks to perfect the faith of its 
possessor as a purified, sanctified power, pleasing alike mind and 
heart, reason and soul. In the charges that have been preferred 
by the theologians against science, and the counter accusations by 
the scientists against theology, it is evident that in each case the 
accuser is not fully informed as to what he is attacking. Irra- 
tional zeal is not to be commended; and the substitution of theory 
for fact, though often declared to be the prevailing weakness of 
the scientist, is wholly unscientific. 

But it is easy to denounce; so to do is a favorite pastime of 
ignorance. That scientific theories have been and are being dis- 



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258 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

carded as unworthy because untrue is well known; but no one is 
more ready to so renounce than the scientist himself. To him a 
theory is but a scaffolding whereon he stands while placing the 
facts which are his building blocks; and from these he rears the 
tower from which a wider horizon of truth is opened to his eye. 
When the structure is made, the scaffold,- unsightly, shaky, and 
unsafe, as it is likely to be, is removed. Tis not always possible 
to judge of the building from the rough poles and planks which 
serve the temporary purpose of him who builds. Yet how often 
may we hear from our pulpits, usually however when they are 
occupied by the little-great men, scathing denunciations of science, 
which is represented as a bundle of vagaries, and of scientific men, 
who are but Will-o-the-wisps enticing the traveler into quagmires 
of spiritual ruin. Would it not be better for those who so inveigh 
to acquaint themselves with at least the first principles of the 
doctrines of science? So general has this practice become 
amongst us, that the most inexperienced speaker feels justified in 
thus indulging himself, and in the minds of many the conclusion is 
reached, none the less pernicious in its present effects because 
unfounded, that the higher development of the intellect is not a 
part of the Gospel of Christ. I speak not against the true inspira- 
tion which as a manifestation of the spirit of prophecy has in 
many instances clearly indicated the errors of human beliefs. 
Were I to deny the existence of such a power and the potency of 
revelation I would be false to my love of science and its work, a 
betrayer of the testimony within my own soul. 

I place the prophet before the philosopher; of the two I have 
seen the former go less frequently astray; he is guided by a "more 
sure word," he is a privileged pupil of the greatest Master. Yet 
revelation is not given to save man from self effort; if he want 
knowledge let him ask of God, and prove himself worthy of the 
desired gift by his own faithful search. Such are the teachings 
of our Church. The leaders amongst us, those who are acknowl- 
edged as prophets and revelators to the people, are not heard in 
authoritative denunciation of the teachings of science. Yet under 
the freedom allowed by our liberal Church organization the lay 
speaker is prone to indulge in unguarded criticism, and the undis- 
criminating hearer is apt to regard such as the teachings of the 



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THE METHODS AND MOTIVES OF SCIENCE. 259 

Church. The scientist in his self-denying earnest labors is a true 
child of God; as he is strengthened spiritually will his work be the 
better. The scientific spirit is divine. 



MY KINGDOM. 

LOUISA M. ALCOTT. 
(Written in her diary when only fourteen.) 

A little kingdom I possess, 

Where thoughts and feelings dwell, 
And very hard I find the task 

Of governing it well; 
For passion tempts and troubles me, 

A wayward will misleads. 
And selfishness its shadow casts 

On all my words and deeds. 

How can I learn to rule myself. 

To be the child I should, 
Honest and brave, nor ever tire 

Of trying to be good? 
How can I keep a sunny soul 

To shine along life's way? 
How can I tune my little heart 

To sweetly sing all day? 

Dear Father, help me with the love 

That casteth out my fear; 
Teach me to lean on thee, and feel 

That thou art very near, 
That no temptation is unseen, 

No childish grief too small, 
Since thou, with patience infinite. 

Doth sooth and comfort all. 

I do not ask for any crown 

But that which all may win, 
Nor seek to conquer any world 

Except the one within. 
Be thou my guide until I find, 

Led by a tender hand, 
Thy happy kingdom in myself, 

And dare to take command. 



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COLLECTION OF ANECDOTES. 



[In a recent number of the Era, missionaries and others were 
asked to write anecdotes illustrating topics of interest which had come 
under their observation. In response to this request, several communi- 
cations have been received, two of which are herewith presented. We 
repeat the request, and ask our friends to write and send us anecdotes. — 
Editors.] 

WAS IT THEFT? 

by w. J. SLOAN. 



The following incident, related by a friend to the writer 
while in the South, occurred in one of the western counties, of 
Tennessee, in the fall of 1897. Squire Thompson, one of the 
largest land holders and most influential citizens of the county, 
had filed a complaint with the sheriff, that thieves had carried off 
several of his chickens; and the party named in the complaint 
was Eph Jackson, an old darkey who lived a quarter of a mile from 
squire Thompson's. 

The warrant was given into the hands of a deputy sheriff and 
on the day appointed for trial, old Eph was duly brought into 
court. The room was well filled with spectators, not because of 
any great interest in the case, but rather for the reason that the 
town loafers and several farmers, who had come to town for their 
usual weekly trading, had nothing else to do for an hour, and so 
took advantage of the court's meeting to "kill time." 

All being ready, and old Eph pleading "not guilty," the taking 
of testimony was proceeded with. The first witness, placed on the 
stand, was Squire Thompson, who testified that during the past 
few weeks he had lost several chickens, but that until Thursday 



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COLLECTION OF ANECDOTES. 261 

of the week before, he had been unable to discover who the thief 
was. That upon going to the coop, on said Thursday morning, he 
had discovered the loss of a particularly fine bird, of high breeding 
which he greatly prized; he had at once started a search for the 
thief. During the night, a rain had fallen, and foot-prints were 
discovered in the mud, and that said footmarks had been followed 
through the woods to the cabin of old Eph, who was then a 
prisoner at the bar. This ended the testimony of Squire Thompson. 

The judge ordered old Eph to stand up, remarking that he 
saw no reason why sentence should not, at once, be passed upon 
him, but, before it was passed, he would give him a chance to 
speak, should he desire to do so. 

The man who faced the court was black, with a blackness not 
often seen even among the negroes of the south; in age, he was 
perhaps sixty-five; his form was bent, not alone with age, but 
bent and drawn with rheumatism. His attire, such as there was 
of it, showed that he not only belonged to the poorer class, but 
that he was one of the poorest among them. As he looked 
around the court room, no kindly face appeared, and he knew that 
among those men, who had either been slave-holders themselves, 
or their fathers had, there was no friends for him, — the "nigger" 
who was charged with theft. As he spoke, his voice trembled, 
not alone with age, but with a tinge of fear, for he knew to whom 
he spoke, and how their hearts beat for a "worthless nigger." 

"Yo'r honor, I thank you for gibing dis poor old darkey a 
chance to speak, I jest want to say a few words, 'bout myself and 
dat chicken dat Squire Thompson has done lost; I don expect as 
how it'll clear me judge, 'case I knows yo'r going to send me to de 
penitentiary, only Fll feel better after Fs said it. 

"After de war was ober, me an' Tobe, dats my old 'oman, we 
done got married, we wan't rich like de white folks, so we done 
rent a little patch ob land, wid a little cabin on it. We didn't had 
much, judge, but den we lubed one anoder, an sometimes I use to 
tink dat we were just as happy as de white folks was. After a 
while, babies come along, an den we were happier dan eber. De 
first one was Eph, named after me, and a likely boy he was to; 
den come Eliza, an den der was Joe an' Sam an' den, after a long 
time, Manda, our baby, she done come, an I thought dat der was 



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262 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

to be nothing bnt happiness for dis old darkey ail de rest ob his 
days. But de good Lord didn't hab it dat way for me. Eph, he 
ran away from home, an' dey put him where yo'r going to send his 
poor old fadder. 'Liza, she done got married, an' de man was 
mean to her, an 'Liza died wid a broken heart; Joe he done took 
sick an' died; an Sam he done got drownded ober dar in de riber, 
an' der poor old mudder's heart was just about broke. An' den der 
poor old fadder, he done get tbe rheumatics, couldn't work. An' 
den we bof look at one anoder an bof look at Manda, our baby, 
an' we tinks de Lord was good 'cause he lets us keep our baby; an' 
den we gibs her all ob our lub, 'cause we hadn't any more for to 
lub. An last week she done took sick, an her mudder watched 
her an I watched her, but she just kept getting worse. And den 
de doctor comes an sais as how she was going to die. Last 
Wednesday night, just after de doctor went away, our baby went 
to sleep an when she woke up, 'bout an hour after, she -done told 
me dat she'd had a dream, an dat she dreamed dat she was in 
heben, an dat up dar dey gib her a big bowl ob chicken soup, an' dat 
she done got better an' come back to lib wid her poor old mammie 
an' me. An I just thought dat de good Lord had gib her dat 
dream, an' I says to her, 'If chicken soup is going to keep you 
here wid dose who lubs you, you's going to hab chicken soup 
child.' 

"An Tobe, she says to me, 'done you go steal, old man, 'cause 
it ain't right.' I knew dat it wasn't, but I didn't hab no money, 
judge, an' I, I, couldn't let our baby die, 'cause we bof lubed her. 

"An so I jus* went out an ober to Squire Thompson's; it took 
me a long time 'cause my rheumatism hurt me powerful bad; I 
knew dat de squire had lots ob chickens, an' I didn't tink dat he'd 
care for one; I didn't know dat de squire lubed dat one dat I took 
so much, or I wouldn't had took dat one. But I done took it, 
judge, it's de only ting dat I eber took in my life, an' I took it back 
home, an I made our baby some brof an' de next morning she was 
a heap better, an' de good Lord is going to let our baby lib. 

"An' den de sheriff come, an' took me down here. Poor old 
Tobe's heart is done breaking 'cause she'll neber see dis poor old 
darkey again; but she'll look at our baby an' know why I ain't dar. 
Yes, judge, I done took dat chicken, an' I knows as how yo'r going to 



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COLLECTION OF ANECDOTES. 263 

send me to prison, but maby de good Lord won't say dat I stole, 
when I meet's him up dar. Datfs all dat I want's to say, judge, I 
did take dat chicken." 

The old man sank into his chair. A death-like silence per- 
vaded the room; it was broken, after a minute, by Squire Thomp- 
son who arose and said, "Your honor, I wish to withdraw my 
charge/* The judge arose, cleared his throat, and said, "This 
court finds the prisoner at the bar no£ guilty." 

The love of a father for his child had softened every heart. 



AN INCIDENT OF THE CAMP. 

BY SARA WHALEN. 



Everything was quiet in the little sleepy city of Watertown, 
and were it not for the fact that a United States arsenal and 
army post were located there, life would have been dull indeed. 
As it was, there seemed to be nothing particular for the soldiers 
to do after the morning and evening gun had been fired over blue 
Ontario and they had fished and bathed to their heart's content 
and gone through the tiresome round of drill. England was at 
peace with the United States and not even the faintest shadow 
of a war cloud could be seen in the sky. 

It then occurred to Colonel Rand to break the monotony of 
camp life, especially in the officers' quarters, by having each one at 
mess tell a story or submit to being fined for not complying. 

Now there happened to be among the officers, Lieutenant 
Cass, a young man who had the greatest difficulty in relating an 
incident or event of any nature whatsoever. It was more to his 
taste to get leave of absence for two or three days to visit friends 
in the ports along the lake. But as army discipline had to be 
observed, and it had been agreed that each man should tell a story 
or be fined, Lieutenant Cass submitted without a murmur. 

After he had paid his forfeits several times, it occurred to 
him that paying fines was rather expensive and he would attempt 



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264 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

to relate a story. Accordingly when next his torn came, the 
officers listened to the following: 

"Once upon a time there was a boy named Tommy, who lived 
in a New England village, surrounded by all the dignity for which 
New England villages are famous. Tommy being permitted to sit at 
table one day while his mother was entertaining company, was 
asked by her if he wished beans. 'NoP said Tommy in a rude 
manner and with loud voice. 'No, what? said his mother. *No, 
beans P replied Tommy with louder voice than before." 

Lieutenant Cass had finished and although the officers thought 
the story did not amount to much, still they could not fine him; so 
"the joke was applauded, and the laugh went round." 

But one can imagine the surprise and consternation around 
the table when next it came the lieutenant's turn to tell a story to 
have him repeat the one which he had told before, and subse- 
quently to have him regale them again and again with it. They 
had to accept it; they could not fine him, since no provision had 
been made in the agreement against repeating a story. 

However, after several repetitions, the officers hit upon a 
plan to surprise the narrator. When he reached the point where 
Tommy's mother asks, "No, what?' and before he could reply for 
Tommy, the officers with one accord shouted, "No beans P 

That part of the story the officers practiced zealously until 
they could repeat it each time it was told, as one man. It afforded 
so much amusement for them that it became the chief story of the 
camp, and whenever distinguished guests came to visit them from 
Albany or New York, they were sure to be entertained by Lieuten- 
ant Cass telling the story of Tommy and the officers shouting the 
chorus of, "No beans F 



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LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON- 

BY JOHN JAQUES, ASSISTANT CHURCH HISTORIAN. 



III. 

With the new year Joseph Smith, in Liberty jail, wrote: 'Tues- 
day, January 1, 1839, dawned upon us as prisoners of hope, but not 
as sons of liberty. Columbia, Columbia! how thou art fallen! 
The land of the free, the home of the brave P The asylum of the 
oppressed'— oppressing thy noblest sons, in a loathsome dungeon, 
without any provocation, only that they have claimed to worship 
the God of their fathers according to his own word, and the dictates 
of their own consciences. Elder P. P. Pratt and his companions in 
tribulation were still held in bondage in their doleful prison in 
Richmond." 

On the 23rd of February, Joseph and his fellow prisoners 
demanded a writ of habeas corpus of Judge Turnham, one of the 
county judges, which was reluctantly granted. The consequent 
investigation resulted in the release of Sidney Rigdon. The rest 
of the prisoners were recommitted to jail, Sidney returned there 
for a favorable opportunity of leaving, as threats were abundant 
that the prisoners should never get out of the country alive. Sidney 
was let out of the jail secretly at night, through the friendship of the 
sheriff and the jailor, "after having declared in prison that the suffer- 
ings of Jesus Christ were a fool to his," from which it appears that 
Sidney's sufferings, of the body and mind together, were almost 
more than he could bear. According to Lyman Wight's testimony, 
when the brethren were taken before the militia mob and treacher- 
ously surrendered by Colonel Hinkle, "Sidney Rigdon, who was of 



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266 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

a delicate constitution, received a slight shock of apoplectic fits, 
which excited great laughter and much ridicule in the guard and 
mob-militia. Thus the prisoners spent a doleful night in the midst 
of a prejudiced and diabolical community." Sidney was solemnly 
warned by his releasers to get out of tbe state with as little delay 
as possible. He was pursued by a body of armed men, but he 
arrived safely at Quincy, Illinois. 

On the 26th, Isaac Galland, of Commerce, Illinois, wrote toD. 
W. Rogers that he would be pleased to have Mr. Rigdon or some 
other leading members of The Church go and examine some land 
for settlement. 

The Democratic association and the citizens of Quincy generally 
had a sympathetic meeting on the 27th. A committee reported 
having met Mr. Rigdon and others, who gave a condensed state- 
ment of the facts concerning the situation of the Saints in Missouri 
and around, and resolutions were passed to assist them in various 
ways. Sidney Rigdon made to the meeting a statement of the 
wrongs suffered by the "Mormons" in Missouri and of their present 
suffering condition. 

In the latter part of February President Rigdon, Judge Higbee, 
Israel Barlow, and Edward Partridge went to see Dr. Galland about 
some land, and concluded it would not be wise to make a trade with 
him then. 

A brother Lee, who had lived near Haun's Mill, dted opposite 
Quincy, and President Rigdon preached his funeral sermon in the 
court house. 

At a meeting, March 9, in Quincy, President Rigdon, Elder 
Green, Judge Higbee, Brother Benson, and Israel Barlow were 
appointed a committee to visit and select certain lands in Iowa 
Territory. 

On the 10th of April, Sidney wrote froin Quincy to Joseph in 
the following strain: 

We wish you to know that our friendship is unabating, and our 
exertions for your delivery, and that of The Church, unceasing. For this 
purpose we have labored to secure the friendship of the governor of this 
state, with all the principal men in this place. In this we have succeeded 
beyond our highest anticipations. Governor Carlin assured us last eve- 



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THE LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON 267 

ning, that he would lay our case before the legislature of this state, aud 
have the action of that body upon it; and he would use all his influence 
to have an action which should be favorable to our people. He is also 
getting papers prepared signed by all the noted men in this part of the 
country, to give us a favorable reception at Washington, whither we shall 
repair forthwith, after having visited the Governor of Iowa, of whose 
friendship we have the strongest testimonies. We leave Quincy this day 
to visit him. Our plan of operation is to impeach the state of Missouri 
on an item of the Constitution of the United States, that the general gov- 
ernment shall give to each state a republican form of government. Such 
a form of government does not exist in Missouri, and we can prove it. . 

Governor Garlin and his lady enter with all the enthusiasm of their 
natures into this work, having no doubt that we can accomplish this 
object 

Our plan of operation in this work is to get all the governors, in 
their next messages, to have the subject brought before the legislatures, 
and we will have a man at the capital of each state to furnish them with 
the testimony on the subject; and we design to be at Washington to 
wait upon Congress and have the action of that body on it also; all this 
going on at the same time, and have the action of the whole during one 
session. 

Brother G. W. Robinson will be engaged all the time between this 
and the next sitting of the legislatures, in taking affidavits, and prepar- 
ing for the tug of war; while we will be going from state to state, visiting 
the respective governors, to get the case mentioned in their messages to 
the legislatures, so as to have the whole going on at once. You will see 
by this that our time is engrossed to overflowing. 

A. Ripley also wrote to the brethren in jail in Missouri: 

President Rigdon is wielding a mighty shaft against the whole 
kidney of foul calumniators and mobocrats of Missouri. Yesterday he 
spent a part of the day with Governor Carlin of this State. The presi- 
dent told him that he was informed that Governor Boggs was calculat- 
ing to take out a bench warrant for himself and others, and then make a 
demand of his exellency for them to be given up, to be taken back to 
Missouri for trial; and he was assured by that noble minded hero, that 
if Mr. Boggs undertook that thing, he would get himself insulted. He 
also assured him that the people called "Mormons" should find a permanent 
protection in this state. He also solicited our people, one and all to set- 
tle in this state; and if there could be a tract of country that would suit 



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268 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

our convenience, he wonld use his influence for Congress to make a grant 
of it to us, to redress our wrongs, and make up our losses. 

After having been prisoners about six months, Joseph and 
other brethren escaped from Liberty jail, on the 16th, while the 
guards were drunk. The prisoners took this step because of the 
prevalent and continued reckless threats of murder, and that the 
prisoners should never leave there alive. 

At this time Elias Higbee said he was living on the Big-Neck 
prairie, on the same farm with Sidney Rigdon. 

The last of the Saints left Far West on the 20th. 

After suffering much fatigue and hunger, Joseph arrived at 
Quincy on the 22nd. He said that before leaving Missouri, he had 
paid there about fifty thousand dollars, in cash and property, as 
lawyers' fees, "for which, " says he, "I received very little in return; 
for sometimes they were afraid to act on account of the mob, and 
sometimes they were so drunk as to incapacitate them for business. 
But there were a few honorable exceptions." 

The same day Governor Lucas wrote to "Dr. Sidney Rigdon," 
sympathizing with the Saints, and also wrote to Governor Shannon, 
of Ohio, and Martin Van Buren, President of the United States, 
introducing and recommending Sidney Rigdon to them, to solicit an 
investigation by the government, into the causes that led to the 
expulsion of the people called "Mormons" from the state of Missouri. 

Joseph Smith and committee, on the 1st of May, bought a 
farm of Dr. Isaac Galland, which was to have been deeded to Alan- 
son Ripley, but Sidney Rigdon declared that "no committee should 
control any property which he had anything to do with." Conse- 
quently, it was deeded to George W. Robinson, Rigdon's son-in-law, 
"with the express understanding that he should deed it to The 
Church when The Church had paid for it according to their obli- 
gation in the contract." 

A general conference was held at the Presbyterian camp 
ground, near Quincy, May 4 and 5, at which President Joseph Smith 
was chairman, and President Sidney Rigdon, then residing at Com- 
merce, was present. On the 5th, Sidney was appointed by the con- 
ference a delegate to the city of Washington, D. C, to lay the case 
of the Saints before the general government. 



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THE LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON. 269 

Bight prominent citizens of Quincy signed a letter, on the 8th, 
introducing "Rev. Sidney Rigdon" to the president of the United 
States, and to the heads of departments, etc. Samuel Leech also, 
on the 10th, gave Sidney a sympathetic letter of recommendation. 

The same day Joseph Smith and family arrived and took up 
their residence in a small log house at the White Purchase, about 
a mile south of Commerce. 

On the 17th, Sidney, Joseph and Hyrum wrote to the Quincy 
Whig, disclaiming for themselves and the Latter-day Saints cer- 
tain offensive political partisan sentiments, emanating from Lyman 
Wight and published in that paper. Also on the 25th, they wrote 
to Elder R. B. Thompson on the same subject. 

Joseph, Sidney and Hyrum, and Bishops Whitney and Enight 
went across the river, July 2, and visited a land purchase made by 
Bishop Knight as a location for a town, and advised that a town be 
built there, to be called Zarahemla. 

At a public meeting on Sunday, 7th, Sidney Rigdon and others 
addressed the audience. Farewell addresses were also given by 
members of the twelve who were going on missions. 

At a conference on Sunday, October 6, Judge Higbee was 
appointed to accompany Presidents Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon 
to Washington. 

The Nauvoo high council, on the 28th, voted to sign recommen- 
dations for Joseph, Sidney, and Elias Higbee, "delegates for The 
Church, to importune the president and Congress of the United 
States for redress," of the grievances of the Saints in Missouri. 
Next day, (29th) the brethren accompanied by 0. P. Rockwell, left 
Nauvoo in a two-horse carriage, for the city of Washington, arriving 
at Quincy on the 30th. Elder Rigdon was sick on the 31st. On 
November 1, he was administered to by Dr. Robert D. Foster, who 
joined the brethren and accompanied them. They arrived at Spring- 
field on the 4th and left on the 8th, Elder Rigdon's health continu- 
ing poor and Dr. Foster continuing to accompany and attend to 
him. 

They arrived at Kirtland on the 10th. Elder Rigdon's health 
remained so poor, the roads were so bad, the time was fast spend- 
ing, and it being necessary for the committee to be in Washington, 
Joseph Smith and Judge Higbee started by stage on the most expe- 



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270 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

ditious route to that city, leaving Rockwell, Rigdon and Foster to 
follow at their leisure in the carriage. Joseph and Higbee arrived 
at Washington November 28th. They saw President Martin Van 
Buren the next day. 

Sidney and others were near Washington, Pennsylvania, on the 
29th. 

Rockwell and Higbee arrived at Philadelphia about December 
23, with Joseph's carriage, having left Sidney sick at Washington, 
Pennsylvania, with Dr. Foster to take care of him. Sidney and Dr. 
Foster arrived at Philadelphia about the 14th of January, 1840. 

About the last of January, having been on a visit to Phila- 
delphia and vicinity, Joseph, 0. P. Rockwell, Higbee, and Foster 
left that city by railway, for Washington, D. C, Joseph's carriage 
having been sold, and Rigdon being left sick at Philadelphia. He 
does not appear to have visited Washington, but tarried in Pennsyl- 
vania and New Jersey. 

Joseph had an interview with President Van Buren, who treated 
him very insolently, saying, "Gentlemen, your cause is just, but I can 
do nothing for you;" and, "If I take up for you, I shall lose the 
vote of Missouri." Mr. John C. Calhoun also treated Joseph badly. 
The Prophet left Washington early in February, satisfied that there 
was little use to stay longer. Leaving Judge Higbee there, Joseph 
returned by railroad with 0. P. Rockwell and Dr. Foster to Day- 
ton, Ohio. Joseph arrived at Nauvoo, March 4, after a wearisome 
journey on horseback, through snow and mud. Of his visit to the 
national capital he says, "When I went to the White House at 
Washington, and presented letters of introduction from Thomas 
Carlin, governor of Illinois, to Martin Van Buren, he looked at 
them very contemptuously, and said, 'Governor Carlin! Governor 
Carlin! Who's Governor Carlin? Governor Carlin's nobody.'" Also 
speaking of his experience there, Joseph further says, "Having 
witnessed many vexatious movements in government officers, whose 
sole object should be the peace and prosperity and happiness of 
the whole people; but instead of this, I discovered that popular 
clamor and personal aggrandizement were the ruling principles of 
those in authority, and my heart faints within me when I see, by the 
visions of the Almighty, the end of this nation, if she continues to 



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THE LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON. 271 

disregard the cries and petitions of her virtuous citizens, as she 
has done, and is now doing. 

"On my way home I did not fail to proclaim the iniquity and 
insolence of Martin Van Buren, towards myself and injured people, 
which will have its effect upon the public mind; and may he never 
be elected again to any office of trust or power, by which he may 
abuse the innocent and let the guilty go free." 

March 17, Horace R. Hotchkiss, of Fair Haven, wrote to 
"Reverends Sidney Rigdon and Joseph Smith, Jr.," sympathizing 
with them and with Judge Higbee, and inviting them to take up 
their quarters at his house if they went so far east. 

Judge Higbee said the committee on judiciary reported 
adversely on the memorial. 

April 3, Sidney, wrote, from New Jersey, to Joseph that his 
health was slowly improving. 

In conference at Nauvoo, April 8, Joseph, Sidney and Elias 
Higbee were thanked by resolution for "the prompt and efficient 
manner in which they had discharged their duty" and were 
requested to continue to use their endeavors to obtain redress for 
a suffering people. At the conference, P. G. Williams was for- 
given and received back into fellowship. 

Early in April, Richard M. Young had received from Sidney 
Rigdon a petition for the appointment of Geo. W. Robinson as 
postmaster at Commerce, and had the name changed to Nauvoo. 

At a meeting of the citizens of Nauvoo, July 13, Isaac Gal- 
land, Robert B. Thompson, Sidney Rigdon and Daniel H. Wells, as 
a committee, presented resolutions and a memorial to Governor 
Carlin, concerning the attempts of Missourians to kidnap and 
abduct "Mormons*' from Illinois. 

On the 25th, 27th and 30th, and Aug. 15, John C. Bennett, M. D. 
and Quarter Master General of the state of Illinois, wrote sympa- 
thetically to "Reverends Sidney Rigdon and Joseph Smith, Jr:" 

Early in September, Governor Boggs, of Missouri, having made 
a demand upon Governor Carlin, of Illinois, for Joseph Smith, Jr., 
Sidney Rigdon, Lyman Wight, P. P. Pratt, Caleb Baldwin and 
Alanson Brown, as fugitives from justice, Governor Carlin issued 
an order for their apprehension, but the sheriff could not find 
them. 



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272 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

On the 15th, President Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon and Hyrom 
Smith issued a "proclamation to the Saints scattered abroad," 
stating the condition of the Church and urging emigration to Nau- 
voo and vicinity and assisting in building the city and temple. 

Probably Sidney Rigdon had become tired of the mobocratic 
spirit of the Western states and entertained a desire to live in the 
Eastern states, for, on the 19th of January, 1841, Joseph received 
a revelation, in which the following occurs: 

And again, verily I say unto you, if my servant Sidney will serve 
me, and be counselor unto my servant Joseph, let him rise and come up, 
and stand in the office of his calling, and humble himself before me; and 
if he will offer unto me an acceptable offering,and acknowledgments,and 
remain with my people, behold, I the Lord your God will heal him that 
he shall be healed; and he shall lift up his voice again on the mountains, 
and be a spokesman before my face. Let him come and locate his family 
in the neighborhood in which my servant Joseph resides, and in all his 
journeyings let him lift up his voice as with the* sound of a trump, and 
warn the inhabitants of the earth to flee the wrath to come; let him 
assist my servant Joseph. 

If my servant Sidney will do my will, let him not remove his family 
unto the eastern lands, but let him change their habitation, even as I 
have said. Behold, it is not my will that he shall seek to find safety and 
refuge out of the city which I have appointed unto you, even the city 
of Nauvoo. Verily I say unto you, even now, if he hearken to my 
voice, it shall be well with him. Even so. Amen. 

I give unto him, Joseph, for! counselors, my servant Sidney Rigdon, 
and my servant William Law, that' these mav constitute a quorum and 
First Presidency, to receive the oracles for the whole Church. 

Sidney Rigdon was elected a member of the Nauvoo city coun- 
cil, February 1. 

By an ordinance of the city council, dated February 3, Sidney 
was made a member of the board of trustees of the "University of 
the City of Nauvoo." 

By an act of the Illinois legislature, approved February 27, 
Sidney was appointed one of the incorporators of "the Nauvoo 
Agricultural and Manufacturing Association." 

President Sidney Rigdon delivered an address at the laying of 
the corner-stones of the Nauvoo Temple, April 6. 



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THE LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON. 273 

At the conference next day, in consequence of his weakness, 
resulting from his labors of the day before, he called on John G. 
Bennett to officiate in his place. Consequently, on the 8th, John 
C. Bennett was presented, with the First Presidency, as Assistant 
President until President Rigdon's health should be restored. Pres- 
ident Rigdon delivered a discourse, in the afternoon of the same 
day, on "Baptism for the Dead," followed by President Joseph 
Smith on the same subject. 

On Sunday, 11th, President Rigdon spoke on "Baptism for the 
Remission of Sins." 

On Sunday, June 1, President Joseph Smith says, "Elder Sid- 
ney Rigdon has been ordained a prophet, seer and revelator." 

Early this month Joseph said, "The newspapers of the United 
States are teeming with all manner of lies, abusing the Saints of 
the Most High, and striving to call down the wrath of the people 
upon his servants." How much like the condition of things now, 
at the junction of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries! 



BE HAPPY, MY BOY. 



At all this world's crosses, and all this world's crowns, 

Look up and be happy, my boy; 
Nor heed its sad sorrows, nor all its dark frowns, 

Look up and be happy, my boy. 

Whenever the cares of your day shall oppress, 

Look up and be happy, my boy; 
Let faith in the future your soul still possess, 

Look up and be happy, my boy. 

Then God will protect you, and all will be well, 

Look up and be happy, my boy; 
His spirit shall weave round about you its spell, 

Look up and be happy, my boy. 



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THE FRIENDLY HANDCLASP. 



BY A. WOOTTON. 



If the good that has been done in the world by the fervent 
handclasp of sincere friendship could be written, its study would 
be profitable to the world as a reformatory agent, and its power 
would be made to do service in the cause of human happiness more 
than it is at present. It is one of the cheapest forms of friendly 
expression, and always seems more sincere than mere words. 

When the heart is too full for words, the warm clasp of the 
hand will speak volumes, and its memory will linger to give joy to 
the weary wanderer from home and friends; and will draw the 
heart irresistibly back to the loved ones far away. When the 
heart is crushed with sorrow for departed loved ones, and words of 
comfort would have but empty sound, a warm, sincere grasp of the 
hand, prompted by heartfelt sympathy, will do much to ease the 
pain of a wound which only time with divine aid can heal. 

The cold handshake will often reveal the shallowness of the 
fawning, flattering words of the hypocrite, while a fervent hand- 
shake may reveal a warmth of friendship that, but for this 
method of communication, must remain unexpressed in the heart 
of one whose uncultured language is incapable of such expression, 
or whose stammering tongue is unable to express the warmth of 
a sympathetic, loving heart hidden under a rough exterior. Lan- 
guage may serve as a medium between intellect and intellect, but 
there is no avenue of communication like the warm pressure of the 
hand to bring heart in close and loving communication with heart, 
and to arouse a joy that bounds and rebounds with increasing 



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THE FRIENDLY HANDCLASP. 275 

intensity. Like mercy, "it is twice blessed, it blesses him that 
gives and him that receives." 

Words of kindness, love, sympathy or compassion may be given 
for the effect they may have on others in favor of the speaker, but 
the warm clasp of the hand can have no such ulterior purpose, 
being realized only by those immediately interested; besides, it 
approaches closely to the injunction of the Savior — "Let not thy 
left hand know what thy right hand doeth." 

The more universal practice of friendly and brotherly hand- 
shaking among the Latter-day Saints would, no doubt, tend greatly 
to bring about that union of feeling and purpose referred to by the 
Savior when he prayed that the disciples might be one with him as 
he was one with the Father, for hard, indeed, is the heart that is 
not favorably affected by a hearty shake of the hand. 

There are often filmy clouds of estrangement that arise 
between friends, which, if unchecked, will develop into a density 
of distrust, when a warm, friendly grasp of the hand, accompanied 
by a friendly gleam of the eye, might disperse those threatening 
clouds and let sunshine again into the doubting heart. 

In the family, in the social circle and in every department of 
human association, this potent factor should be made to do its 
part in bringing about that condition of "peace on earth and good 
will to men" so much talked of, so much to be desired, and to 
which every true Christian is looking forward as the final outcome 
and result of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. 



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THE SEVENTH DAY AND SABBATH. 

BY ELDER JOHN T. SPENCER. 



The position taken by the Seventh Day Advent people is that 
God instituted the seventh day Sabbath in the garden of Eden, and 
reaffirmed it in his own hand writing on lit. Sinai, and also by the 
example of Christ and his apostles, who kept sacred the seventh 
day. They also maintain that Sunday, or first-day observance, 
was instituted by the Roman Catholic Church, and is the "mark of 
the beast" spoken of by John in his Revelation; consequently, the 
"mark," or "seal," of the one hundred and forty-four thousand, is 
the seventh day observance as the Sabbath, etc. 

That God blessed the seventh day at the creation is true, 
but a careful reading of Deut. 5: 15 shows that not to be the rea- 
son for the children of Israel being commanded to keep it holy. 
"Remember that thou wast a servant in the land of Egypt, and 
that the Lord, thy God brought thee out thence through a mighty 
hand and a stretched out arm: therefore the Lord thy God com- 
manded thee to keep the Sabbath day." This chapter also places 
this command in the "Law," which is called a "Covenant," and 
expressly says that, "The Lord made not this covenant with our 
fathers, but with us, even us, who are all cf us here alive this day." 
Chapter 6: 1, says of this covenant of the Ten Commandments: 
"Now these are the commandments, the statutes and the judg- 
ments which the Lord your God commanded to teach you, that ye 
might do them in the land whither ye go to possess it." 

This surely, then, must be the covenant which Paul refers to in 
Heb. 8: 7, which, he says, in the 13th verse "waxeth old, is 



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THE SEVENTH DAY AND SABBATH. 277 

ready to vanish away;" also the "law" referred to in Heb 7: 11, of 
which he says in the 12th verse, "For the priesthood being 
changed, there is made of necessity a change also of the law." And 
in the 18th verse, "For there is verily a disannulling of the com- 
mandment going before for the weakness and unprofitableness 
thereof." 

That the Ten Commandments, called the Decalogue, given on 
Mt. Sinai, is the "Law," they, themselves, also allow. In a tract 
entitled, "Scripture References," page 9, article 14, reads, "That 
the covenant of the law or testament is the Ten Commandments," 
see Ex. 31: 18; 32: 15, 16; 34: 28; Deut. 4: 13; 9: 9-11; 10: 
4; Heb. 9: 4. In the tract entitled, "Who changed the Sabbathr 
page 6, they say, "By the law of God, we mean, as already stated, 
the moral law, the only law of the universe of immutable and per- 
petual obligation, the law of which Webster says, defining the 
terms according to the sense in which they are almost universally 
used in Christendom, The moral law is summarily contained in the 
Decalogue, written by the finger of God on two tables of stone, and 
delivered to Moses on Mt. Sinai/" 

When the "Law" is referred to, then, it means the Ten Com- 
mandments, the fourth of which says the seventh day is to be ob- 
served as the Sabbath, a day of rest, because the Lord brought 
them out from Egypt from the house of bondage (Deut. 5: 15.) 
That this law was not to be a perpetual obligation is the burden of 
■ Paul's epistle to the Hebrews, "for," said he, "if that first cove- 
nant had been faultless, then should no place have been sought for 
the second," (Heb. 8: 7,) and, "he taketh away the first, that he 
may establish the second." (Heb. 10: 9.) What the second 
covenant is, is clearly shown in the third chapter of Galatians where 
Paul, arguing on this same thing, says, "This only would I learn of 
you, Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hear- 
ing of faith r "He therefore that ministereth to you the Spirit and 
worketh miracles among you, doeth he it by the works of the law, 
or by the hearing of faith?" "Know ye therefore that they which 
are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham." "And the 
Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through 
faith, preached before the Gospel unto Abraham, saying, In thee 
shall all nations be blessed. So then they which be of faith are 



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278 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

blessed with faithful Abraham." Evidently they are blessed by 
faith through obedience to the Gospel. For as many as are of 
the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed 
is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in 
the book of the law to do them. But that no man is justified by 
the law in the sight of God, is evident for, 'The just shall 
live by f$ith. And the law is not of faith." Jas. 2: 10, and 
Gal. 2: 16, 21, show that it is impossible to live by the law,*for he 
that offends "in one point is guilty of all." Returning to Gal. 3: 
21, Paul asks, "Is the law then against the promises of God? God 
forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given 
life, verily righteousness should have been by the law." "Wherefore 
the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we 
might be justified by faith. But after faith is come, we are no 
longer under a schoolmaster." 

From the reasoning used by the writer, it is evident that the 
Gospel was given to Abraham and promises made subject to obe- 
dience to its conditions, but because of transgressions, the law "was 
added" to bring those who were under it to Christ, who again es- 
tablished the Gospel which James refers to as the "perfect law of 
liberty" by which Christians will be judged (Jas. 1: 25; 2: 12.) In 
Rom. 2: 12, 16, Paul shows the connection between the "Law of 
Liberty" and the "Gospel." The Gospel is that "other" to whom 
they were married after the death of the law as recorded in Rom. 
7: 4. Christ said, "Think not that I am come to destroy the law, - 
or the prophets, I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill." (Matt 5: 
17.) That Christ did fulfill the law is evidently the argument of 
Paul in his epistle to the Hebrews, Romans, Galatians, and indeed 
nearly all of his epistles. 

Then having fulfilled the law in which is the command to 
"Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy," "The seventh day 
is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God," does it follow that they 
who 'live by faith" are not required to observe a Sabbath day at 
all? Other commandments were re-enacted (see Matt. 19,) but of 
this we have the following: "The Son of man is Lord also of the 
Sabbath." (Mark 2: 28.) John tells us in his Gospel, fifth chap- 
ter, that the Lord healed an impotent man on the Sabbath day and 
was accused by the Jews of breaking the Sabbath, for which they 



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THE SEVENTH DAY AND SABBATH. 279 

sought to kill him. He answered, "My father worketh hitherto, 
and I work." In the fourth chapter of the Hebrews, Paul, after 
reiterating the statement, that the Gospel was preached to Israel 
under Moses, says that a day of rest different to the seventh day 
was spoken of through the Holy Ghost, (Heb. 3: 7.) "although the 
works [of God] were finished from the foundation of the world. 
For if Jesus had given them rest, then would he not afterward have 
spoken of another day. There remaineth therefore a rest to the 
people of God. For he that is entered into his rest, he also hath 
ceased from his own works as God did from his." Consequently 
he also appointed a rest day as his father did. Acts 20: 7; I Cor. 
16: 1, 2; Rev. 1: 10, etc., show the custom of the Saints of meet- 
ing on the first day of the week to break bread, and it was referred 
to as Lord's Day. We are commanded, as Latter-day Saints, to 
keep holy this same Lord's Day (see Doc. and Gov. 59: 9-13), and 
this command is found to be in strict accord with the scripture 
which our Advent friends profess to believe "as it reads." 

They must be mistaken then about their "Mark" as they were 
about the "Advent" in 1844. 

Christ said to his apostles, "A new commandment I give unto 
you, that ye love one another." (John 13: 34.) In his third epistle 
John says, "This is love, that we walk after his commandments. 
This is the commandment, that as ye have heard from the begin- 
ning ye should walk in it." (See Mark 1: 1, 4, 5, 7, 8; I Cor. 15: 
1-4.) "Whosoever transgresseth and abideth not in the doctrine 
of Christ hath not God. He that abideth in the doctrine of Christ 
hath both the Father and the Son." "If righteousness come by 
the law, then Christ is dead." (Gal. 2: 21.) 



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CAUSES LEADING UP TO THE REFOR- 
MATION-* 



BT LESTER MANGUM. 



In this day of research, we are not content with mere results; 
we seek also to discover causes. Simply knowing that an accident 



♦This interesting historical lecture was delivered by the author 
before the class in oratory of the Brigham Young Academy, of which he 
was a member during the semester just closed. Other examples in, 
expository composition, by other students, on a variety of attractive 
subjects, are promised the readers of the Era who have been kept in 
view by the writers of these articles. "The subjects," says Prof. N. L. 
Nelson, in a prefatory note to the editors, "have been chosen in conso- 
nance with the following principles of choice, (See Preaching and Public 
Speaking, pp. 135 to 176,) viz.: 

"I. — In order that a theme may be suitable to a congregation, it 
must be (1) interesting, (2) timely, and (3) in keeping with the intelli- 
gence addressed. 

"II. — In order that a speaker may make the most of a theme, it 
must (1) be of special interest to him, (2) command his implicit faith, 
and (3) must not be above his powers. 

"III. — In order that a subject may be appropriate in itself, it must 
(1) have unity, (2) not be too broad, (3) must be fresh, and (4) must be 
clear. 

"With these ten points it will be well for every young speaker to 
become as familiar as with his fingers. Let him think about them till 
he feels the force of each and he will not fail in time to become an 
interesting and forceful speaker. Nor are they of benefit to any one 
kind of composition alone. They apply as well to the description, the 
story, the address, the oration, as to the essay, the lecture, and the 
sermon." — Editors. 



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CAUSES LEADING UP TO THE REFORMATION. 281 

has happened makes us none the better prepared to avoid a similar 
catastrophe in the future. Realizing this fact, men set to work 
tracing the scource of all events that tell for good or evil. Only 
by such a course are experience and history of use to man. With 
this thought in mind let us, in our humble way, survey briefly a few 
of the principal facts in the history of the Christian church up to 
the time of Constantino, and contrast them with the after history 
that we may better understand the causes leading up to the Refor- 
mation. 

Great changes in the history of the world never take place 
without causing intense suffering. 'It is the law of humanity that 
all new life shall be born in pain." The birth of Christianity 
instead of being an exception gives the one undeniable proof of the 
law — the seal of Divinity itself. 

When we consider the persecutions of the early Christian 
church, we think its growth remarkable, nay, we almost wonder how 
it endured. Persecution became so bitter that secret services 
were necessary; and in order to secure these, secret signs and 
passwords were devised, the Greek work Ikthus being one of the 
first used. It signified "fish/' and was universally given as the 
sign of the faith among early believers. Its initials, taken in order, 
stood for Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the Savior. Later the 
word gave place to the object, and a small fish worn as an orna- 
ment, was a token to all Christians that the wearer was one of 
their faith. 

At length secret service in their homes became impossible, 
and the saints took refuge in the catacombs of Rome. With the 
increase in the secrecy of the Christians, the alarm and suspicions 
of the Roman government naturally kept pace, and so persecution 
became more and more pronounced. Thus it happened that ere 
long life became confined so exclusively to the catacombs that 
these grim caverns were virtually the home, the school, and the 
church of the early believers. On the walls, pictures were drawn, 
symbolical of what- was worshiped. Afterward the nature of these 
symbols was forgotten, and the people worshiped the symbols 
themselves rather than that'for which they stood. This was the 
beginning of image worship which was in after years to prove so 
harmful to Christianity. 



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282 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

During all this time Christians were being put to death by 
thousands. Have you ever stopped to think how fast the converts 
must have come to fill the places of those killed and imprisoned? 
In after years when the Apostles were no more, and tradition was 
the only evidence of their having had direct communion with God, 
what was the strong principle that still drew countless numbers 
to its ranks? 

You will answer, "It was the Spirit of God which testified to 
man of its divinity." Yes, that was and is essential, but can not 
"the invisible things of God be made manifest through the 
visible?' We are agreed on that, so let us have an example. The 
one I have in mind presents a strong contrast. It was the 
strength of that contrast which made it so effective then. 

To show that contrast, it will hardly be necessary for me to 
go into details of pagan life. You know that caste was every- 
thing in the church as elsewhere. The rich ignored the poor, the 
strong oppressed the weak ; wealth and station in life were everything. 
The desire for social equality is inherent in man. The pagan is no 
exception. Which then of the Christian tenets would most strongly 
appeal to the weak and downtrodden? I say it was that of the 
common brotherhood of man. By advancing this idea, I do not 
wish you to infer that I consider the whisperings of the Spirit of 
minor importance in the great work of conversion then enacted. 
It was then, is now, and will ever be, the one essential to man's 
conversion. 

But this doctrine of common brotherhood would appeal not 
only to men's feelings but to their reason. The Christians asserted 
that the law came from God. The law was to the pagans, the 
highest embodiment of justice; surely then the Christian God was 
just. They could make no such claim for their pagan gods, so 
they renounced them and accepted a better. 

Thus the ranks continued to grow; and, as persecution was 
their only worldly legacy, their circles harbored no hypocrites; 
Christians were Christians because the world was nothing to them 
when compared with their most holy faith. 

"The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church," and so 
numerous had been the martyrs, that when Constantino came to 
the throne in the forepart of the fourth century, the Christian. 



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CAUSES LEADING UP TO THE REFORMATION. 283 

element had become so strong that it was well worth the emperor's 
bidding for. Daring 1600 years the world has sung the praises of 
the first Christian emperor. Modern historians challenge his right 
to much that has been claimed for him. They even go so far as 
to assert that Christianity was merely a political lever in his hands. 
Whether their charge can be maintained or not, the facts are 
nndisputable that he led an immoral life, and that the purity of the 
church suffered from the contact. There is, however, one proof 
that he had some faith in the ordinance of baptism, and hence in 
the church. It was taught, then as now, that baptism Washed 
away all sins. Constantino did not wish to change the order of 
his living very much, still, he wished to leave this world as free 
from sin as possible, so he postponed being baptized till a few days 
before his death. 

But we are anticipating. Let us return to the church at the 
time of his accession. Christian and fugitive had been synony- 
mous. Now all was to be changed. Constantino declared Chris- 
tianity the state religion, and those who fed upon the emperor's 
favor changed their religious garments in a twinkling. The 
movement did not stop here; there were lower orders still who 
knew how to court favor, and they followed their master's 
example. We might add that the example has been followed to a 
greater or less degree ever since, as the history of the religious 
wars of Europe will prove. Such a wholesale conversion to every- 
thing but the principles of Christianity could not but prove harm- 
ful and demoralizing to the church. 

Church authority now became centered in the emperor who still 
retained the title Pontifex Maximus, the mortal whom the pagan 
gods most delighted to honor. He thus stood at the head of the 
two systems, and was practically absolute in each. Bishoprics 
and other high places in the church were filled by men with no other 
qualification than the support of the emperor. Church appoint- 
ments partook more of a political than of a religious nature. Church 
and state were united and the church became all powerful in a 
political sense, but lost, on the other hand, the very essence of 
her being— her purity. 

(Concluded in the next number.} 



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THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. 

BY DR. J. M. TANNER, PRESIDENT OP THE STATE AGRICULTURAL COL- 
LEGE, LOGAN, UTAH. 



m. 

Since the declaration of war in South Africa, three months have- 
passed, and the British, up to this date, January 11, have made 
practically no advance. A glance at the map of South Africa will 
show that the campaign has taken two directions, one for the relief 
of Eimberly where the diamond mines are located, on the border of 
the Orange Free State, in Bechuanaland; the other for the relief of 
Ladysmith in Natal Both Bechuanaland and Natal are English 
provinces in which the Dutch are carrying on the war. On th* 
west, the principal force is under the direction of Lord Methuen, 
who has been fighting his way against a stubborn resistance all the* 
way from the Orange river to the Modder. The battle of the Modder 
river, in which the English lost more than eight hundred men, was* 
perhaps the fiercest of the campaign. It resulted, however, in the 
repulse of the English, and Eimberly is still shut up by the Boers, 
and Lord Methuen unable to move. To keep open the source of 
supplies for the main army working for the relief of Eimberly, 
General Gatacre undertook to disperse the Boers who were cutting 
off supplies from Gape Colony, and made an attack on the Boer 
army at Stromberg. General Gatacre fell into a Boer ambush and 
was surprised by a great loss of men, although his army at the 
time consisted of only about four thousand soldiers. 

These reverses created the utmost consternation in London,. 



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THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. 285 

for the shock was entirely unexpected. The fact is, the English 
hardly expected that the Boers would fight, and it was thought that 
a little blustering diplomacy and the mobilization of an army corps 
would completely subdue them. It is declared that Chamberlain 
had no idea of the situation into which he was throwing himself 
and the English nation. The Conservative press, for this war 
belongs to the Conservative party, had freely predicted that the 
English soldiers would take their Christmas dinners in Pretoria — 
the capital of the Transvaal— and Johannesburg, the objective points 
of the English army. The English are not yet out of their own 
provinces, and there are practically three English soldiers to one 
Boer in South Africa. 

In the midst of this excitement and chagrin, it was declared 
that the one thing necessary to restore confidence in the English 
army, and confidence must be promptly restored, would be the suc- 
-ce88 of the armies under General Buller at Tugela river. General 
Buller was on his way to the relief of Ladysmith, where the Boers 
had ten thousand English soldiers penned up. The battle of Tugela 
river will remain in history a landmark in the military world. The 
Boers had thoroughly entrenched themselves on the north side of 
the river and had prepared themselves to receive General Butler's 
advance. The river had two fording places over which it was planned 
to move the English army. The army was drawn up into three divis- 
ions, and as the fording places were only about two miles apart, 
one section was placed in the center to cover the movements of 
the right and left wings of the army as they advanced to the river. 
Another division was sent to the left ford, but the fire of the Boers 
became so intense that the English made practically no headway 
whatever. Thereupon Buller withdrew the left wing and ordered 
Hildyard to throw his forces upon the right ford and force a crossing 
at that point. Twelve mounted cannons were sent to cover his posi- 
tion and Colonel Long in charge was led into an ambush. Most of 
the artillerymen were killed and ten of the guns had to be aban- 
doned. Hildyard found the fire too hot to make further headway 
and so was obliged to withdraw, and for weeks an army of twenty 
thousand men has been waiting at Colenso for reinforcements. 

No one doubts that the English can hammer away until finally 
-they beat down all Boer resistance, but the Boers must fight against 



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286 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

such odds that no great renown or glory is likely to come to any 
English officer. The Boers have already crowned themselves with 
immortal glory, and have treated the world to a surprising heroism. 
Even those who professed the greatest f amilarity with the prepar- 
ations of the Boers for this contest, have been greatly surprised. 
General Boiler and Lord Methuen have lost all opportunity to crown 
themselves with military renown and must now yield the direction 
and control of this war to other hands. Lord Roberts, who has 
been a favored fighter for years in India, was sent recently to 
Africa, where he has just landed, to take charge of all the English 
forces. Lord Kitchener, who at the time of these defeats was in 
Khartoom, in upper Egypt, was at once dispatched to South Africa 
to act as chief aid in the staff of Lord Roberts. These new 
appointments, it was supposed, would restore to the English some 
measure of confidence in the conduct of the war. It is a remark- 
able circumstance, and one which illustrates the possibility of men 
shouldering the responsibility upon those to whom it does not prop- 
erly belong. Chamberlain, Woolesley and Landsdowne in England 
had at the outset the direction and management of the war. They 
were utterly unprepared. They forced the men to the front with- 
out any adequate idea of the efforts required to overcome the Boers. 
Their blunder was soon manifest in the defeats of Lord Methuen 
and General Buller, who perhaps are less responsible for their un- 
fortunate position today than the men at the helm in London. 
Nevertheless, th3 responsible parties find it convenient to shift the 
burden of reproach. These English officers now find themselves 
humiliated, while it becomes necessary to appoint other men to 
command the armies of South Africa. 

Some of the losses during the first sixty days of this war make 
remarkable reading. During that time more than 6,300 officers 
and men were among the killed, wounded and missing. Lord 
Methuen reports his total loss at Magersfontein at 963, of which 
70 were officers. General Buller reports his total loss at Golenso 
at 1,097. Add to this 17,000 men that are penned up at Lady- 
smith, Kimberly and Mafeking, and it will be seen how successfully 
the Boers, within less than sixty days, put more than 23,000 Brit- 
ish soldiers hors de combat. This is one of the most remarkable 
showings in the history of modern warfare. The English them- 



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THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. 287 

selves fully sense the terrible humiliation, not to say the immense 
losses they have sustained. 

The London Standard, an English authority, makes a plain 
statement of the case. In its summary of the 10th of January, it 
says: ^ J££ S» 

Well, the campaign has lasted three months. We have something 
like 120,000 troops in South Africa. With this huge army distributed 
over the country, we are still powerless to relieve three garrisons from 
investment. We have still to see large portions of both colonies in the 
hands of the enemy. We have driven the invaders back at no single 
point. We are actually farther from the hostile frontiers than we were 
on the day that the ultimatum was delivered. The war which ministers 
believed could be effectively performed with 25,000 men has not been done, 
has not even been begun, by four or five times that number. Can anyone 
fail to admit that this is evidence of a grave miscalculation of forces and 
facts? 

These reverses have lead to fraternal outbursts of exultation 
on the part of the Boers in Cape Colony, and threaten new difficul- 
ties for the English there. All over the continent there is a gen- 
eral exultation over Boer successes, and even in the United States, 
which only recently has been boasting of English sympathy, the people 
are more or less sympathetic with the Boers. In England the news- 
papers discuss the gravity of the situation with the most profound 
apprehension. They speak of the dangers of the British empire, 
and every effort is made to arouse a patriotic enthusiasm throughout 
the land, as if England were being overwhelmed in a struggle against 
fearful odds. These outbursts upon the great gravity of the situ- 
ation would be amusing, were it not for the loss of lives and treas- 
ure, when one considers that the forces against whom the English 
are contending are not as numerous as the inhabitants of some 
insignificant suburban English towji. Of course, if there is no inter- 
ference, the results of this war can be as certainly now foretold as 
at any time, since they are sure to be favorable to the English. 
Complications, however, may arise, and we are now facing discus- 
sions of what Europe may do. 

Will Europe interfere? The state of the European mind at 
present, to say the least, is very inflammable. The British at Aden 
recently seized the German mail ship, General, and undertook to 



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288 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

search it for contraband of war. This seizure was regarded as 
unwarrantable from the fact that the manifest, or bill of lading, 
clearly indicated that no such articles were on board. This event 
gave rise to almost universal agitation throughout Germany, where 
the more excitable classes called for public meetings in which to 
denounce the conduct of the British. The government official and 
semi-official organs decried the agitation and begged the people to 
consider what the effects of rash and inconsiderate action might be 
to the German nation. This sudden and violent outbreak indicates 
in a large measure the condition of public sentiment throughout 
all Europe. It is not too much to say that England is without a 
sympathizer in all the continent. There is the strongest feeling 
that the war was wholly unjustifiable, and there is a manifest delight 
in all news announcing the success of the Boers. The German 
emperor himself has recently made a tour to Great Britain for the 
purpose, it was said, of visiting his royal grandmother. It is cer- 
tain, however, that the emperor himself desires his country to main- 
tain a neutral position, and he is the supreme master in foreign 
affairs. Notwithstanding the arbitrary power in all foreign investi- 
gations vested in his royal highness, it is nevertheless believed that 
he would yield to a strong and persistent sentiment in favor of 
action against Great Britain. It would be exceedingly unfortunate 
for the English, at this time, to aggravate in any manner the sen- 
sibilities of any of the great European powers. The Dual Alliance, 
that is, France and Russia, are fairly agreed that there is ample 
justification for their interference, and for the present Germany is 
practically the arbiter of a general European conflict. England had 
evidently anticipated the dangers of opposition in Europe and had 
done her utmost to conciliate the Germans, who, the English well 
knew, held the key to the situation. The English had recently given 
up the most important of the Samoan group of islands, and no doubt 
as a sop to the Germans whose neutrality they counted upon in a 
conflict for which they had been preparing in the Transvaal. 

Will history repeat itself? This is the question now put by 
those who remember the circumstances of English interference dur- 
ing the TnrkoRussian war in 1878. The Turks had shocked all 
Europe through the Bulgarian massacres, and the shock was so 
violent in Russia that a war ensued. It was a war in the interest 



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THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. 289 

of Christianity and civilization — incidentally perhaps — but it was a 
war for the conquest of Constantinople. English sentiment had 
been strongly against the Turks, and Gladstone in the fiercest 
denunciations set forth with strongest feelings the Christian con- 
demnation as it manifested itself towards the Mohammedans. Rus- 
sia, however, prosecuted the war single-handed and made her way, 
step by step, in the face of the most stubborn resistance, over the 
Balkans. Russia had been terribly punished in the loss of treasure 
and life, but had finally succeeded in driving the Turks back to San 
Stephano, a town about six miles from Constantinople. The shin- 
ing spires and towering minarets offered a cheerful welcome to the 
Russian troops, who had fought for many months at great loss and 
sacrifice in order that they might reach the goal of their martial 
struggle. The Russians felt that they were entitled to the fruits 
of their victory; their achievements entitled them, as they felt, to 
the honor of a triumphant march through the streets of Constan- 
tinople. It was at this point that England called a halt. She not 
only offered her intercession in the interest of peace, but threatened 
the bombardment of the city and an attack upon the Russian troops 
if another step were taken. It was not right in her opinion for 
Russia to enter the city of Constantinople. The just and proper 
thing, as she viewed it, was for the Russians to accept such a treaty 
of peace as the great powers might decide upon, and for that rea- 
son appealed to arbitration, and the conference in the city of Berlin 
was held. Poor Russia! She had fought desperately for months 
with the sanction of all Europe. She felt herself entitled to the 
fruits of her victories, but found herself compelled to yield to the 
dictates of a British policy. The conference was held. It resulted 
in the liberation of Bulgaria, and the loss of territory to the Turk- 
ish empire. Of this territory, Russia received comparatively little 
for all her efforts. England, because she commanded the situation, 
took the island of Cyprus; and Austria, who had simply looked on, 
was in the position of a fortunate bystander into whose arms the 
provinces of Herzegovina and Bosnia were thrown. 

Suppose that when England has made her way to a position 
within shooting range of the forts of Pretoria, the Russians should 
call a halt; and then, in the interest of international peace and 
equity in behalf of the Boer race, demand that the Transvaal ques- 



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290 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

tion be submitted to the arbitration of some European conference. 
Russia has no fleet and no armies near Pretoria in the Transvaal to 
enforce such a demand. At this point the similitude ceases. Russia 
would be obliged to attack England elsewhere. Those who appreci- 
ate the complications in the east understand perfectly well where 
this attack would be. Russia is moving in three directions towards 
distinctively objective points. In the first place, she intends to make 
her way through Persia and find an outlet for her commerce on the 
Persian gulf. She is crowding her interests on the Afghan frontier, 
and means somfc day to attack England in India. In the third place, 
Russia is making great headway in China, and would crowd her 
interests upon the English in that empire. England could not very 
well spare the soldiers necessary to take Pretoria if she had to meet 
Russia in the far east. 

In the way of Russian interference, however, lies an inferior 
Russian navy, which, in a single combat with England, would be 
entirely swept from the seas. This navy has been built up at a 
considerable cost, and Russia would not consent to its entire loss 
without assurances of ample and extended compensations elsewhere. 
If Russia interferes, she proposes to make the interference sub- 
stantial, both with her land army and with her navy. To secure 
her navy against destruction, there is but one course open to her, 
and that is an alliance with France and Germany. It is thought 
by some that the navies of these two countries would at least hold 
their own against England. With the German navy thrown in, they 
feel absolute security. 

Will Germany interfere? France is in a mood to undertake 
the struggle, and the best critics of European thought contend that 
a friendly effort in a common cause against England is possible 
between France and Germany. Sometime ago General Marchand 
hoisted the French flag at Fashoda, upper Egypt. England demanded 
an immediate and complete surrender, and forced upon France abject 
humiliation. The French have not forgotten Fashoda, and the public 
sentiment of the republic is not only strong but bitter against Eng- 
land. Russia remembers San Stephano, and the Fashoda incident 
is too recent to be forgotten. 

In a general conflict, Russia could remunerate herself in China, 
Afghanistan, and perhaps Turkey. Her reward in the far east 



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THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. 291 

would be so substantial that Russia could well afford to surrender 
to Germany the Baltic provinces, provinces inhabited largely by 
people of German descent under the rule of Russia. Russia might 
give up some of Poland, and in a readjustment, or future- partition, 
to be made in Africa, Germany might receive there substantial 
rewards. France's reward is not so apparent. She could not 
hope to recover in a readjustment her Rhine provinces. France 
would have to find satisfaction in Africa. In the first place, if 
England could be defeated, it would be highly satisfactory to the 
naval powers to compel the British empire to surrender her forts 
at Gibraltar. France, perhaps, would be glad to turn these over to 
Spain, as they might be desirable to that country in exchange for 
the Spanish forts at Ceuta, in northern Africa. Ceuta is one of 
the pillars of Hercules and within cannon range of Gibraltar, 
almost as valuable as Gibraltar itself in the commanding position 
it would occupy upon the Mediterranean. France would also seek 
compensation upon the African continent by a change of boundary 
lines, but would perhaps be most anxious to secure further con- 
cessions in China. These general speculations are the induce- 
ments which are just now very generally discussed throughout 
Europe, inducements that would lead to European interference. 

Italy could not and would not interfere. While Italy is not 
an ally of England, yet there is a historic friendship which Italy 
could not very well disregard. Besides, Italy is not an important 
factor, nor is Austria, although it would be generally expected 
that Austria would cast her sword in the German balance. 

While these are the general combinations that might be 
effected in Europe, and the dangers in a general uprising that 
might threaten the British empire, England, on the other hand, would 
naturally seek alliances among those countries of whose friendship 
she boasts. England evidently counts upon the friendship of 
Japan whose navy has already reached considerable importance. 
But England would unquestionably count upon some assistance 
from they United States, and especially from her colonies. Could 
or would the United States be a party to such an arrangement? 
At the time the Spanish war broke out, England had already under 
consideration the complications which have since arisen. England has 
felt for some time that a European alliance against her movements 



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292 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

was not an impossibility, and has made every effort to defeat that 
alliance by courting German friendship and boasting of her blood 
relations over the sea. English diplomacy and shrewdness mani- 
fested itself in an early declaration on the part of England that 
she would not permit any European power to interfere against 
the United States in its war with Spain. This declaration implied 
two things: English friendship and the possibility, if not the prob- 
ability, of European interference. There was really no likelihood 
of any interference on the part of any European countries in the 
Spanish war. There was some newspaper criticism, but such 
newspapers constituted those free lances for whose sallies no 
government can really be responsible. France was a creditor of 
Spain,and Spanish bankruptcy would mean a great loss to the French. 
But no one can suppose, on any ground whatever, that France or 
Germany or Austria for one moment contemplated an interference 
in the Spanish war between the United States and Spain. But the 
English declaration served its purpose well, and at once awakened 
feelings of appreciation and kindly expressions throughout the 
United States. Perhaps England counted too much upon those 
expressions. At any rate England has not found the sympathy 
which she must have expected in this country when she undertook 
the war against the Boers. Generally speaking, the sympathy, if 
not so pronounced in this country as in Europe, is for the most 
part in favor of the people of the Transvaal. 

From present appearences, it is not unlikely that the war in 
the Transvaal will last for some time. In the meantime, England 
must exercise the utmost caution to prevent a European alliance, 
and especially must England avoid any offense to the Germans. 
While it does not seem likely that the continental powers will 
enter into any alliance or make any demands upon the English, an 
alliance is still a possibility. Diplomacy must count upon it, and 
direct its efforts accordingly. 



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A TRIP SOUTH WITH PRESIDENT YOUNG 

IN J870-- 



BY C. R. SAVAGE. 



I. 

Among the many incidents associated with life in Utah, in the 
60*8 and early 70*8, none are more worthy of remberance than the 
annual trips taken by the Presidency of The Church to the remote 
settlements. 

I had been in Utah nearly ten years, and had looked almost 
with envy upon the privileged members of the President's party, 
with their long trains of vehicles. I listened often to his discourses 
and saw him frequently in public places, but I longed to enjoy his 
society, and to see him in the privacy of the home circle. I was 
anxious to solve the mystery of his influence, and the magnetism of 
his personage. On such occasions there would certainly be many 
opportunities of seeing the wonderful leader in the role of counselor 
and director of the varied interests of the towns and villages through 
which he passed, and learn the reason why his advice always seemed 
satisfactory to those who sought it. Indeed, he possessed in a 
marked degree the regal faculty of deciding a point in dispute 
almost in an instant. 

I knew many persons who thought that when they saw Presi- 
dent Young that they could set him right on many points, and tell 
him things he did not know, but in every such case they found it 
convenient to let him speak while they preferred to keep silent. 

I once accompanied a large party of paleontologists under 
Professor Marsh, of Yale; they were mostly young men, and in their 
conversation they determined to have a "good time" when they met 
"Old Brigham." Once introduced, they proved to be the most 



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294 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

abashed lot of young fellows I ever saw. Not a single one of them 
excepting the professor, had a word to say. He spoke of the dis- 
coveries they had made of fossil horses in the badlands of 
Nebraska. Quick as a flash, the President replied: "I understand 
some of our anti-'Mormon' writers say that there were no horses 
in America in ancient times, and that the animals were introduced 
by the Spaniards" President Young told the party that fossil 
remains had often been brought to him. In his conversation, he 
astonished me with his familiarity with the investigation of scien- 
tists in this particular study; in fact, the whole party were surprised. 
His dignified manner won their admiration, and the members con- 
fessed, after leaving him, that they found silence most agreeable in 
his presence. They were profuse in their admiration of him — who 
at that time was the foremost man in western America. 

I mention this circumstance to show that such an exhibition 
of personal magnetism only increased my desire for an intimate 
acquaintance with President Young, who exercised more complete 
mastery over those around him than any other man I haye ever 
known or expect to know. There was no arrogance nor assump- 
tion of superiority in his manner, you unconsciously found yourself 
willing to adopt his suggestions, feeling satisfied that he was right. 

It is needless to say that when his son, John W. Young, in- 
vited me with my photographic apparatus to accompany the party 
on a trip to the San Francisco mountains, and put a light, covered 
wagon at my disposal, I was overjoyed at the long-coveted oppor- 
tunity. 

It was in the early morning of February 25, 1870, that a long 
cavalcade of vehicles rolled out of Salt Lake City. President Young 
and his wife were in the leading buggy; his two sons, Brigham and 
John, occupied the next with Brother George A. Smith and wife; 
Lorenzo D. Young and Joseph W. Young following with many others 
whose names I cannot now recall. Brother Van Natta was "out- 
rider" on horseback. In the carriage assigned to me and driven by 
Nathaniel V. Jones were the two sons of Brigham Young, Jr. We 
were a jovial crowd, free from care and full of fun. Other invited 
guests, with supply wagons, made up the train, each wagon taking 
its proper place which it maintained during the whole trip. 

These annual trips to the settlements were the events of the 



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A TRIP SOUTH WITH PRESIDENT YOUNG. 295 

year to the residents. They were the occasions when old times 
were gone oyer, and old f riendsltfps renewed. The incidents of the 
exodus from Nauvoo, and the thrilling experiences in other places 
were related anew. 

President Young told me that the greatest difficulty he had was 
to keep up so much private conversation as well as public speaking, 
that he was glad at times to retire and have a rest. So pleased 
were the people to shake him by the hand that all along the road, 
he was compelled to speak to hundreds. In many places the Saints 
lined the road, and received their beloved leader with uncovered 
heads. The president acknowledged their salutations with the 
grace of a king. 

Our first stop for the night was at American Fork. The head- 
quarters were at the residence of Bishop Harrington, a sterling man 
of refinement and general ability. Previous to the arrival of the 
caravan, locations were secured for all the party at different homes. 
Everything went like clockwork. There was a warm welcome for 
all who composed the President's party, each one being cared for 
with unstinted liberality. 

As a matter of course the people desired to see and hear Presi- 
dent Young. No meeting was complete unless he spoke. He seldom 
led in speaking; but the cap-stone was laid by him. Usually all 
present were silent, all who were out came indoors, and the indif- 
ferent listeners woke up. The great leader cut right and left, 
handling the subjects affecting the interests of the people with a 
fearless, decisive dignity, which unmistakably indicated his broad- 
minded views of the people's needs. 

Following the afternoon meetings, the people gathered around 
headquarters, and such handshaking, and jovial good times were 
enjoyed as made the different stopping places seem like a continu- 
ous ovation from north to south. These were the occasions when 
the President was greatly wearied with much talking and when he 
was glad to retire and get a good night's rest. 

At Payson the most elaborate preparations were made for the 
reception of the party, but at all the towns and villages through which 
we passed, the citizens were out to give us the warm welcome that 
comes from those who love their leaders, and who desire to show 
them honor. At one place we drove rather hurriedly through the 



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296 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

settlement, scarcely noticing the adult population, but a little 
farther on, our leader met a large group of children. He stopped 
and had quite a chat with the juveniles in the most familar manner. 
The little ones greatly enjoyed this distinction. 

A squad of cavalry and a brass band met us at the entrance 
to the town, so with music playing and flags flying we entered Pay- 
son. We stayed at the residence of Brother Douglas, a big-souled 
Scotchman, who with his family gave us a regal welcome and pro- 
vided a veritable feast. President Young looked over the well- 
spread table and politely asked for a bowl of bread and milk, leav- 
ing the rest of the party to do justice to the extras. So much 
rich food made most of us ill. The President was informed of the 
fact, and did not forget to make a text of our imprudence fur- 
ther on. 

The meeting house at Payson was a structure with a very low 
ceiling. Being called upon to speak, I incautiously suggested that 
the next house to be constructed should have a ceiling nearer the 
sky, and stated that I would fear to light a match lest the foul air 
should explode and send us too hurriedly to our journey's end. 
Brother George A. Smith gave me a gentle hint, after the meeting, 
that ever after restrained my disposition to criticise conditions that 
could not be avoided. Brother Smith was one of nature's noble- 
men, in all the walks of life. How I loved his brief, pithy talks and 
his uniform Christ-like simplicity of manner! 

At Santaquin, Presidents Young and Smith addressed a large 
and delighted congregation. Each person seemed anxious to ex- 
tend the warmest welcome possible. Our next point was Mona, 
where we made no stop, but the people, old and young, lined the 
road, and with uncovered heads and waving of hats, showed their joy 
at sight of the visitors. Their salutations were heartily acknowl- 
edged by us. 

On the twelve-mile drive to Nephi some young men on horse- 
back drew up in line across the road, stopping the train. The leader 
of the party saluted President young thus: "Brother Brigham, 
we've come out to meet you." 

"Have your said the President, "I thought you were a hunt- 
ing party." They took the hint and formed into line on the roadside 
while the party passed, and escorted the wagons into Nephi. It 



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A TRIP SOUTH WITH PRESIDENT YOUNG. 297 

fell to my lot to be quartered at the house of Brother Pitchf ortn. 
The rest were also well provided for. 

Next day the meeting house was packed. President Young 
was in his happiest mood. We were all called upon to speak. 
Some of us who had been sick the night previous were duly scored 
for over-indulgence; fasting was dwelt upon, as an aid to the enjoy- 
ment of good health and a greater portion of the Spirit of God. 
Our misadventure at Payson was a telling sermon against eating 
too much, and as targets for the President's thrusts we were com- 
pelled to accept his remarks without squirming or talking back. 
No one could ever reply with impunity in such cases. He never 
missed anything funny, and never forgot where to make a point; 
in fact, no incident seemed to miss his searching gaze. He found 
his texts in the Bible of our everyday lives. 

The next morning, March 2nd, we passed Levan on the left 
and nooned at Chicken Greek, a sort of half-way house. Here I 
saw the oldest man then living in Utah, Father Ballon, 96 years old, 
and almost blind and deaf. We reached Scipio, a snug little town 
that had been broken up two or three times by the Indians, at 4:30 
o'clock. It snowed during the night. 

Leaving Scipio we ascended a divide over a mountain range 
into Pah-vant valley; there were four or five inches of snow on the 
ground. One of the carriages broke, and the whole caravan stopped. 
President Young was the first to ascertain the cause of the mis- 
hap. He called upon Van Natta, the "out-rider," and asked if he 
had provided any rawhide for repairs. Van was sorry he had for- 
gotten to do so. The President quietly called upon his wife to see 
if there was such an article in the buggy; sure enough, it was found; 
the repairs made, when we all moved on again. This was one more 
evidence of his great foresight and quality as a leader of men. No 
detail was too small for his consideration. Once on the road, each 
man and boy was as object of his care, and if any was sick he was 
always the first to care for his interest. In his preaching, every 
word seemed to fit into its right place; every person was eager to 
listen. There was very little of chapter and verse preaching. The 
conditions facing the people demanded specific counsel, and it was 
always given with wonderful decision when the President spoke. 

We reached Fillmore through mud and mire in the evening. 



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298 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

The usual enthusiastic reception was tendered. There was more 
preaching for all of us; none escaped. If the leaders felt tired 
they usually called upon other members of tha party to precede 
them, and would close with sledge-hammer blows that wanned up 
the audiences. The people were eager to hear Brother Brigham. 
A meeting on these occasions without him would have boon as flat 
as the opening services of a quarterly conference on a wet day. 

The meetings in Fillmore were held in the capital building. 
Congress granted $23,000 towards its construction. It was thought 
at one time that Fillmore would be the capital of the territory, on 
account of its central location. 

Our next point was Meadow Greek, where we did not stop, but 
at Corn Greek we held a meeting. This was then the Indian reser- 
vation of the Pah-vants, most of whom are now dead. From there 
we drove to Gove Greek Fort, a fine stone structure built by The 
Church as a protection to travelers against Indian attacks, there 
being no settlement between Corn Greek and Beaver. Its construc- 
tion cost $20,000. We enjoyed the hospitality of Ira Hinckley and 
his estimable family who had charge of it at that time. It was an 
evening of rest for the preachers, without a meeting. It is pos- 
sible to have a surfeit of anything, be it ever so good. I often 
sympathized with the leaders of our Church on such trips as these, 
and thought upon the mental strain,the constant effort to fill the high 
mission of directing the energies, inspiring the hopes, comforting 
the faint-hearted, denouncing wrongs, and the more difficult work 
of driving out the worldliness that almost gets possession of us. 

The next day's travel was devoid of interest other than usual 
incidents noticed in going from place to place; for six or seven 
miles from the fort, we had snow, then mud, then dry and dusty 
roads. 

A grand welcome was provided at Beaver where we stayed over 
Sunday. I had the good fortune to be located at the home of Presi- 
dent Murdock. 

Brother John Squires, the barber, who was one of our party, 
did the tonsorial work. Who does not know of the skill of our 
friend John, with his "two up and one down" touches? No one, at 
that period of our history, would think of a presidential party with- 
out the presidential barber; he had his little jokes for each one of 



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A TRIP SOUTH WITH PRESIDENT YOUNG. 299 

ti8, from the President down to your humble servant. His services 
were rendered without money and without price — he was one of 
the features of a pleasant memory. 

The services at Beaver were very instructive. The school of 
the prophets was held there at that time. Brother C. J. Thomas 
had a fine choir of twenty voices, who did excellent work in the 
meetings. Everybody seemed glad to see us; it was a constant 
hand-shaking festival. 



LET EACH MAN LEARN TO KNOW HIMSELF. 



Let each man learn to know himself: 
To gain that knowledge, let him labor, 
Improve those failings in himself, 
Which he condemned so in his neighbor. 
How lenient our own faults we view 
And conscience' voice adeptly smother; 
But oh! how harshly we review 
The self-same errors in another. 

And if you meet an erring one 

Whose deeds are blamable or thoughtless, 

Consider, ere you cast the stone, 

If you yourself be pure and faultless. 

Oh! list to that small voice within, 

Whose whisperings oft make men confounded, 

And trumpet not another's sin; 

You'd blush deep if your own were sounded. 

And in self-judgment, if you find 

Your deeds to others are superior, 

To you has Providence been kind, 

As you should be to those inferior; 

Example sheds a genial ray 

Of light, which men are apt to borrow; 

So first, improve yourself to day, 

And then improve your friends tomorrow. 



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HUMBLE DEVOTION VS. MILITARY GLORY. 

BY APOSTLE HEBER J. GRANT. 



I do not know when I have heard anything that pleased me more- 
than the article by Dr. Earl G. Maeser, in the November Era, enti- 
tled, "How I became a Mormon." I am sure that the testimony of 
the divinity of the work of God, as portrayed in this article, is 
very striking and certainly must be beneficial in strengthening the 
faith of the youth of Zion. 

Speaking of his baptism, he says: "On coming out of the 
water, I lifted both of my hands to heaven and said: 'Father, if 
what I have done just now is pleasing unto thee, give me a testi- 
mony, and whatever thou shouldst require of my hands I shall do, 
even to the laying down of my life for this cause/" 

Soon thereafter he received the testimony which he had re- 
quested of the Father, and how faithfully he has kept his promise 
"whatever thou shouldst require of my hands I shall do, even to the 
laying down of my life for this cause" is known to every Latter- 
day Saint who is familiar with the life-labors of Karl G. Maeser. 

The good results which have come from his labors at the Brig- 
ham Young Academy at Provo, are almost beyond calculation; so, 
also, are his labors in aiding in the establishment of Church schools 
and religion classes throughout all Israel. His labors as one of the 
General Superintendency of the Sunday Schools, have also been of 
great importance. His Sunday School labors were very closely 
connected with those of the late George Goddard, and there are 
none of my intimate acquaintances who have more perfectly exem- 
plified in their lives the teachings of Jesus Christ: "Peace on 
earth, good will to men" than have these brethren. 

I have been intimately associated with Brother Goddard from 



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HUMBLE DEVOTION VS. MILITARY GLORY. 301 

my childhood, loving him with an affection almost akin to devotion 
and I entertain this same sentiment for Brother Maeser. I know 
of no two men who have more perfectly illustrated the beautiful 
sentiments contained in the little poem "Abou Ben-Adhem" than 
they have. One of the reasons why I entertain such deep feelings 
of affection for these brethren, is because each could answer as Ben- 
Adhem did, "I pray thee, then, write me as one that loves his fel- 
low-men." 

When God shall make up his jewels, these men will be among 
the number. And when the angels shall show the names of those 
whom God has blessed, theirs will surely be among those to be 
found at the head of the list. 

As some of my readers may not be familiar with the poem by 
Leigh Hunt, which I greatly admire, I have pleasure in quoting it. 
The lessons so beautifully taught therein, I have tried to apply to 
my life's actions. It is as follows: 

Abou Ben-Adhem (may his tribe increase:) 
Awoke one night from a deep dream of peace, 
And saw, within the moonlight in his room, 
Making it rich, and like a lily in bloom, 
An angel, writing in a book of gold. 
Exceeding peace had made Ben-Adhem bold, 
And to the presence in the room he said: 
"What writest thou?" The vision raised its head, 
And, with a look made all of sweet accord, 
Answered, "The names of those who love the Lord." 
"And is mine one?" Said Abou. "Nay, not so," 
Replied the angel. Abou spake more low, 
But cheerily still, and said, "I pray thee, then, 
Write me as one that loves his fellow-men." 

The angel wrote, and vanished. The next night 
It came again, with a great wakening light, 
And showed the names whom love of God had blessed, 
And lo, Ben-Adhem's name led all the rest. 

How natural it is for us to bow down and almost worship the 
warrior! But with humble and faithful men like the brethren refer- 
red to, a warrior, who is such not from a high sense of duty and 
patriotism, but simply from an ambition to be great in the eyes of 
his fellows, or to make a name for future generations — even if 



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302 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

we take the mighty Napoleon as our example — is a pigmy in com- 
parison. 

Just at this time of warrior worshiping, perhaps it may excite 
a few beneficial and sober reflections to read carefully the essay of 
Dr. Johnson, entitled, "Battlefields, or Vulture Shambles," a very 
striking article: * 

As I was sitting within a hollow rock, and watching my sheep that 
fed in the valley, I heard two vultures crying to each other on the sum- 
mit of a cliff. Both voices were earnest and deliberate. My curiosity 
prevailed over my care of the flock. I climbed slowly and silently from 
crag to crag, concealed among the shrubs, till I found a cavity where I 
might sit and listen without suffering or giving disturbance. 

I soon perceived that my labor would be well repaid; for an old vul- 
ture was sitting on a naked prominence, with her young about her whom 
she was instructing in the arts of a vulture's life, and preparing, by her 
last lecture, for their final dismission to the mountains and the skies. 

"My children," said the old vulture, "you will the less want my 
instructions, because you have had my practice before your eyes. You 
have seen me snatch from the farm the household fowl; you have seen 
me seize the leveret in the bush, and the kid in the pasture; you know 
how to fix your talons, and how to balance your flight when you are laden 
with your prey. But you remember the taste of more delicious food: I 
have often regaled you with the flesh of man." 

"Tell us," said the young vultures, "where man may be found, and 
how he may be known. His flesh is surely the natural food of a vulture! 
Why have you never brought a man in your talons to the nest?" "He 
is too bulky," said the mother. "When we find a man, we can only tear 
away his flesh, and leave his bones upon the ground." 

"Since man is so big," said the young ones, ."how do you kill [him? 
You are afraid of the wolf and of the bear. By what power are vul- 
tures superior to man? Is a man more defenseless than a sheep?" "We 
have not the strength of man," returned the mother, "and the vulture 
would seldom feed upon his flesh had not nature that devoted him to our 
nourishment, infused into him a strange ferocity, which I have never 
observed in any other being that feeds upon the earth. 

"Two herds of them," continued she, "will often meet, and shake 
the earth with noise, and fill the air with fire. When you hear noise, 
and see fire, with flashes along the ground, hasten to the place with your 
swiftest wing for men are surely destroying one another: you will then 
find the ground smoking with blood, and covered with carcasses, of 
which many are mangled, for the convenience of the vulture." 



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HUMBLE DEVOTION VS. MILITARY GLORY. 303 

"But when men have killed their prey," said a young vulture, "why 
do they not eat it? When the wolf has killed a sheep, he suffers not the 
vulture to touch it, till he is satisfied himself. Is not man a kind of wolf?" 
''Man," said the mother, "is the only beast who kills that which he does 
not devour, and this quality makes him the greatest benefactor to our 
species." 

"If men kill our prey, and lay it in our way," said the young one* 
"what need shall we have of laboring for ourselves?" Because man will 
sometimes," replied the mother, "remain for a long time quiet in his den. 
The old vultures will tell you when you are to watch his motions. 
When you see men in great numbers moving close together, like a flock 
of storks, you may conclude that they are hunting, and that you will soon 
revel in human blood." 

"But still," said the young one, "I would gladly know the reason of 
this mutual slaughter. I could never kill what I could not eat." "My child," 
said the mother, "this is a question which I cannot answer, though I am 
reckoned the most subtle bird of the mountain. 

"When I was young, I used frequently to visit the eyry of an old 
vulture who dwelt upon the Carpathian rocks. He had made many 
observations; he knew the places that afforded prey round his habita- 
tion, as far in every direction, as the strongest wing can fly, between 
the rising and setting of the summer sun; and he had fed year after 
year on the vitals of men. 

"His opinion was that men had only the appearance of animal life, 
being really vegetables, with a power of motion, and that as the boughs 
of an oak are dashed together by the storm, that swine may fatten on 
the falling acorns, so men are, by some unaccountable power, driven one 
against another till they lose their motion, that vultures may be fed. 

"Others think they have observed something of contrivance and 
policy among these caterers of ours; and those that hover more closely 
around them, pretend that there is in every herd one that gives direction 
to the rest, and seems to be more eminently delighted with carnage. 
What it is that entitles him to such pre-eminence, we know not. He is 
seldom the biggest or the swifest; but such are his eagerness and dili- 
gence in providing and preparing food for us, that we think the leader 
of such human herds is entitled to our warmest gratitude, and should be 
styled, The Friend of the Vultures. 9 * 

I ask the readers of the Era to contemplate the above article 
and then carefully to reflect upon the life of the great Napoleon 
and compare it with those of our humble and devoted Sunday School 
workers, George Goddard and Earl G. Maeser. And when they 



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804 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

have done so, I feel confident they will realize that the warrior 
Napoleon was in very deed, "The Friend of the Vultures," and that 
George Goodard and Earl G. Maeser have, by loving their fellows 
and faithfully striving to advance the condition of humanity, placed 
themselves as Abou Ben-Adhem did-— in the first ranks of those 
"whom love of God had blessed." We would think, when recalling 
the fact of the five hundred thousand soldiers which Napoleon took 
with him to Russia when he crossed the Alps, and then remember- 
ing that he returned with only about forty thousand, that the very 
subtle vulture whose eyry was "upon the Carpathian rocks," must 
have been located near enough to enable him to reach the ninety 
per cent of Napoleon's army which furnished food for vultures. 

"Knowledge without practice is like a glass eye, all for show 
and nothing for use." I would urge upon the young men to do 
nothing for show, but to do their best to obtain knowledge and 
then strive to put the knowledge obtained to practical use. I am 
acquainted with some people who are regular encyclopaedias of 
knowledge, but so far as their knowledge being utilized for the 
benefitting of their fellow-men, they might just as well not possess 
it or be deaf, dumb and blind: this is all wrong. 

George Goddard spent the greater part of his life in laboring 
to improve the conditions of our Sunday Schools. He in very deed 
was constantly "gathering up the sunbeams," and "scattering 
seeds of kindness for our reaping by and by." He is remembered in 
every Sunday School that he ever visited, as a veritable sunbeam, 
bubbling over with kind words, sweet songs, and good advice. 

"What are the aims that are at the same time duties? They 
are the perfecting of ourselves, the happiness of others."— Kant. 

George Goddard and Karl G. Maeser have found their "sweet- 
est comfort* in, 

With a patient hand removing, 
All the briers from the way. 

When we think of their noble examples, oh, how our affections 
go out to them! With all my heart, I pray God may grant that the 
youth of Zion shall follow the example of these worthy men, whose 
lives have been as pure as gold, in preference to such glittering but 
damnable examples as those of a Napoleon. 



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EDITOR'S TABLE. 



TALKS TO THE YOUNG MEN— DEFERENCE FOR SACRED 

PLACES. 

BY THE SENIOR EDITOR. 



There is a signal lack of character in the person who has no 
deference for sacred places. By deference as here employed is 
meant that quality which enables one to deny, or to hold in the 
back-ground, his natural wishes and desires for fun and light- 
mindedness, and give preference to the spirit of worship in the 
place in which he finds himself. Deference, it has been said, is 
"one of the most indirect and elegant of compliments.*' It comes 
with special grace from the young to people older in years, from 
the governed to the governor, from the layman to the person in 
authority, from the audience to the speaker, from the worshiper 
to the place of worship. It is not as deep as reverence, for in the 
latter is mingled a sentiment of fear with high respect and esteem; 
to God reverence is due, but to the place of worship, deference. 

When a person attends church or meeting, he should remain 
during the service, and enter into the spirit of the act of paying 
divine homage to the Supreme Being. Nothing so completely 
exposes a young person's boorishness as ill conduct and lack of 
deference in a place of worship. 

Recently, at a young people's conference in Salt Lake City, a 
most flagrant case of bad manners came under my observation. 
While the services were still in progress, scores of young men and 
women left their seats, and crowded out of the doors of the Taber- 



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306 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

nacle, seemingly unconscious of the offensiveness of their action. 
To thus leave a house of worship before the close of the services, 
is a breach of one of the most essential forms of good breeding, 
that should never be tolerated, much less indulged in. On this 
occasion, the speaker who arose to address the congregation noti- 
fied all who wished to retire to do so, .and then he asked that the 
doors be closed. This was done, and there was comparative quiet 
while he spoke. No sooner had he closed his remarks, however, 
than there was another rush for the doors, for it was forgotten, 
apparently, that singing and prayer are also parts of the service. 
Nor was this all the offense, for the behavior of a large number 
who were present at the meeting was not at all what deference to 
a house of worship, to say nothing of respect for the speaker, 
should and does demand. Such conduct is severely reprehensible, 
and should be stopped. Young men and women who are guilty of 
it should consider what a grave offense it is, and strive not to be 
guilty of it again. It is unworthy the children of the Saints, or of 
any person who has proper respect for himself. 

The young people should learn to act properly in places of 
religious worship; they should be willing to set aside their natural 
inclinations for pleasure and license, and learn to control them- 
selves, and act with propriety. It is an old and true saying that 
there is a time and a place for all things. To be able to conduct 
oneself in conformity with the demands of the place in which one 
finds himself, is a very useful acquirement, essential to the comfort 
and the pleasure of others and to our own true happiness. Upon 
this matter, every young person should thoughtfully consider, and 
then strive to improve. 

Those who preside over religious gatherings should insist 
upon receiving from the audience and from each individual thereof, 
that regard and deference which are due to the places and to their 
positions. The boys and girls should learn that John or Thomas 
or William, however plain and familiar when among them as play- 
mates, companions, or friends and neighbors, are entitled to special 
respect when presiding over meetings of worship. Neither should 
it be forgotten by them that the place itself is sacred, and that 
good breeding demands of them that they shall also pay to it the 
deference due. Their fellow-worshipers should also be consid- 



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EDITORS TABLE. 307 

ered. The scripture passage: "For he that loveth not his brother 
whom he hath seen, how can he love God whom he hath not seen?' 
might be changed to read: "For he that regardeth not his brother 
in authority nor payeth deference to the house of worship, how 
can he love and revere the Lord?" 

The teaching of deference for sacred places should be encour- 
aged in our associations, as well as in other gatherings of the 
Saints. A vigorous discipline should be instituted to impress its 
importance. 

The possession of the quality of deference marks a high type 
of manhood and womanhood, a lack of it is characteristic of the 
ill-bred and unrefined. 



THE ROBERTS CASE. 



The reader of the daily press who has kept informed upon the 
case of Utah's representative in Congress, Hon. B. H. Roberts, and 
followed the proceedings to prevent his being seated, must have 
noticed the unusual and even unwarranted steps in the action taken 
by Congress. 

There is no irregularity in his certificate or in his electiQn. He 
possesses all three of the qualifications of a representative, pre- 
scribed by the Constitution: he has attained the age of 25 years; 
he has been seven years a citizen of the United States; and is an 
inhabitant of the state in which he was chosen. And yet the House, 
when he presented himself to take the oath of office, excluded him, 
deciding by a large majority vote that he would not be permitted 
to take the oath of office. Why? Because of the presentation of 
large bundles of petitions principally written, obtained and presented 
through the labors of church ministers who are prejudiced enemies 
and radical opposers of The Church to which he happens to belong. 
These petitions charged him with living in polygamy; in other words, 
with violating a statute in Utah which defines his alleged offense as 
a misdemeanor. But there was no evidence except the unsupported 
allegations of the petitioners. There was no court record of such 



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308 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

alleged crime, although ample time and opportunity were given to 
establish this, if it existed, through the state courts of Utah which 
had jurisdiction in such cases. There was further, no law applic- 
able to his case, either of the State of Utah or of the United States, 
which disqualified him. 

Notwithstanding these facts, the House prevented him from 
being sworn, without evidence, cause or reason except the allega- 
tions of a multitude of irresponsible petitioners; and it undertook 
to establish his guilt while he was yet unsworn, hence not a mem- 
ber, by referring his case to a special House committee, which com- 
mittee endeavored by the examination of witnesses to establish his 
guilt on a violation of a state statute with which neither the House 
nor its committee had anything to do. 

The Constitution, among other provisions, gives Congress a 
right to be the judge of the elections of its own members, and to 
expel a member for just cause. Nowhere,however, is the right given 
to prevent a representative who has the qualifications provided in 
the Constitution, and who holds his proper state credentials, from 
being sworn, and from taking his seat. He must be a member be- 
fore he can be treated to expulsion? or cause. It is true, the quali- 
fications of persons claiming seats in the House may be called in 
question, and in such case the house may go behind the certificate 
of election, examine witnesses, and decide who has received a 
majority of legal votes, but until the matter is decided, the person 
holding the certificate of election is a member of Congress just as 
if there was no question about his election. But Representative 
Roberts, with all his qualifications, has been denied membership, 
and that too while he is being tried without warrant in law. 

There is absolutely no justification for the House in the pro- 
ceedings it has taken to prevent Mr. Roberts from becoming a mem- 
ber. Religious prejudice has completely upset the judgment of its 
members and has caused them to recklessly over-ride all law and 
precedent. Bigoted ministers have caused that supposedly great 
body to set an example of defiance to law and right that is liable 
to become a dangerous rock to the ship of liberty. 

It has been maintained that the Edmunds law disqualifies Mr. 
Roberts and gives the House an excuse for its action. The people 
who have protested against his being sworn and taking his seat, 



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EDITORS TABLE. 309 

base their objections upon this law, and rely upon it for a justifi- 
cation and warrant for their course. It provides that no person 
who is a polygamist, or who cohabits with more than one wife shall 
be entitled "to hold any office or place of public trust, honor or 
emolument * * * * under the United States." 

But all the disabilities which Mr. Roberts may once have had 
under this law were removed by the amnesties of two presidents, 
and the enabling act of Congress for the admission of Utah, which 
latter provides for just such cases by permitting all male citizens 
twenty-one years of age or over, who have been one year residents 
of the then territory, to take part in the formation of the state con- 
stitution, and to vote for its adoption. 

But, again, if this were not enough, and the Edmunds law, as 
some have contended, should be applied to the District of Columbia 
where Congress has sole jurisdiction, and to the qualification of 
members of Congress, and Mr. Roberts thus by law be prevented 
from taking his seat, the question would naturally arise whether 
the office of Representative in Congress is an office under the United 
States. The New York Sun has called attention to and investigated 
this question, and has come to the conclusion, citing several pre- 
cedent examples, that the "weight of legal authority is strongly in 
favor of the proposition that it is not," and "that the framers of 
the Constitution excluded senators and representatives from the 
category of persons holding office under the United States." And 
thus every vestige of authority by law upon which is based the pro- 
tests against him, and their acceptance by Congress,are swept away, 
and the House is left without law or excuse for its action in refusing 
Mr. Roberts to be sworn, and denying him a seat. It has done him 
and the state which he represents a grave wrong in denying him 
rights to which he is clearly entitled, and by so doing has set an 
example that threatens the liberty of every state in the Union. 

The Sun comes to the conclusion after a review of the case of 
Mr. Roberts that, "if the prosecutors of Mr. Roberts have any case 
against him which affords good ground for his expulsion from the 
House of Representatives, let them bring it forward after his admis- 
sion and turn him out. The case for excluding him which they have 
thus far presented, is fatally defective, and it is no exaggeration 
to say that its success would be a menace to American liberty." 



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310 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

The minority Committee report which holds to the above 
view, will doubtless open the whole subject for debate in the 
House, when Utah's Representative will have an opportunity to 
continue the vigorous battle that he is waging single-handed for 
the right. 



NOTES. 



"Don't wait for great things; for while you wait, the door to little 
ones may close." 

To think we are able is almost to be so; to determine upon attain- 
ment is frequently attainment itself. Thus earnest resolution has often 
seemed to have about it almost a savor of omnipotence. — Samuel Smiles. 

It is related that Dwight L. Moody once offered to his Northfield 
pupils a prize of five hundred dollars for the best thought. This took 
the prize: "Men grumble because God puts thorns with roses; wouldn't 
it be better to thank God that he puts roses with thorns?" 

"I attach great importance to reading good books. Whatever success 
I have attained I attribute to the literature that I have read. It opens 
a world of thought and reasoning, and uplifts one to higher ideals and 
nobler ends. One may be poor, but in spirit he feels himself a prince, 
and equal to any other man. Good reading stimulates action and 
thought. I am never more pleased than when I see a young man read- 
ing a good book. I consider it one of the best signs." — W. A. Nash, 
banker. 

Who has not noticed the power of love in an awkward, crabbed, 
shiftless, lazy man? He becomes gentle, chaste in language, enthusi- 
astic, energetic, Love brings out the poetry in him. It is only an idea, 
a sentiment, and yet what magic it has wrought. Nothing we can see 
has touched the man, yet he is entirely transformed! So a high ambi- 
tion entirely transforms a human being, making him despise ease and 
sloth, welcome toil and hardship, and shaking even kingdoms to gratify 
his master passion. Mere ambition has impelled many a man to a life 
of eminence and usefulness; its higher manifestation, aspiration, has led 
him beyond the stars. If the aim be right, the life in its details cannot 
be far wrong. Your heart must inspire what your hands execute, or 
the work will be poorly done. The hand cannot reach higher than does 
the heart. — Success. 



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IN LIGHTER MOOD. 



"Will one in the class," asked the teacher of rhetoric, "give a 
better form to the sentence, 'John can ride the mule if he wants to'?" 
"John can ride the mule if the mule wants him to," said the bgj with the 
bad eye. — Chicago TriJtmne. 

* * * 

Johnny, a Sunday School boy, having arrived at his eighth birth- 
day, thought it would be real nice to write a letter to his papa, and this 
is the way he began: "Dear Papa: Whenever I am tempted to do 
wrong, I think of you and say: 'Get thee behind me, Satan!"' 

* * * 

A Frenchman, who had a dispute with a Turk in Constantinople, 
and had stabbed him, wasjcondemned to death. The criminal, who 
thoroughly understood the value of postponing trouble, thought on the 
means of saving himself; and as he knew that the Sultan was a great 
lover of elephants, he proposed to him to spare his life, and he would in 
return teach one of these animals to speak.' The Sultan, who knew the 
seme of the elephant, thought it possible that by pains and art one 
might be taught to do so. Therefore, he accepted the proposal of the 
prisoner, and promised a handsome reward besides, if he should fulfill his 
purpose in a certain time. The Frenchman said that ten years would 
be wanted to instruct such a very large animal; if he was to teach it to 
speak Turkish quite perfectly, but he would be content to suffer the 
most cruel death at the expiration of that time, if he should not fulfill 
what he had undertaken. After they had agreed to this, he and a young 
elephant were confined in a tower, and supplied with abundance of pro- 
visions. After a little time, he was visited by some of his countrymen, 
who testified their astonishment at his mad promise. "You bring 
destruction on yourself by it," said one of them. "Do not fear," said 
the prisoner, "ten years is a great period of human life. I assure yon 
that, before these are expired, one of us, the Sultan, the elephant or I 

will be dead." 

* * * 

A Chicago hotel manager employed a handy man going by the name 
of "Bill" to do his window-washing. One morning Bill instead of doing 
his work, was amusing himself by reading the paper, and, as bad luck 
would have it, the manager looked in. 



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312 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

"What's this?" he said. Bill was dumbfounded. "Pack up your 
things and go/' said the manager. 

So poor Bill went to the office, drew the money which was owing to 
him, and then went upstairs and put on his good clothes. Coming down, 
he went to say "goodby" to some of the other servants, and there he 
happened to run across the manager, who did not recognize him in his 
black coat. 

"Do you want a job?" asked the manager. 

"Yes, sir," said Bill. 

"Can you clean windows?" 

"Yes, sir." 

"You look like a handy sort of fellow, I only gave the last man five 
dollars, but Til give you seven." 

"Thank you, sir," said Bill; and in half an hour he was back in the 
same old room — cleaning the windows this time, and not reading the 
paper. — Collier's Weekly. 

* * * 

When John Hay now Secretary of State, was a boy, he was a 
regular attendant of the Presbyterian Sunday School at Warsaw, Mi" 
nois. The Sunday School lessons partly consisted of committing to 
memory Bible verses, and to attain supremacy in this created quite a 
rivalry among the scholars. John Hay was sure to come out ahead 
from two to five answers, sometimes more, causing those of his comrades 
who were always behind him to regard him with envy. 

Consequently, when some of those boys heard that John had to 
wash dishes and do the churning for his mother, and, more than all else, 
that he wore an apron while at these duties, they fairly crowed. 

One morning, it was agreed by his comrades to get him out of doors 
while he had his apron on, and humiliate him by having two or three 
girls whom he rather liked ask him questions in regard to his house work* 

Young Hay came out to [where the boys were, and answered the 

questions by saying that he washed dishes as his mother taught him; 

and then, with twinkling eyes, he gave the dishpan which he had with 

him a tremendous fling, contents and all, drenching whoever happened to 

be near enough, and, laughing loudly, ran into the kitchen. Hay and 

his big apron were never molested after that. 

* * * 

Customer (to baker's boy): "Is your bread nice and light, sonny?" 
Boy (confidentially): "Yes, ma'am; it only weighs ten ounces to the 
pound." 



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OUR WORK. 



THE CULTIVATION OP LITERARY STYLE. 



From an article in a recent number of Self Culture the following 
paragraphs are culled: 

A good literary composition, like a good painting or a good musical 
composition, has certain distinguishing qualities. The artist may learn 
to appreciate those qualities, and, by faithful practice wisely directed* 
may conform his own work toward the ideal standard without losing his 
individuality. 

The first and most important quality of style is clearness. If one 
have something to say that is worth saying he should say it. He should 
say it not merely that the reader may, but that he must, understand* 
Now, the first requirement for clear writing is clear thinking; for no 
one can make another understand what he does not understand himself. 
Hence, careful writing is a means of cultivating careful thinking. But 
one may have a very clear idea of what he wants to say and yet be unable 
to say it well: command of language is necessary. * * * 

Nice discrimination in the choice of words is a mark of good writ- 
ing. Perhaps no two words in the language convey exactly the same 
meaning. A careful writer will wait long for an inspiration which shall 
give him the word or phrase which seems to elude his search. This high 
standard of excellence is one of the distinguishing characteristics of the 
true artist. A proverb has been defined as "the wisdom of many and 
the wit of one." It is a happy expression of the thought that gives it 
its peculiar value and its permanency. Thought is the jewel, but style 
is the setting that makes it available. 

In ordinary reading the object is to get the writer's thought. In 
reading for the purpose of improving one's style, the chief aim should be 



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314 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

to appreciate the expression of the thought. An excellent exercise is to 
read a paragraph carefully, express the same thought, and then compare 
the writing critically with the original. 

Indignation — indeed all strong feeling — is always expressed in as 
clear and forcible language as the speaker or writer is capable of. The 
writer who is in earnest will, other things being equal, be less likely to 
obscure his meaning than one who has no object beyond writing a given 
number of words. The practice of writing long compositions on subjects 
in which one has little or no interest is decidedly objectionable. 

The liability of saying what one does not mean must be constantly 
kept in mind. The danger of being misunderstood, even when one says 
clearly what he does mean, must also be recognized. 

Herbert Spencer points out in his work on "Education" that in all 
ages adornment has been more highly esteemed than utility. The savage 
is more anxious to have feathers and paint than a blanket to protect him 
from the cold. For the same reason the ordinary elocutionist uses too 
many gestures and the ordinary writer too much elaboration. The editor 
of a well-known college journal announces that his paper is "the recip- 
ient of a subscription from Mrs. L." He would naturally have' said, "re. 
ceived a subscription"; but he was anxious to write "fine English." The 
writer's object was not to say that his paper was a journal or a recip- 
ient, or anything else, but to tell his readers that he had receive a sub- 
scription. Neither long words nor "glittering generalities" can take the 
place of thought appropriately expressed. The purpose of writing is not 
to convey words but thoughts. Over-worded writing is like over-colored 
painting. Whatever is worth saying is worth saying briefly. 

Grace is the quality of style which makes it pleasing. Many com- 
positions are read chiefly on account of the beauties of their style. Addi- 
son's "Vision of Mirza" and "Sir Roger de Coverley," and Irving's "West- 
minister Abbey" and "Sorrow for the Dead," are among the best models 
of grace in the language. ♦ * * 

The student of style must learn to admire the beautiful in compo- 
sition in order that the taste, thus cultivated, may influence his own writ- 
ing. This does not mean that one should try to write exactly as Addi- 
son or Irving wrote. The tendency to mere copying can be avoided by 
using several models, by regular practice in writing, and by constantly 
watching for defects to be avoided. ♦ ♦ * 

Force makes writing effective. To [write forcibly one must be in 

earnest. Lord Macaulay's writing is perhaps the most forcible in the 

language. The reader of those brilliant essays is never left in doubt as 

to the writer's meaning. Every sentence is a thunderbolt. Read his 



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OUR WORK. 316 

essay on 'The Royal Society of Literature." Would it not be useless to 
say a word in reply to that withering criticism? Macaulay's style is 
deficient in grace and variety, but it is none the less valuable as a model 
<of clearness and force. 

"Unity in variety" is an essential character of good writing. As in 
the architect's plan, every line should have its place in the formation of 
the perfect whole. Without diverting the reader's attention from the 
thought to the plan, it should proceed systematically from "firstly" to 
"lastly." Perhaps Macaulay's Essays furnish us as good models of unity 
us can be found. 

It is often asserted that "all a rhetorician's rules teach nothing but 
to name his tools," and that the only way to learn to write is by writing. 
A complete set of rules for painting would not make a painter; nor would 
practice alone produce the best results. In the teaching of all the arts, 
much harm is no doubt often done by destroying individuality and by 
cultivating an unnatural style. Yet no one can afford to rediscover en- 
tirely the principles of an art, nor to learn by costly experience what may 
readily be learned from a master of the art. A good style is to be acquired 
neither'by giving one's days and nights to the study of theoretical rhet- 
oric, nor by unceasing practice, both should be judiciously combined, if 
possible, under the guidance of a master of the science and art of writing. 



M. I. WORK IN SAN FRANCISCO. 



Harry D. Haines writes the Era that there are flourishing Improve- 
ment Associations throughout California wherever branches of the 
Church are organized. Elder H. E. Sharp is the newly installed presi- 
dent of the San Francisco association, which has been of much assist- 
ance in furthering missionary labor. Its socials at which as many as 
eighty Saints and friends have been entertained, have contributed largely 
to their success. Strangers as well as recent converts display great 
eagerness for improvement study; and the association meets their 
demand for a thorough knowledge of the history and doctrines of the 
Church, in a serious and helpful way. It aids in fulfilling the commis- 
sion of our Lord, 'Teach all nations." 



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EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 

BY THOMAS HULL, SECRETARY OF THE GENERAL BOARD OF Y. If. If. I. A. 



December 7th: Representative B. H. Roberts of Utah issues an ad- 
dress to the people of the United States, calling attention to the threatened 
dangers to the safeguards of American liberty in the precedent sought 
to be established in his case. 

9th: Apostle Franklin D. Richards dies in Ogden. * * * 
Mrs. Emily Dow Partridge Young, wife of the late President Brigham. 
Young and daughter of Edward Partridge,the first bishop of The Church, 
dies in Salt Lake City. 

10th: In a battle with the Boers near Stromberg the British forces 
under General Gatacre suffer a serious defeat. 

12th: The funeral services over the remains of President Frank- 
lin D. Richards are held in Ogden. * * * Advice* 
just received in San Francisco bring the news that on Nov. 2nd a huge 
tidal wave swept over the island of Ceram in the Malay Archipelago. 
Cities were blotted from the earth and the report that at least five 
thousand lives were destroyed. 

13th: There was a very perceptible earthquake shock in Salt Lake 
City, Ogden and all the intermediate territory. * * * Gen. 
Otis telegraphs the war department that Aguinaldo has abandoned his 
troops and is in hiding in the province of Beugnet. * * * 
The British forces suffer another serious defeat in a battle with tho 
Boers at Magersfontein. General Methuen commanded the British. 

15th: Gen. Buller the commander-in-chief of the British forces in 
South Africa is defeated by the Boers in an engagement near Chieveley. 
In an attempt to cross the Tugela] River he is repulsed with heavy loss. 
He loses 1097 men; killed 82; wounded 667; missing 348. 

18th: The British government removes Gen. Buller from the 
supreme command in South Africa and appoints Baron Roberts of Kanda- 



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EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 317 

liar commander-in-chief, with Lord Kitchener of Khartoom as chief of 
staff. * * * Letters found among the rebel archives cap- 
tured, indicate that Aguinaldo has had the active moral support of prom- 
inent anti-expansionists in the United States. 

19th: Gen. Henry W. Lawton, the gallant officer who fought so 
valiantly at Santiago and all through the Philippine campaign, is killed 
at San Mateo, in Luzon, to capture which place he started from Manila 
on the night of Sunday, Dec. 17th. 

22nd: D wight L. Moody, the evangelist, died at his home, East North- 
field, Mass., after a month's illness. * * * While the school 
children of St. Francis parochial school, Quincy, Illinois, were rehearsing 
for a Christmas play, the dress of a little girl caught fire, and as a re- 
sult eleven children lost their lives. * * * At 
Amalfi, Italy, a tourist's resort, an enormous rock upon which stood the 
Capuccini hotel slid bodily into the sea, carrying with it the hotel, other 
buildings and fifty thousand cubic feet of earth. ' Many lives were 
lost. 

23rd: By an explosion of fire damp in the Braznell coal mines, Pa., 
more than forty miners were] buried alive. * * * Christ- 
mas trade in the leading cities of Utah was heavier than was ever before 
known. * * * The 94th anniversary of the birthday of 
the Prophet Joseph Smith was fittingly celebrated by the Relief Society 
at their regular quarterly conference held in the Assembly Hall. Ad- 
dresses were made upon the Life and Teachings of Joseph Smith by M. 
I. Horne and Elders Samuel W. Richards and Angus M. Cannon. 

24th: The British steamer Ariosto stranded on the North Carolina 
coast, and 21 sailors were drowned, while Captain Barnes and eight 
others were saved. * * * Hostilities in South Africa were 
mutually suspended for Christmas day. * * * Daniel S. 
Ford owner and editor of Youth's Companion, died in Boston, aged 77 
years. 

25th: A severe earthquake visited Southern California at 4:25 a. 
m. destroying much property, the center of the shock being at San 
Jacinto, in Riverside county. Several Indians were killed by falling rocks. 

* * * Gen. Young has been appointed military governor 
of the province of northwestern Luzon with headquarters at Vigan. 

26th: Charles W. Stayner, an old and well-known resident of Utah 
and a brother of the late Arthur Stayner, died at his home in East Boun- 
tiful. 

27th: Edward C. Hodges & Company, bankers and brokers of 
Boston, made an assignment. 



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318 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

28th: Word was received by steamer Aorangi from Sidney to Vic- 
toria, B. C. that Oscar Eliason, the Salt Lake magician, came to his death 
by the accidental discharge of a gun while he was hunting, Nov. 26 r 
1899. 

29th: The United States Fish Commission decided, after recent 
inquiry, that the physical condition of the waters of Great Salt Lake 
will not permit the introduction of useful marine animals therein. * 

* * Three representatives of Aguinaldo arrive in Wash- 
ington with a peace proposal * * * The three-days' ses- 
sion of the State Teachers' Association came to a close. Oscar Van Cott 
has been chosen its president. 

80th: M. W. Merrill, Jr., a leading citizen of Cache county, and 
son of Apostle M. W. Merrill, died at his home in Richmond, aged 48 
years. 

3l8t: The United Irish] Societies of New York and vicinity held a 
mass meeting sypathizing with the Boers and condemning England be- 
cause of the South African war. Senator Mason of Illinois, and Con- 
gressman Sulzer of New York made addresses. Resolutions were passed 
which closed in these words: 

Resolved: That we apppeal to the heart and 
conscience of the liberty-loving people, descendants 
of the founders of this Republic and inheritors of 
Washington's fame, and all lovers of liberty through- 
out the world, to cast aside all personal and selfish 
consideration unworthy of free men to extend the 
hand of fellowship to the patriots and heroes now so 
bravely fighting to maintain their liberty and to drive 
thtfinvader from the soil of the Boer republic, and we 
hail all the victories as the happy augury of the es- 
tablishment of the United States of South Africa. 

January, 1st, 1900: A hard fight begins the move to drive the insur- 
gents out from southern Luzon. * * * George Buckle, 
Republican, was elected president of the Salt Lake City council. 

2nd: Captain Leary, naval governor of Guam, has issued a proc- 
lamation decreeing the absolute prohibition and total abolition of 
slavery, or peonage, the order taking effect Feb: 22nd. * * * 
Heber H. Thomas, Republican, was elected president of the Ogden city 
council. 

3rd. The bubonic plague is reported at Manila. * * * Gover- 
nor McLaurin, in delivering his message to the Mississippi legislature, 



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EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 319 

denounced the "Mormons" in scathing terms, and recommended the adop- 
tion of laws to prevent their doctrines from being taught in the state. 

4th: There were six cases of small pox reported in Salt Lake City, 
and the Board of Health advised the closing of the schools. * * * 
Arguments in the Roberts case were begun before the Taylor committee. 

6th: Congressman B. H. Roberts argues his case before theTayler 
committee, speaking for nearly five hours. * * * General Otis 
reports the complete success of the military operations in North Luzon* 
which effected the release of Lieutenant Gilmore and other Americans 
captured by the rebels. 

6th: Congressman B. H. Roberts finished his speech before the 
Tayler committee, it having occupied seven hours time and won him many 
friends. * * * N. P. Haworth, at Farmington, was held without 
bail on the charge of murdering Thomas Sandall, at Layton, last March. 

7th: The British have met with three heavy reverses in South 
Africa during the past few days. 

8th: Dr. J. M. Tanner placed his resignation as president of the 
Agricultural College in the hands of President W. S. McCornick of the 
board of trustees. * * * Senator Rawlins introduced a bill in 
the Senate increasing the appropriation for the public building in Salt 
Lake City to $750,000, from $300,000 appropriated by the last Congress. 
» * * President Snow issued a proclamation declaring that the 
Church has positively abandoned polygamy, and that if any member dis- 
obeys the law, either as to polygamy or unlawful cohabitation, he must 
bear his own burden and be answerable to the tribunals of the land for 
his own action pertaining thereto. 

9th: Robert Murdock was appointed postmaster at Logan, vice 
Orson Smith. * * * Senator Beveridge of Indiana made a strong 
plea in the senate for the retention of the Philippine Islands, giving as a 
keynote this sentence: 

'That man little knows the common people of the 
Republic, little understands the instincts of our race 
who thinks we will not hold it (the Philippine archi- 
pelago) fast and hold it forever, administering just 
government by simplest methods." 

10th: Lord Roberts and General Kitchener arrive in South Africa 
and their presence restores the shaken confidence of the English soldiers 
in their generals. * * * The Medical Society, Salt Lake City, 
declare for compulsory vaccination. 

11th: Senator Pettigrew of South Dakota denounced the adminis- 



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320 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

tration's policy in the Philippines. * * * The trial of Captain 
J. F. Mills for the killing of John G. Ollelveney began, a jury having 
been secured. 

12th: The school vacation in Salt Lake City was extended one week, 
owing to small pox. Large numbers are being vaccinated. * * * 
Mark Lindsey, well known as the founder of Lindsey's gardens, dies at 
his home in Ogden. * « * The Utah bank statements for 1899, 
compiled by Secretary of State Hammond, show an increase over 1898 
of two million dollars in individual deposits and the same amount in 
savings deposits. 

13th: A large meeting was held protesting against compulsory 
vaccination, and an organization was effected to be known as the Utah 
Anti-Compulsory Vaccination League, Thomas Hull, temporary president, 
C. S. Booth, secretary, and B. H. Schettler, treasurer. 

14th: Small pox breaks out in Fire-Chief Devine's family, and the 
Salt Lake fire department is quarantined. * * * An official state- 
ment is made by Frank H. Hitchcock of the Agricultural Department 
that the agricultural products of the United States exported for the period 
1894 to 1898, five years had an average annual value of $663,538,201, 
sixty per cent of which found a market in Great Britain and its depend- 
encies. * * * Field Marshal Roberts reports no change in the South 
African situation. 

15th: The Board of Health decides that un vaccinated children will 
not be admitted to the Salt Lake City Schools. * * * The Ogden 
city council authorizes the establishment of a pest house. 

16th: The Utah Poultry Association opened its 13th annual 
exhibit in Salt Lake City. * * * The House Committee on 
Postoffices begins its enquiry into the cases of Utah officials who are 
charged with polygamy. # # # Q en • Wheeler has resigned 
and will return home from Manila. 

17th: The Tayler committee reached a conclusion jn the Roberts case. 
Two members will render a report favoring admission and then expulsion, 
while six, the majority Teport will recommend that he be excluded 
without admission. * * * Gen. Buller occupies the hills fifteen 
miles west of Colenso, and Gen Lyttleton's brigade and General War- 
ren's forces have crossed the Tugela, surprising and routing the Boers. 
Gen Buller is marching to the relief of Ladysmith. 

18th: The arguments in the Mills case began. * * •* Henry 
K. Carroll, special U. S. Commissioner to Porto Rico, reports that the 
area of that island is from 3150 to 3860 square miles, and in 1897 had 
a population of 890,820. The greatest need of the island is good roads. 
He recommends that the island be given a territorical form of govern- 
ment. 



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IMPROVEMENT ERA. 



Vol. HI. MARCH, 1900. No. 5. 



THEOLOGY EST EDUCATION. 

BY PROFESSOR WILLARD DONE, OP THE BRIGHAM YOUNG COLLEGE, 

LOGAN. 



I. 

PLACE OF THEOLOGY IN THE DOMAIN OP HUMAN 
LEARNING. 



The writer confesses a considerable degree of diffidence in 
approaching a subject upon which there has been so much contro- 
versy. But the explanation that this treatment of the subject is 
to be considered merely as the presentation of a few phases of it 
from the writer's personal point of view, will rob the critic of one 
weapon of attack, however he may use the weapons which still re- 
main in his hands. For on this subject there has been and still is 
a great deal of controversy, ranging from friendly discussion to 
quarrels filled with the venom of personal malice, and stained with 
the blood of combatants. On the broad subject of the relation- 



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322 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

ship between religion and science, many volumes have been 
written, heavy in more ways than one. A large percentage of 
these books have been devoted to a consideration of the antago- 
nism which men have made to exist between the two lines of human 
thought and endeavor, while some have attempted, by means of 
compromises, to establish a unity between them. So far as this 
series of papers touches this important theme, the aim will be to 
show a relationship, neither of antagonism nor of compromise, 
but rather of part to whole. After that, the endeavor will be to 
show the importance — indeed the indispensableness — of both ele- 
ments in our educational theory and practice. 

In the attempts which have been made by philosophers and 
historians to fix the relationship between theology and other sub- 
jects of study and investigation, an antagonism between theology 
and science has been frequently asserted. Men of science have 
claimed that theologians are entrenching on their domains, and 
. usurping some of their prerogatives, while counter-charges to the 
same effect have been hurled back at the scientists. It appears, 
however, that theologians have acted largely on the defensive, 
protecting what they conceived to be religious essentials against 
the encroachments of scientific fact and theory; while the posi- 
tion of the scientists has been generally more aggressive. On 
this account, as well as for other reasons, most of the existing 
literature on this subject of controversy has emanated from the 
scientists. The general impression created therein is that the 
theologians have not only been in the wrong, in the matter of 
argument, but that, still worse, they have attempted to eke out 
insufficient arguments with violence and persecution. In support 
of the assertion that this idea prevails, passages, almost at ran- 
dom, may be quoted from the works of such men as Draper, White, 
Spencer, and others. Here are a few: 

"The true position of the earth in the universe was established only 
after a long and severe conflict. The church used whatever power she 
had, even to the infliction of death, for sustaining her ideas. But it was 
in vain. The evidence in behalf of the Copernican theory became irre- 
sistable."* 



* Draper's ''History of the Conflict between Religion and Science," 
p. 182. 



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THEOLOGY IN EDUCATION. 323 

"In whatever direction thoughtful men looked, the air was full of 
fearful shadows. No one could indulge in freedom of thought without 
expecting punishment. So dreadful were the proceedings of the In- 
quisition, that the exclamation of Pagliarici was the exclamation of 
thousands: It is hardly possible for a man to be a Christian, and die in 
his bedr w * 

"As long as he (Buff on) gave pleasing descriptions of animals the 
church petted him, but when he began to deduce truths of philosophical 
import, the batteries of the Sorbonne were opened upon him. * * * 
For his simple statement of truths in natural science which are today 
truisms, he was dragged forth by the theological faculty, forced to 
recant publicly, and to print his recantation"! 

" Eminent dignitaries of the church attacked him (Lyell) without 
mercy, and for a time he was under social ostracism."! 

"This kind of protest of necessity accompanies every change from 
a lower creed to a higher. The belief in a community of nature be- 
tween himself and the object of his worship, has always been to man a 
satisfactory one; and he has always accepted with reluctance those 
successively less concrete conceptions which have been forced upon him."§ 

Such is the trend of thought throughout not only the works 
above cited, but throughout practically all the volumes written 
from the same standpoint. Is there a foundation for this charge, 
so generally made, that religion has been an unfair opponent of 
science, or is there a mistake in the point of view of the writers 
referred to, and others of their kind? 

It must be admitted that the historical statements they make 
are in the main correct. That Galileo, Bruno, Copernicus, Lyell, 
Winchell, and others from the middle ages to our own time, have 
been treated with unfair harshness for their scientific researches 
and utterances, is beyond question. But in this unseemly and 
often bloody controversy, has religion been opposed to science? 
Have not the historians of this conflict made a mistake in their 



* "History of the Conflict between Religion and Science," p. 207. 
t White's "A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology/ 
Vol. L, p. 61. 
t Ibid, p. 233. 
§ Spencer's "First Principles," p. 116. 



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824 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

use of terms? Has it not rather been a conflict between bigotry — 
the narrow dogmatism of men — and the promoters of scientific 
investigation? In a word, is it not a conflict of men, and men's 
opinions, rather than a conflict of principles? To the question, 
"Has there been any conflict between religion and science?" a 
strong negative answer, it appears, may be given. 

There is a conviction in the mind of the writer, that the mis- 
take of supposing a conflict to have been waged between religion 
and science, is due in part to a misapprehension of the relation- 
ship between theology and other branches of learning. Writers 
on both sides of the controversy have had no very clear concep- 
tion of the nature of theology, in its relationship to other lines of 
thought. To prove this assertion, citation will be made of Spen- 
cer's definitions of knowledge, science, philosophy, and theology. 
After a long and elaborate argument on ultimate scientific and 
religious ideas, he thus sums up his findings: 

" He (the philosopher) realizes with a special vividness the utter 
incomprehensibleness of the simplest fact, considered in itself. He, 
more than any other, truly knows that in its ultimate essence nothing 
can be known."* 

"Knowledge of the lowest kind is un-unified knowledge; Science is 
partially-unified knowledge; Philosophy is completely-unified knowledge."f 

" If knowledge cannot monopolize consciousness — if it must always 
continue possible for the mind to dwell upon that which transcends 
knowledge; then there can never cease to be a place for something of 
the nature of Religion, since Religion under all its forms is distinguished 
from everything else in this, that its subject matter is that which 
passes the sphere of experience."! 

A summary of these definitions may be thus expressed: All 
knowledge is relative; we may never know things themselves, but 
only their relationships. This relative knowledge is first detached, 
un-unified; then partially unified (science), then completely unified 
(philosophy). When we have come to the end of experience, and 
have acquired all this relative knowledge possible, religion (or 



* "First Principles," p. 69. 
flbid, p. 136. 
J Ibid, p. 17. 



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THEOLOGY IN EDUCATION. 325 

theology) commences. It deals only with that which is beyond the 
reach of human knowledge and experience. 

With such ideas of the relationship between science and 
religion, it is no wonder that scientists and philosophers have 
accused theologians of entrenching on their (the scientists') 
domain. How could they affirm anything, except possibly the one, 
simple fact, "God lives," without entrenching on this domain? And, 
strange to say, as soon as this one, simple, restricted statement is 
made, and the theologian endeavors to comfort himself with the 
"one ewe lamb" left to him, the scientist exclaims, "Prove it, sci- 
entifically P And thus the theologian is drawn again into his 
offense of trespassing on the prohibited demesne. Does this state- 
ment of the case seem absurd? It would appear that a fair state- 
ment of this anomalous condition can scarcely be otherwise than 
absurd. 

Yet just such difficulties will be continually encountered, so 
long as the definitions cited above are allowed to pass unchallenged. 
Just so long, too, will it be impossible for a definite, positive state- 
ment of a religious character to be made. For what man can 
speak positively of that which has not entered, in some form, into 
his own experience? And is it not clear that in order to be of any 
value at all, religion must be positive? 

It is no wonder, then, that since the tendency has been to 
relegate theology to the domain of the incomprehensible, any 
effort on the part of theologians, as such, to enter into the great 
questions of science and philosophy has been resisted and 
denounced. If this is the logical result of the definitions cited 
above, it remains to be considered whether those definitions are 
correct or not. Does theology belong merely to the realm of the 
incomprehensible? Must theologians surrender all of that realm 
that is conquered by advancing science and philosophy? If so, 
theology will have but an imaginary existence, dealing only with 
vagaries, beyond the reach of thought and understanding. 

Passing by Spencer's definition of knowledge, which is, to say 
the least, incomplete, and of philosophy, which, if not impossible, 
is at least unsatisfactory, (for when may completely unified 
knowledge be reached?) consideration will be given to his defini- 
tion of religion. In answer to his statement this proposition will 



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326 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

be laid down and defended: Religion, and Us corollary, theology, has 
to do not only with the incomprehensible (as Spencer would charac- 
terize God and his existence) but with the works of God, the relationr 
ship of man to God, and qfman to man. A definition of theology 
narrower and less comprehensive than this, would be unsatisfac- 
tory to Latter-day Saints who have come to regard their religion 
and its principles and duties, as all in all. 

One way to determine the meaning of a word, is to consider 
its derivation. Following this rule in the present case, theology is 
found to be derived from two Greek words, meaning, broadly, "the 
science of God." The definition of the word based entirely on its 
derivation, would seem sufficient so far as breadth is concerned, 
but not in reference to detail. That is, while it may be made to 
include all that may be desired, it does not express enough. Filling 
in the details which are logically included in the broad definition 
given above, it will be seen that if theology is the science of God, 
it must also be or include, the science of his works. Is the 
Maker less than his creation? Since there is a God, he is the 
Creator and Ruler of all things visible and tangible. Therein con- 
sists a great degree of his Godhead. (Not all of it, for things 
invisible also are made and ruled by him). Is a creator, either 
human or divine, known in any other way than through his word 
and works and influence? In studying the life and character of a 
man, account must always be taken of his works. Even though 
little be known of him directly, he is revealed and may be studied 
to a great degree, through his works. We approach Fulton 
through the steamboat, Stephenson through the locomotive, Watt 
through the steam-engine, Edison through the electric light, Morse 
through the telegraph, and every great author through the books 
he has written. 

For a very obvious reason, it is impossible for us fully to un- 
derstand these men through their work, for they have put there 
the best that is in them, and only they who have associated closely 
with the men, and also studied their works, have really known 
them. We may read the works of Dr. Samuel Johnson, but only 
a Boswell knew him as he was. So Xenophon was the interpreter 
of Socrates; Mark, of Peter; Luke, of Paul; and John the Apostle, 
of Christ. Is there not an analogy here? God has not put all of 



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THEOLOGY IN EDUCATION. 327 

himself into the works which come within man's comprehension. 
On account of their necessary imperfection, he has not even put 
the best of himself into them. But while a personal association 
is necessary to a full and perfect understanding of him and his 
attributes, we, in our temporary absence, cannot know him unless 
we have some comprehension of his works. Hence it follows 
that a thorough study of God includes a study of his works. It 
is, however, farthest from the writer's thought to infer that the 
study of God's works is of greater importance than the study of 
his word. Going as far as man may, into the study of the crea- 
tions of God, in the absence of his word we may approach little 
or no nearer to an understanding of him. All that is desired to 
be conveyed here, is that his nature, and even his word, is made 
clearer to us through his works than would otherwise be possible. 

The analogy above referred to, may be carried farther. If it 
is impossible to understand God without some comprehension of 
his works, so it is impossible to understand his works in their 
entirety, without some comprehension of the design of their Cre- 
ator. An analogy of the same kind may be found in the simplest 
works of art and manufacture. One might study a watch, in every 
detail of its construction, and yet remain ignorant as to its true 
nature, until the intent of its manufacturer is either discovered o? 
revealed. The watch and its true significance would be made 
known to him through its purpose, the measurement of time. So 
the dynamo through its purpose, the generation of electrical 
energy; the camera through its purpose, photographing; the tele- 
graph through its purpose, the transmission of messages; and so 
on, ad infinitum. A clear and perfect comprehension of these 
would be impossible without a knowledge of their purpose, the 
reason for their being in existence. 

But these simple appliances reveal their ultimate purpose to 
the careful observer, much more readily and clearly than do the 
infinitely greater and more comprehensive works of God. While 
the chemist may see the immediate results of the union of chemi- 
cal elements, and judge in part the purpose of this union, it is 
clearly seen that he cannot understand the final purpose of such 
unions, even the simplest of them, without a knowledge of the 
design of him who instituted the principles of chemistry, from 



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328 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

which man has derived what he knowB of its laws. So with the 
work of the botanist, the physicist, the zoologist, and all others 
whose labor is with the laws of creation. It follows that, in their 
unity, the principles of creation can be comprehended only through 
an understanding of the design of Him who created the universe 
and originated the principles on which it is governed. Therefore, 
perfectly unified knowledge is impossible without a knowledge of 
God. The conclusions which are to be drawn from these argu- 
ments, will be stated and summarized in a subsequent paper. 



ORIGIN OP SOME POPULAR WAR SONGS. 



'The Battle Cry of Freedom," 'Tramp, Tramp, the Boys are 
Marching," "Just Before the Battle Mother," and a score of 
other war-songs, were written by Dr. George F. Root. He did 
more for his country by his stirring songs of freedom than he 
could probably have done had he shouldered the musket. It was 
no ordinary feeling that his appeals inspired; they came from his 
pen aflame with patriotic enthusiasm and never failed to inspire 
the sons of freedom. In 1861, the Lombard Brothers were in 
Chicago for the purpose of holding a war-song meeting. They 
were anxious for a new song and their need inspired Dr. Root, 
who straightway wrote both the words and the music of 'The 
Battle Cry of Freedom." The ink was scarcely dry before it was 
sung from the courthouse steps. One brother sang the verses, 
the other joined in the refrain. Before they finished, a thousand 
voices took part in the chorus. In the Reform excitement of 1867, 
in England, it became as well known there as in America. 



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FOR THE SALVATION OF SOULS., 

A STORY IN TWO PARTS. 



BY NEPHI ANDERSON, AUTHOR OP "ADDED UPON," "a YOUNG FOLKS' 
HISTORY OP THE CHURCH," ETC. 



Part First. 



And this is the gospel, the glad tidings which the voice out of 
heaven bore record unto us, 

That he came into the world, even Jesus, to be crucified for the 
world, and to cleanse it from all unrighteousness; 

That through him all might be saved whom the Father hath put 
into his power and made by him. 

Who glorifies the Father, and saves all the works of his hands, 
except those sons of perdition who deny the Son after the Father has 
revealed him; 

Wherefore, he saves all except them. — (Doe. and Cov. 9 See. 33.) 

Margaret awoke as the first gray light of the east crept 
through the little window and cast its dim reflection on the wall. 
It was early, and the city was yet asleep. Presently as she lay 
and listened, she heard the rattle of a solitary wagon on the pave- 
ment in the street below. Then it was still for a few moments 
and the light on the wall increased perceptibly. Another vehicle 
echoed through the streets until it was lost in the distance. Then 
the rattle gradually increased. The heavy tread of horses became 
more frequent. Street cars whizzed past; and now she could not 
distinguish each particular noise as noises increased in number and 
kind and blended into one vast, deep roar of an awakening city. 



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830 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Margaret was in no hurry to get up. She lay and watched 
the opposite wall growing lighter as a ray of sunlight crept 
through the murky air and fell with its bedimmed glory on the 
f rameless chromo fastened over the stove-pipe hole. The picture 
was a country scene, and everything in it was strangely green. 
Margaret wondered if there ever was a place like that. 

The roar and rattle of the city were now in full swing for the 
day! Still the girl did not get up. The big eyes stared 
around the dingy room as if the miserable objects in it were things 
of beauty. The pale face looked the more pitiable in the absence 
of tears. If she could have cried — but no, that source of relief 
was seemingly gone. 

Footsteps now sounded in the hall, and, the door was forcibly 
tapped. 

"Come, Miss Lee, come down and get a cup of coffee before 
you go." 

"All right, thank you." 

Then Margaret got up and dressed; but she took her time 
about it, and it was fully half an hour before she presented her- 
self in the dining room below. 

A cup of black coffee stood on the table and a slice of bread 
lay on the plate beside it. The coffee might have been warm when 
placed there, but it was now cold. No one was in, so Margaret 
drew up a chair to the table, ate the bread and sipped a little of 
the black liquid. 

A woman then came in. "I'm sorry for you, Miss Lee, but I 
have my bread and butter to look out for, too. Hope you'll find 
something today." 

"May I leave my trunk with you until I can take it away?" 
asked the girl. 

"Well, yes; but I'll not be responsible for it, you know." 

Then Margaret Lee passed out into the life and movement of 
the city. The sun was well on its way towards the noon mark, yet 
the air was cold. The wind came in gusts from the direction of 
the river and there was a feeling of snow in the air. 

The girl shivered and drew her jacket closer. She was soon 
into a busy street where the hurrying mass of humanity passed 
and repassed her. The most lonesome place in the world may be 



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FOR THE SALVATION OF SOULS. 331 

in the midst of a million people. If any person looked at Mar- 
garet Lee that day with a glance of recognition she did not know 
it. The fact that the face was peculiarly striking in color, and 
the eyes were big and sunken was not enough to draw pity. Color- 
less faces and sunken eyes were commonplaces to those people; 
and they had enough misery of their own to brood over. 

Margaret walked aimlessly up one street and down another. 
She made no attempt to get work. She asked no person for em- 
ployment. She had done this for six days now, and as this was 
the seventh, it would be a day of rest — rest at least from the 
Aopeless misery of looking for something to do. That the noon 
hour passed without any dinner did not seem to worry the girl. 
She may have been used to fast-days. 

All the afternoon she walked in a dazed, helpless way. Then 
a cold fog settled down over the city and the electric lights began 
to gleam on the streets and in the stores. Margaret was passing 
the little triangular park on the seats of which she had rested 
many times. Now she made her way to a seat, more as a matter 
of habit than that she felt the utter weariness of her body. 

The ceaseless roar of the city still surged around her. Her 
limbs ached and the cold began to benumb. She must move; but 
where was she to go? Up and down the streets again? Yes; but 
what would the end be? Back to the boarding house she would 
not go. She had a half-determined resolution to die first. Pres- 
ently she saw lights spring out in the church on the other side of 
the park; and as she sat and looked at the beautifully tinted win- 
dows, she heard the notes of an organ within, and then there were 
voices singing. 

Margaret arose with an effort. It pained her to walk now, 
but she would not give up just yet. She would go to church. 
Thank heaven, here was one feather from the wing of God's mercy, 
under which she might nestle for a moment and perhaps gain 
warmth and strength enough to go on a little longer. 

There were not many people in the church, so she did not . 
have to disturb the fashionably dressed worshipers for a seat. She 
sat down near the door. It was warm and comfortable, and 
Margaret would have liked to rest her head against the high- 
backed chair and sleep, but she knew that was not allowed. 



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332 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

There were singing and praying and more singing. The girl 
was too tired to pay much attention. Then the pastor stepped 
onto the platform and began to talk. He was a pleasant-looking 
man and his words came in rounded sentences and well-chosen dic- 
tion. His text was something about "eternal punishment" and 
"unquenchable fire," but Margaret did not give much heed until to- 
wards the last. Then he talked earnestly about the need of com- 
ing to Christ, coming then, at that very moment, and not putting 
it off for an instant. Life is uncertain. Not one of them could 
tell when he or she would be called to stand before the judgment 
seat of God. Think of the fate of the unconverted sinner! Then 
the speaker touched a little on hell-fire and the horrors of the 
damned. 

'There is a time, we know not when, 

A place, we know not where, 
That marks the destiny of man 

To glory or despair. 

"There is a line, by us unseen, 

That crosses every path — 
The hidden boundary between 

God's mercy and his wrath." 

"When the door of adamant and bronze has been shut," con- 
tinued the speaker, "and the angel has turned the key in the lock 
and hung it to the girdle of God, what escape is possible? Time 
cannot rust the gates of hell; neither can it silver the locks of 
God, and I will escape from my prison only when some fleet angel 
can find the birthplace or the grave of God." 

Margaret Lee shivered. 

There is the cold that creeps into the body, stiffens the joints, 
and benumbs the nerves — that can be overcome; but the coldness 
that falls like a withering frost on the sensitive soul — what can 
dispel that but fire sent down from the everlasting furnace of 
God's love? 

Margaret went out again into the night. She walked pain- 
fully on and on. She left the blazing streets and went through a 
darker part of the city until she came to the river. She walked 
out on the bridge, leaned over the railing, and looked into the dark 



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FOR THE SALVATION OF SOULS. 333 

water below. It would be but a short struggle, a moment of 
agony, and then there would be everlasting peace, rest, oblivion! 

The figure of a man came from the shadows into the light on 
the bridge. He stopped opposite Margaret, came up to her and 
peered into the face of the crouching figure. There he saw agony 
written, and it touched him to the heart. 

"My dear woman, you are suffering. Can I do anything to 
help your 

She had been approached before by men at night, but this 
voice was altogether different. There was a genuine ring in it 
which reassured her; but still she did not answer. 

'1 would like to help you. What can I do?" continued the 
man. 

"Nothing," she managed to say; "Nothing. No one can help 
me now. I am going to die." 

The man set a grip he was carrying on the bridge and came 
■closer to the girl. 

"You must not talk like that. All this world is God's. He 
Btill lives and can bless you." 

"God is dead," said the girl in a hoarse whisper. "The 
preacher just said something about the grave of God. ,God is 
dead, and some cruel, cruel monster controls the worlds and shuts 
up people in bottomless pits where they burn forever and ever. 
When God was alive, things were different, because God is love. 
My mother told me so when I was little — but that's a long time 
ago." 

"Poor wandering soul," cried the man. " 'Silver and gold have 
I none; but such as I have I give thee/ " Then he gently placed 
his hand on her head and blessed her. A warm glow entered her 
heart. It was a spark from the eternal fires of God, brought to 
her by one of his servants. 

She arose to her feet and took his hands. 

"Who are you?" she asked. 

"I am a servant of Jesus Christ, a minister of his gospel, a 
missionary of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints." 

"God bless you, God bless you," she cried, while the tears 
rolled down her cheeks. 

Elder Harrison Ware hesitated what to do next. Then he 



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334 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

did something he had not yet done in his missionary experience. 

Picking up his grip, he slipped his hand into the girl's arm and 
led her away. 

"Come, take a little walk with me," he said; and she unre- 
sistingly went back with him across the bridge into the city. He 
led her through an unfrequented street, at the end of which they 
again reached the river. He talked to her cheerfully on the way. 
She did not answer, and the Elder soon found that she was cling- 
ing heavily to his arm. 

"You are not well," he said to her; and we must find someone 
to take care of you for the night. Can you keep up for about a 
block fartherr 

"I will try." 

He took her into one of the poorer houses which in that part 
of the city faced the river. Good Brother and Sister Redden wel- 
comed him and his strange charge and at once set to work to min- 
ister to the girl. They were poor in this world's wealth, but they 
had a goodly portion of the riches which God pours into the hearts 
of those who accept the gospel of Jesus Christ; and they were 
willing to share their wealth with any needy brother or sister. 

"Keep her, and make her as comfortable as you can for the 
night," said Elder Ware. "I will go to Brother Jones and come 
back to see you all tomorrow." 

The next day Margaret Lee felt quite strong again, but Sister 
Redden would not hear of her leaving them that day. They had 
a long talk together by the kitchen fire, and in the afternoon Elder 
Ware joined them. It was one of Margaret Lee's happiest days, 
a bright sunshiny spot among much dreary darkness. 

Margaret found work again and boarded with the Reddens. 
The color came back to her face, and the strength to her limbs, 
while her blue eyes beamed with gladness from the newly found 
light which had arisen in her soul. 

Some time after, Margaret went down into the river whose 
waters flowed under the bridge, and was baptized in the liquid ele- 
ment. She came forth a new creature in Christ with sins remitted 
according to the promise. Her heart was all aglow because the 
love of God permeated her whole being. No one entered the new 
life more fervently or with more thankfulness than did Mar- 
garet Lee. 



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REVELATION BY WORKS AND WORD. 

BY A. WOOTTON. 



"I don't believe in revelation," is an expression common 
enough in this age of boasted enlightenment and achievement, but 
it is difficult to conceive of any human knowledge that is not the 
result of revelation, either second-hand or direct from Deity. The 
learning of the schools is mostly second-hand knowledge, much of 
it having passed through many hands and consequently become 
much diluted by mere opinion. 

The knowledge that is obtained from nature by experiment 
and observation is far superior to that generally taught in the 
schools; still many of the schools are now adopting the laboratory 
method of instruction — that is, the pupil is brought into contact 
with nature that he may gain knowledge at first hand rather than 
taking for granted the statements of teachers or books. But, says 
one, "What has all this to do with revelation?" The answer is, 
much; for, as the piece of sculpture is only the expression 
of thoughts formed in the mind of the artist before he struck 
the chisel, so are all the forms and phenomena of created things 
the expression of the thoughts of the Creator; and every thought 
or feeling aroused in the mind of a little child by observation, or 
in the mind of the most profound philosopher by investigation and 
experiment, is only a reproduction of the thought of deity ex- 
pressed in a handwriting more definite and intelligible than the 
combined powers of all languages of earth. 

'The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament 
showeth his handiwork. Day unto day uttereth speech, and night 
unto night sheweth knowledge. There is no speech nor language, 
where their voice is not heard." (Psalm 19: 1-3.) 



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S36 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

The astronomer's heart swells with the contemplation of the 
grandeur of the heavenly bodies, and he experiences delight in 
observing the perfect harmony, yet diversity, of their movements. 
God is revealing to him through an unmistakable form of expres- 
sion some of the thoughts and feelings experienced by him "in the 
beginning." When viewing the wonders displayed in the chemical 
or physical laboratory or through the microscope, man is only 
beginning to learn the alphabet of that language through which 
God designs to reveal the thoughts he experienced in the acts of 
creation. 

The melody and harmony produced by a proper arrangement 
and blending of musical sounds give joy to the cultivated ear, and 
cause wonder at the variety and sweetness produced thereby. 
When viewing the harmonious arrangement and blending of col- 
ors and the variety of form in the floral world, the human soul 
experiences a sense of extreme pleasure, which is intensified by 
cultivated power to interpret this language. The pleasant odor 
of flowers fills the soul with delight. All these are revelations to 
his children, in a slight degree, of the feelings Deity experienced 
when forming his plans, even before he carried the plans into exe- 
cution and pronounced all things "good." 

All the oral or written language on earth could never cause 
one to realize the scent of the rose, the colors of the rainbow, the 
taste of an orange, or the sound of a musical instrument. God's 
spoken words by his own voice or by the voices of angels or pro- 
phets, are often misunderstood, not through his inability to give 
expression to his will, but through our mental incapacity to com- 
prehend, and the inefficiency of our language as a mode of expres- 
sion for the thoughts of Deity; but his works are perfect modes 
of expressing his thoughts as far as man's capability to read them 
goes. 

Language has been inadequate to convey fully to man the per- 
sonality and attributes of God and his relation to the human fam- 
ily, as is witnessed by the diversity of opinion on these subjects 
oven among professed Christians of our own time. As men, 
through the medium of spoken language, failed to comprehend 
God, he manifested himself personally to Abraham and to Moses, 
and, in the meridian of time, sent his Son, a member of the God- 



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REVELATION BY WORK AND WORD. 337 

head, to take upon himself a body of flesh and bones. He died, 
rose from the tomb, manifested himself to his disciples, demon- 
strated to them that he had taken up the identical body that was 
nailed upon the cross, and with this body ascended into heaven in 
their presence; and, although he declared, "He that hath seen me 
hath seen the Father," ahd Paul declared he was in the express 
image of the Father, still men will persist in declaring that God 
is without body, parts or passions. Snch notions, fixed in the 
minds of the people for ages through the teachings of uninspired 
leaders, indicate plainly the necessity of a repetition in our day of 
concrete, visible revelation to disabuse the minds of mankind 
from these erroneous ideas, inasmuch as "this is life eternal, that 
they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom 
thou hast sent." To meet this need, the Father and the Son both 
made themselves manifest to Joseph Smith, in bodily form, as two 
distinct, separate personalities, showing that they are not one in 
substance, but only in purpose, in design and in execution of the 
divine will. 

After this manifestation Joseph Smith knew more of the 
personality of the Father and the Son than he could have known 
by reading volumes of written works on the subject, even if writ- 
ten by those who knew; for knowledge received from others by oral 
or written language is second-hand at best, and is only belief on 
the part of the hearer or reader; while those things that are re- 
vealed from the Creator, the source of all intelligence, become 
knowledge independent of the veracity of any intermediate per- 
son. The testimony that comes to the true believer through the 
Holy Spirit is positive to the one receiving it, but no language can 
convey that testimony to another — it must be experienced to be 
understood. 



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CAUSES LEADING UP TO THE REFOR- 
MATION. 



BY LESTER MANGUM. 



II. 

(Concluded.) 



Daring these long centuries of persecution, the church had 
held things in common. Their ceremonies had not been elaborate. 
The early Christians were simple followers of Christ. With the 
union of church and state, simplicity gave place to gorgeousness, 
especially in church architecture and church decorations. Bishops, 
instead of being the earnest teachers of their Master's will, became 
proud and arrogant dictators of the people's consciences. Pagan 
temples were used for Christian churches, and so tenaciously did 
the spirit of these places cling to them that the heads of the church 
became pagans in appearence, as well as in thought. All that was 
striking and gorgeous in the attire of the Pagan priests, was eagerly 
adopted by the Christian bishops. Not content to stop here, they 
made the ceremonies of the church correspond. "The confes- 
sion of sins to the priest, the processions, the decoration of 
images, the prostrations before the priest, are all in their origin 
pagan observances. 

"The pagans exhausted their art in reproductions of Venus 
and Cupid, mother and son. Christians now began to exhaust their 
art in paintings of Mary and the Christ, mother and son. 

"The pagans deified certain superior mortals, and prayed to 
them. The. Christians, seizing upon this practice to further con- 
version, tried to infuse spirit into the same moribund superstition, 



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I 



CAUSES LEADING UP TO THE REFORMATION. 339 

and began to pray to men and women, dead and of reputed good- 
ness, calling them saints. 

"The pagans knelt before their images, adorned them with 
flowers, burnt incense before them, lighted tapers about them, 
carried them in processions, and made pilgrimages to .them. The 
degenerate Christians began to do likewise. 

"The pagan images had a habit of sweating at certain emer- 
gencies, nodding at others, oozing blood at others, and curing 
disease at others. It was not long before Christian images were 
found to possess similar powers. 

'The pagans kissed their images, and kissed the toe of their, 
high priest. Not only did the Christians adopt the pagan word 
pope, and install a priest in his office, but they also adopted the 
pagan custom of kissing his toe. 

"The pagans prayed for the dead and believed in a purgatory. 
When they became Christian, the mass of the people discarded 
neither the custom nor the belief. 

'The pagan shaved the head of the priest, and clad him in 
vestments. The Christians followed the same practices." 

Christian feasts were substituted for pagan observances. If 
the time for the two feasts did not fall upon the same day, the 
pagan day was adopted to secure the readier acceptance of the 
substitute, the only change being in the name. The ancient 
Romans would on a certain day go to the banks of the Tiber and 
worship the river god. The Christians observed the same 
practice on the same day, but prayed to Christ instead. 

The pagans worshiped the sun, the day of observance being 
the shortest in the year. The Christians wished to substitute a 
Christian ceremony, so they changed it from the worship of the 
sun to the Son of God. What event in his life should it mark? 
Why not his birth? But was that the day of his birth? Perhaps 
not, but that need make no difference. The priests gave out that 
the 25th of December was the day on which Christ was born,and the 
people accepted it. Over one thousand years after, scholars proved 
it false, but the custom still prevails. 

There were four principal seats of authority in the early 
church: Rome, Constantinople, Antioch and Alexandria. Over 
each of these presided a bishop. As was natural, Rome being the 



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340 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

home of the emperor, its bishop had some little precedence. The 
people of Rome, however, put a slight upon Constantino on account 
of his plebeian birth on his mother's side, and in retaliation he 
removed the seat of government from the "Eternal City" to the 
banks of the Bosphorus, where he built the new capital, naming it 
Constantinople, in his honor. It might be interesting to add that 
the building of the city cost the labor of one hundred thousand 
workman for eight years. 

While this weakened Rome politically, it gave her ambitious 
bishops the very opportunity they desired to build up that spiritual 
power which was afterwards known as the Papacy, and before 
which kings and emperors were to bow in humble subjection. 

Rome and Constantinople were so far apart and means of 
communication were so primitive that the people of Rome grew 
to feel that they were practically separated from their ruler. 
They felt indeed that they were hardly his subjects. The bishops 
of Rome saw their opportunity and made the most of it The peo- 
ple grew, through skillful management, to look up to the bishop of 
Rome as their oracle in things political as well as things religious. 
The system developed slowly but surely. Its first bold stroke was 
made by Ambrose, Archbishop of Milan, in the fourth century. 
The emperor Theodosius instigated a wholesale massacre against 
the citizens of Thessalonica, because, in a revolt, they had killed 
some of his guards. His high position guarded him from attack 
from the leading bishops, but not so with all. Ambrose stood 
firmly for what he considered the rights of the church, demanding 
that Theodosius confess his sin and seek absolution. The unequal 
contest was watched with great interest, by the followers of each 
side. At last Theodosius was forced to yield. The secret power 
of the church was beginning to be felt. It was the first signal 
victory for the church against the state, and the heralder of many 
that were to succeed. Ambrose had led out, and, as is usual, there 
were many followers. 

By this time the political power of the Roman Empire was 
decidedly on the decline and the power of the church was as 
decidedly on the advance. In the fifth century, the bishop of Rome 
claimed precedence over all other bishops, and advanced in support 
of his claim, the Petrene theory. In effect it was this: Christ 



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CAUSES LEADING UP TO THE REFORMATION. 341 

gave the keys of the kingdom to Peter. He stood at the head of 
the Twelve and had been the first Bishop of Rome. At his death 
his power naturally descended to his successor. The keys of the 
kingdom were handed down as a legacy to the church. For awhile 
this authority had beeen allowed to fall into disuse, but Leo the 
Great revived it, and with such energy that it holds with unabated 
force to this day. 

There was a continual struggle between the emperor in the 
east and the pope of Rome, as the bishop was now called; but the 
power of the former steadily declined while that of the latter 
was ever on the increase. To make matters still more complicated, 
there was a division on doctrine. The parties were known as the 
Orthodox and the Arian. 

At this time western Europe was being overrun by migrating 
tribes of Goths. The barbarians were Christians of the Arian 
party, and they came in such numbers that the Orthodox party 
became alarmed. Several centuries before this, Clovis, king of 
the Franks, had embraced the faith of the Orthodox party, and 
now his people were the leading race in Europe. In the eighth 
century the pope asked the assistance of the Franks in checking 
the power of the Arians. They responded and were successful. 
From this time on, the pope looked to the Franks as the defenders 
of the faith, and he in turn acknowledged them as the head of 
political affairs. The compact was made more firm when Charle- 
magne ascended the Frankish throne. On Christmas day, 800, he 
was crowned emperor of the holy Roman empire, remaining also 
king of the Franks. 

This was another union of church and state, but while Charle- 
magne lived the church was secondary in power. Under his suc- 
cessors, however, the church assumed the lead. The purpose of 
the union, as far as the church was concerned, was effected. The 
Arian party had been crushed and the power of the pope rose 
over its ruins. 

In the eleventh century Hildebrand was pope, and Henry IV, 
was emperor of Germany. Henry married against the wishes of 
the pope and was excommunicated. He was determined not to 
yield, but his subjects were such slaves to the superstitious power 
of popery that they dared not support their leader. At last he 



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342 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

was forced to yield. In company with his wife, his child and one 
friend, he crossed the Alps in the dead of winter, making his way 
to Rome where he presented himself before the pope for pardon 
and absolution. It had been a hard straggle for the mastery and 
Hildebrand was determined to make the most of his victory. For 
three days the penitent king was forced to stand barefooted in the 
snow. At last he was admitted to the august presence of the pope, 
when, after due signs of submission, he'.was received into the bosom 
of the church and reinstated on his throne. This was considered a 
great victory for the church, but the day was to come when it 
would react, and be one of the strong means in furthering the 
Reformation. 

The pope from now on made and unmade kings at will. The 
papacy had a hungry desire and craving for power and riches, and 
was not over-conscientious in the methods employed in gaining the 
ends in view. 

The church preached that at the end of the tenth century 
the world's history would be completed. As the time drew near, 
there were fearful forebodings in the hearts of all. The self-right- 
eous ordered their ascension robes, carrying them with them where- 
ever they went, believing that at the blessed moment they would 
be caught up by the heavenly hosts to dwell in paradise. Urged 
on by the church, the people were convinced of the uselessnees of 
this world's goods, and, in fact, that they would serve as a weight 
to keep them from entering the next. Of course there was only 
one thing to do. The dross was to be given to the church. The 
church appointed her receivers and all went "merrily as a marriage 
bell." The church thus became very wealthy, but not wealthy 
enough. Besides, the world had not come to an end, and the people 
might want their property back again. What was to be done? The 
question is answered by the history of the crusades. 

The infidels ruled the holy land. There popery held no sway. 
Such a condition of affairs must not exist. It was a challenge to 
the power of the church. The preaching of the crusades was the 
result. 

The nobles lacked the necessary cash for such an enterprise. 
How should they secure it? The church was charitable and came 
to their assistance, by giving one dollar in cash for many dollars 



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CAUSES LEADING UP TO THE REFORMATION. 343 

in landed property. She accomplished two purposes by one stroke 
— the equipment of the army of invasion,and the enormous increase 
of her own wealth and power. 

The next question was, how should the rank and file be secured? 
It was a church movement, trust the church for its execution. 
Criminals were pardoned, if they would join the army of the cross. 
Debtors'obligations were cancelled,and sins were forgiven and blotted 
out from the book of remembrance. Soldiers who died fighting for 
the cross immediately found refuge in paradise. In the hour of 
need, if it should ever come, hosts of angels, so it was declared, 
would fight on the side of the soldiers of Christ. The last two prom- 
ises were borrowed from the teachings of Mohammed; but they 
served the purpose. All this the ecclesiastics promised to the cru- 
saders, and they believed. Such was the power of the church! 

. The crusades failed; the promises of the church failed, and men 
were forced to think. But thought was sluggish, and hampered at 
every step by superstition. The few that came to conclusions 
dangerous to the church were soon disposed of as we shall now see. 

The first reform movement originated in England in 1438, 
under the influence of John Wycliffe. He held views different from 
those held by the pope. He saw prevailing abuses in the church 
and attacked them with all his might. He tried to reform the 
church from within. This was an impossibility, and he failed. 
Neither he nor his followers, the Lollards, could escape the long 
arm of the pope. But investigation had begun, and it was not to 
be uprooted so easily. Moreover, the seed had taken root on the 
continent, and Jerome of Prague and John Huss were the next 
reform leaders. They preached boldly and successfully. The pope 
in great alarm began to realize that his monopoly of holiness was 
being assailed. Something must be done, and at once, to check 
the spread of heresy. 

Jerome and Huss were summoned, under promise of safe con- 
duct, to appear at the council of Constance. They came, were tried 
for heresy and convicted. Regardless of the promise made to them, 
they were burned at the stake. They also had tried to reform the 
church from within. It was the second attempt and the second 
failure. The leaders were killed but the movement went on. 

It next sprang up in the city of Florence, with Savonarola as 



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344 , IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

its champion. He preached against the reigning house of Florence, 
the Medicis, and they were banished. He preached against the low 
condition of morals and they were reformed. He preached against 
the pride of riches; the love of fine raiment and bright jewels; 
and the wealthy cast their fine silks and jewels at his feet. He 
next attacked the vices of literature, and the writers of amatory 
verse and lascivious books burned their productions in his presence. 
Little children paid their tithes and offerings. 

The movement could not stop here. Savonarola attacked the 
church in general and held up for comparison her pristine purity. The 
profligate Borgia sat on the papal throne, and so the crusade against 
the impurities of the church proved the reformer's overthrow. Papal 
thunders shook the foundations of the reform structure, and it fell. 
Savonarola was deserted by his former friends, tried for treason to the 
church, made to confess that he had prophesied against it, and was 
convicted. To the last he declared his belief in the church, deny- 
ing heresy. But he had dared to attack the pope, and he too suf- 
fered death by fire. His was the third reform movement from 
within and the third failure. 

Alexander VI squandered the papal revenues in riotous living 
and rich legacies to needy relatives and favorites. His successor 
Julius II, known as the "warrior pope," emptied the treasury in 
support of his political policy. So, when his successor, Leo X, 
came to the throne and was desirous of completing St. Peter's 
cathedral, it was necessary to devise some means whereby to refill 
the depleted coffers of the church. 

The device hit upon was an ingenious one, to say the least 
Leo made use of the Catholic doctrine of supererogation. It is to 
this effect: one drop of Christ's blood is sufficient to atone for the 
original sin of the world. The rest he left as a legacy to the 
church, by it to be vicariously applied for the wiping out of indi- 
vidual sins and the upbuilding of the church in general. By the 
same law, it was held possible for man to live a more righteous life 
than was necessary for his own salvation. In such a case, the over- 
plus of his good works went to swell the moral treasury of the 
church. The world at large was not supposed to know the exact 
amount of such capital on hand, so if emergency demanded the 
stock might be watered. 



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CAUSES LEADING UP TO THE REFORMATION. 845 

With such unlimited moral treasure at his command, and with 
multitudes of eager purchasers, Leo felt that there was no further 
need of trouble or delay, so he commenced his famous sale of in- 
dulgences. "Go ye into all the land and sell licenses to commit 
sin/' was the sum and substance of the instructions which he gave 
to his commissioners. 

The right to canvass Germany was given to Albert, Elector of 
Metz. He and Leo were to share the proceeds equally. Albert 
selected as his agent in this highly lucrative business, John Tetzel* 
a Dominican monk. Forth he went, prepared to sell forgiveness 
for sins, past, present, and future. 

It is related that one man who was able to appreciate the 
hideous side of the traffic, approached Tetzel one day to buy an in- 
dulgence for sin intended. Upon being questioned, it was divulged 
that the person he was to rob — for such was the crime intended — 
was both rich and of high church standing. Nevertheless, Tetzel 
was willing to sell if the would-be-robber was able and willing to 
pay handsomely for the privilege. This he did, and left for the field 
of action with his paper bearing the great seal of Rome. 

A few days after this, Tetzel was threading his way through 
a dark forest in company with his strong box which was well filled- 
In the deepest recesses of the woods, he was waylaid and robbed. 
The thief made no attempt to escape, was arrested and placed on 
trial. When asked for his defense, he calmly submitted his indulg- 
ence procured from Tetzel who represented the Pope himself. There 
was nothing to do but acknowledge the invalidity of the sale or 
acquit the man. He was acquitted. In this neighborhood lived 
the foremost theologian of the age. He was by nature a reformer. 
The unholy traffic carried on by Tetzel roused all that was antag- 
onistic in him, and he began his war against the pope. That man 
was Martin Luther. 

On the night of October 31, 1517, Luther walked through 
the streets of Wittenberg alone, and nailed to the church door a 
series of propositions, ninety-five in number, which may be regarded 
as the corner-stone of the Reformation. In substance the seventy- 
five propositions set forth: 

"That true repentance for sin ends only with life: 

"The pope can remit no penalty which he has not imposed. 



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846 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

"No man can be saved from divine punishment by the pope's pardon. 

"The laws of ecclesiastic penance should be imposed upon the living 
and not upon the dead. 

''The pope has no power over souls in purgatory. 

"If the pope can release souls from purgatory, he should do so out of 
pity and mercy, and not for money. 

"Sins are not forgiven without repentance. 

"True repentance brings pardon from on high without price." 

Luther strongly and successfully maintained from the pulpit 
the points he advocated. 'The soil, moreover was ready for the 
seed. The man and the hour had at last met. The lives, teachings, 
and works of Wycliffe, Huss, Jerome, Renchlin, Hutten, and Eras- 
mus had prepared the minds of men for great changes." 

That was the spiritual side of the question; but with those 
influences alone it could not have succeeded. The higher Germans 
were awakening to the fact that Rome was literally robbing them 
of all their surplus cash. Once gone, it never returned. Papal 
courtiers made sport of the rude German at the court of Rome, 
choosing him for the butt of their ridicule. The Germans were 
proud and could resent an injury, and they had not forgotten the 
humiliation a former emperor had suffered at the hands of papal 
arrogance, when he had been compelled to stand barefooted in the 
snow for three days to secure absolution. This all reacted now 
against the power at Rome, and Luther found willing support from 
the hands of some of the German princes. 

It does not appear that Luther at first intended to do more 
than try to reform prevailing abuses; but the tide of circumstances 
swept him on. Of course, he became at once the object of papal 
solicitude, and was summoned before the Emperor Charles V, who 
was a staunch Catholic, to answer to the charge of heresy. He 
went as Jerome and Huss had gone before him, but times were 
changed; and those who favored treating him as other reformers 
had been treated, found it would not be a safe plan to adopt. He 
was therefore turned loose, and the reformation from now on was 
an assured victory. Luther soon severed all connections with the 
mother church, and became the recognized head of the new faith 
known as Protestantism. 

To sum up briefly the points aimed at in this lecture: Pressure 



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CAUSES LEADING UP TO THE REFORMATION. 347 

from without keeps a solid body intact, and compresses even a loose 
organism into compactness. As long as such a condition existed, 
the inner purity of the primitive church remained unsullied. But 
the time came when church and state were combined. The ruler 
of one became the head of the other, and spiritual affairs were so 
interwoven with politics that only the spirit of the latter remained. 
The truth had been given to the world, however, and it was not to 
be crushed out entirely. In glimpes it was revealed to those who 
sought it here and there. Such seekers were Wycliffe, Huss, 
Jerome, Savonarola, and Luther. The first four died for the prin- 
ciples they advocated, and their deaths were not in vain. Each 
effort paved the way and prepared for the next. 

The popes became arrogant and greedy for spiritual and tem- 
poral power, and made promises which fell to the ground. Idolatry 
crept in, in the form of image and relic worship. Then came the 
time when old fallacies were exploded, and the popes were proved 
fallible. Men had begun to think for themselves, and out of such 
thinking grew the Reformation. 



A CONTRAST. 



Unthinking, idle, vain and young, 

I talked and laughed, and danced and sung, 

And, proud of health, of freedom vain, 

Dreamed not of sorrow or of pain, 

Accounting, in my hours of glee, 

The world was only made for me. 

But when the days of sorrow came, 
And sickness wrecked my languid frame; 
When folly's vain pursuits were o'er, 
And I could sing and dance no more, 
It then occurred how sad 't would be 
Were this world only made for me. 

Princess Amelia. 



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CUPID INTERVIEWED. 

( Written, for the Era.) 



BY BISHOP 0, F. WHITNEY. 



Stay, Cupid, tell me — What is love? 

"Ti8 something like a tree — 
'Known by its fruits,' I fancy, sir. 

And think you will agree." 

What are its fruits — sweet words and smiles?* 

"Nay, these its blossoms are, 
The promises of fruit to come, 

It may be near or far." 

And what are broken promises? 

"Frost-bitten buds, of course; 
Then sweet words change to bitter ones^ 

And smiles to frowns, or worse." 

And letters — notes — love's messages? 

"Oh, letters are but leaves, 
Whereof the swain disconsolate 

Hope's chaplet fondly weaves." 

If letters looked for never come, 

What must I then suppose? 
"Your tree is barren — dead — or in 

Another's garden grows." 



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CUPID INTERVIEWED. 349 

Hold! What of kisses soft and warm? 

"I really could'nt say — 
I never deal with metaphors 

When kisses come my way. 

"But still I answer — Love, true love 

Is very like a tree; 
The longer grown the stronger grown, 

Where'er that growth may be. 

"Such love is not ephemeral, 

It dies not with the day; 
It's flowers are heavenly immortelles, 

It teems with fruit alway. 

"But soul with soul must sympathize, 

As sun and soil agree, 
Or there shall come nor fruit nor flower; 

For love is like a tree." 



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THE LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY 
RIGDON. 

BY JOHN JAQUES, ASSISTANT CHURCH HISTORIAN. 



IV. 

On Sunday, July 25, 1841, Elder Sidney Rigdon preached a 
general funeral sermon, designed to comfort and instruct the Saints, 
especially those who had been called to mourn the loss of relatives 
and friends. He was followed by President Joseph Smith, illustrat- 
ing the subject of the resurrection. 

At a special conference at Nauvoo, August 16, President Rigdon 
made some "appropriate remarks on speculation," and on November 
1, he resigned his seat in the city council, on account of ill health. 
Joseph baptized Sidney in the font in behalf of his parents, Decem- 
ber 28. 

On the 12th of May, 1842, Joseph dictated a letter to Sidney, 
"concerning certain difficulties or surmises which existed." The 
next day Joseph received a letter in reply. In the evening, Joseph, 
accompanied by Elder Willard Richards, had an interview with 
Elder Rigdon, at the post office, "concerning certain evil reports, put 
in circulation by Francis M. Higbee, about some of Elder Rigdon's 
family and others; much apparent satisfaction was manifested at the 
conversation by Elder Rigdon." 

In the Nauvoo Wasp of July 23, Sidney Rigdon says: "As 
there seems to be some foolish notions that I have been engaged 
with J. C. Bennett, in the difficulties between him and some of the 
citizens of this place, I merely say in reply to such idle and vain 
reports that they are without foundation in truth." 



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THE LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON. 351 

Elder Rigdon called Elder William Clayton into his office, 
October 5, and told him that Judge Douglass had said, at Carthage, 
that he had ascertained that Governor Carlin had intentionally 
issued an illegal writ to get Joseph to Carthage, where he might 
be acquitted by habeas corpus before Judge Douglass, and then be 
arrested by a legal writ, as soon as released under the illegal one, 
and be seized by waiting emissaries and borne away to Missouri, 
without further ceremony. 

On the 7th, Elder Elias Higbee stated similar things, and that 
he had heard that many Missourians were going into Illinois, to 
endeavor to take Joseph. On hearing these things, Joseph said, 
'It is more and more evident that Carlin is determined to have me 
taken to Missouri, if he can." 

In answer to a letter of the 17th, Justin Butterfield, on the 
20th, wrote from Chicago to Sidney Rigdon upon the illegality of 
the requsition made by the Governor of Missouri upon the Governor 
of Illinois for the surrender of Joseph Smith, on the charge of being 
an accessory to the shooting of Governor Boggs. Mr. Butterfield 
said he had no doubt that the supreme court of Illinois would dis- 
charge Joseph upon habeas corpus. 

In a letter to Horace R. Hotchkiss, Esq., November 26, Joseph 
wrote: 

In regard to your having written to me some few weeks ago, I will 
observe that I have received no communication from you for some months 
back. If you wrote to me, the letter has been broken open and detained, 
no doubt, as has been the case with a great quantity of letters from my 
friends of late, and especially within the last three months. 

Few if any letters for me can get through the post office in this 
place, and more particularly letters containing money, and matters of 
much importance. I am satisfied that S. Rigdon and others connected 
with him have been the means of doing incalculable injury, not only to 
myself, but to the citizens in general; and, sir, under such a state of 
things, you will have some idea of the difficulties I have to encounter, 
and the censure I have to bear through the unjust conduct of that man 
and others, whom he permits to interfere with the post office business. 
Having said so much I must close for the present. 

Concerning going to Missouri, Joseph said, December 28: 

Let the government of Missouri redress the wrongs she has done to 



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552 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

the Saints, or let the corse follow them from generation to generation 
until they do. When I was going up to Missouri, in company with Elder 
Rigdon and our families, on an extremely cold day, to go forward was 
fourteen miles to a house, and backward nearly as far. 

We applied to all the taverns for admission in vain; we were ''Mor- 
mons/' and could not be received. Such was the extreme cold that in 
one hour we must have perished. We pleaded for our women and chil- 
dren in vain. We counseled together, and the brethren agreed to stand 
by meg and we concluded that we might as well die fighting as freeze to 
death. \ 

I went into a tavern and plead our cause to get admission. The 
landlord said he could not keep us for love or money. I told him we 
must and would stay, let the consequence be what it might; for we must 
stay or perish. The landlord replied, "We have heard the Mormons are 
very bad people; and the inhabitants of Paris have combined not to have 
anything to do with them, or you might stay." I said to him, "We will 
stay; but no thanks to you. I have men enough to take the town; and 
if we must freeze, we will freeze by the burning of these houses." The tav- 
erns were then opened, and we were accommodated, and received many 
apologies in the morning from the inhabitants for their abusive treat- 
ment. 

John C. Bennett wrote to Sidney Rigdon and Orson Pratt, from 
Springfield, Illinois, January 10, 1843, showing that he (Bennett) 
was endeavoring to have Joseph rearrested and taken to Missouri. 
In connection with this circumstance Joseph said, "I would just 
remark, that I am not at all indebted to Rigdon for this letter, but 
to Orson Pratt, who, after he had read it, immediately brought it 
to me." 

. There was a time of rejoicing and congratulation on the release 
of Joseph from arrest at Carthage; and on the 18th, concerning a 
party at his house, he says: 

I then read John G. Bennett's letter to Mr. Sidney Rigdon and Orson 
Pratt, of the 10th inst, and told them that Mr. Pratt showed me the let- 
ter. Mr. Rigdon did not want to have it known that he had any hand in 
showing the letter, but wanted to keep it a secret, as though he were 
.holding a private correspondence with Bennett; but as soon as Mr. Pratt 
got the letter, he brought it to me, which proves that Mr. Pratt had no 
correspondence with Bennett, and had no fellowship for his works of 
darkness. 



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THE LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON 353 

Joseph says, February 11: "This day had an interview with 
Elder Rigdon and his family, they expressed a willingness to be 
saved; good feelings prevailed, and we again shook hands together." 
The same day Sidney Rigdon was elected city attorney. On the 
13th, he "gave a brief history of our second visit to Jackson County, 
Missouri." Joseph also received a letter from Sidney about Will- 
iam H. Rollison wanting to get the Nauvoo post office, and inclos- 
ing petition in opposition to Rollison. Sidney Rigdon, postmaster, 
wrote to Alfred Edward Stokes, on the 19th, deprecating and 
denying the many false stories circulated concerning the Saints. 

Sidney Rigdon's physical constitution appeared to have been 
not very strong, and his sufferings in Kirtland and Missouri from the 
mobs evidently had somewhat weakened his mind as well as his body. 
Although Joseph thought much of him and was ever kindly dis- 
posed towards him, yet, at times at least, Joseph evidently could 
not place full confidence in him. Nor could some other brethren. 
Consequently, on March 27, Joseph wrote to him as follows: 

Dear Sir: — It is with sensations of deep regret and poignant grief 
that I dictate a few lines to you this morning, to let you know what my 
feelings are in relation to yourself, as it is against my principles to act 
the part of a hypocrite or to dissemble in anywise whatever with any 
man. I have tried for a long time to smother my feelings and not let 
you know that I thought you were secretly and underhandedly doing all 
you could to take advantage of and injure me; but whether my feelings 
are right or wrong, remains for eternity to reveal. 

I cannot any longer forbear throwing off the mask and letting you 
know of the secret wranglings of my heart, that you may not be deceived 
in relation to them, and that you may be prepared, sir, to take whatever 
course you see proper in the premises. 

I am, sir, honest, when I say that I believe and am laboring under 
the fullest convictions that you are actually practicing deception and 
wickedness against me and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints; and that'you are in connection with John C. Bennett and George 
W. Robinson in the whole of their abominable practices, in seeking to 
destroy me and this people; and that Jared Carter is as deep in the mud 
as you, sir, are in the mire, in your conspiracies; and that you are in the 
exercise of a traitorous spirit against our lives and interests, by com- 
bining with our enemies and the murderous Mksourians. My feelings, 
sir, have been wrought upon to a very great extent, in relation to your- 



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364 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

self, ever since soon after the first appearance of John C. Bennett in this 
place. There has been something dark and mysterious hovering over our 
business concerns, that are not only palpable but altogether unaccount- 
able, in relation to the post office. And, sir, from the very first of the 
pretentions of John C. Bennett to secure to me the post office, (which by- 
the-bye, I have never desired, if I could have justice done me in that 
department, without my occupancy,) I have known, sir, that it was a 
fraud practiced upon me, and of the secret plottings and connivings be- 
tween him and yourself in relation to the matter the whole time, as well 
as many other things which I have kept locked up in my own bosom. But 
I am constrained, at this time, to make known my feelings to you. 

I do not write this with the intention of insulting you, or of bearing 
down upon you or with a desire to take any advantage of you, or with 
the intention of laying one straw in your way detrimental to your char- 
acter or influence, or to suffer anything whatever that has taken place, 
which is within my observation or that has come to my knowledge to go 
abroad, betraying any confidence that has ever been placed in me. But 
I do assure you, most sincerely, that what I have said I verily believe; 
and this is the reason why I have said it — that you may know the real 
convictions of my heart, not because I have any malice or hatred, neither 
would I injure one hair of your head; and I will assure you that these 
convictions are attended with the deepest sorrow. 

I wish to God it were not so, and that I could get rid of the achings 
of my heart on that subject; and I now notify you that unless something 
should take place to restore my mind to its former confidence in you, 
by some acknowledgments on your part, or some explanations that shall 
do away my jealousies, I must, as a conscientious man, publish my with- 
drawal of my fellowship from you to The Church, through the medium of 
the Times and Seasons, and demand of the conference a hearing concern- 
ing your case; that on conviction of justifiable grounds, they will demand 
your license. I could say much more, but let the above suffice for the 
present. Yours, in haste, 

Joseph Smith. 

Sidney answered Joseph's letter the same day, expressing sur- 
prise at its contents. He denied having any collusion with John 
C. Bennett, or others, or giving him any countenance in regard to 
the post office, or any other troubles. Bennett had threatened 
Sidney if he did not cease aiding Joseph, and had made a violent 
attack upon him (Sidney) in a speech at St. Louis. Sidney's letter 
is too lengthy for insertion here. In it he said: "Now, on the 
broad scale, I can assert in truth, that with myself and any other 



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J 



TEE LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON. 355 

person on this globe there never was nor is there now existing 
anything privately or publicly to injure your character in any 
respect whatever; neither has any person spoken to me on any 
such subject. All that has ever been said by me has been said to 
your face, all of which you know as well as I." 

"I do consider it a matter of just offense to me to hear about 
Bennett's assisting me to office. I shall have a lower opinion of 
myself than I now have when I think I need his assistance." 

At the general conference, April 6, on the floor of the Temple, 
Nauvoo, when Elder Rigdon's name was presented as counselor to 
President Smith, Elder Rigdon said the last time he attended con- 
ference was at the laying of the corner stones of the temple. He 
had had poor health since, and had been connected with most for- 
bidding circumstances, resulting in "some feelings." He had 
never had a doubt of the work. He had told his family to guard 
against that fellow, Bennett, for some time he would attempt to 
make a rupture among the people. Elder Rigdon had just received 
a threatening letter from Bennett to the effect that if he (Rigdon) 
did not change his course, he should feel the force of Bennett's 
power. As he (Rigdon) had an increase of health and strength, 
he desired to serve the Church in any way possible. 

Dimick B. Huntington asked what he meant when he said 
Bennett was a good man, and when he called him a perfect gentle- 
man. Elder Rigdon said he did not recollect it, and Dimick must 
have been mistaken. Dimick said he knew he was not. 

The vote to sustain Rigdon was put and carried unanimously. 

At the conference the next day (7th), while the choir was 
singing, President Joseph Smith remarked to Elder Rigdon, "This 
day is a millennium within these walls, for there is nothing but 
peace," showing that Joseph was inclined to accept Rigdon's pro- 
fessions. But that condition did not last long. 

Joseph said on Thursday, April 20, "Elder Rigdon received a 
letter last Sunday, informing him that the Nauvoo post office was 
abolished. He foolishly supposed it genuine, neglected his duty, 
and started for Carthage to learn more about it, but was met by 
Mr. Hamilton, an old mail contractor, who satisfied him it was a 
hoax; and he returned home, and the mail arrived as usual today." 

On the 9th of May, Joseph, Sidney, P. P. Pratt, John Taylor, 



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356 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Wilford Woodruff, and about a hundred others, gentlemen and 
ladies, took a trip on the Maid qflowfy on the Mississippi River. 

On the 1st of July, on investigation of writ of habeas corpus, 
in the municipal court of Nauvoo, in the case of Joseph Smith, 
Sidney Rigdon gave lengthy testimony concerning the Missouri 
troubles. On the same day, Sidney acted as moderator at a public 
meeting of the citizens of Nauvoo in the Assembly Hall, "in rela- 
tion to the late arrest of General Joseph Smith." 

On Sunday afternoon, August 13, at the stand, President 
Joseph Smith made the following remarks-* 

"We have had certain traders in this city, who have been writing 
falsehoods to Missouri; and there is a certain man in this city who has 
made a covenant to betray and give me up to the Missourians, and that, 
too, before Governor Garlin commenced his persecutions. That man is 
no other than Sidney Rigdon. This testimony I have from gentlemen 
from abroad, whose names I do not wish to give. 

"I most solemnly proclaim the withdrawal of my fellowship from 
this man, on condition that the foregoing be true; and let the Saints 
proclaim abroad, that he may no longer be acknowledged as my Counsel- 
lor; and all who feel to sanction my proceedings and views will manifest 
it by uplifted hands. 

'There was unanimous vote that Sidney Rigdon be disfellow- 
shiped, and his license demanded.*' 

At the stand, on Sunday, 20th, Sidney Rigdon read a copy of 
a letter, to show the people that he was not guilty of treachery. 

On Sunday morning, 27th, at the stand, Joseph said: "Two 
weeks ago today, something was said about Elder Sidney Rigdon, 
and a vote was taken to disfellowship him, and to demand his 
license on account of a report brought by Elder Hyde from 
Quincy." He then read a letter from Thomas Carlin to Sidney 
Rigdon in answer to one from him. The nature of Carlin's letter 
was to shield Sidney from imputations of unfaithfulness to Joseph, 
who then said, "The letter is one of the most evasive things, and 
carries with it a design to hide the truth." 

At conference, October 7, "Elder Sidney Rigdon addressed the 
conference on the subject of his situation and circumstances among 
the Saints. President Joseph Smith addressed the conference, 
inviting an expression of any charges or complaints which the 



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THE LIFE AND LABORS OF SIDNEY RIGDON. 367 

conference had to make. He stated his dissatisfaction with Elder 
Sidney Rigdon as a counselor, not having received any material 
benefit from his labors or counsels since their escape from Mis- 
souri. Several complaints were then brought forward in reference 
to his management in the post office; a supposed correspondence 
and connection with John C. Bennett, with ex-Governor Carlin, and 
with the Missourians, of a treacherous character; also his leaguing 
with dishonest persons in endeavoring to defraud the innocent. 
President Joseph Smith related to the conference the detention of 
documents from Justin Butterfield, Esq., which were designed for 
the benefit of himself (President Smith), but were not handed over 
for some three or four weeks, greatly to his disadvantage; also, 
an indirect testimony from Missouri, through the mother of Orin 
P. Rockwell, that said Rigdon and others had given information, 
by letter, of President Smith's visit to Dixon, advising them to 
proceed to that place and arrest him there. He stated that, in 
consequence of those and other circumstances, and his unprofitable- 
ness to him as a counselor, he did not wish to retain him in that 
station, unless those difficulties could be removed; but desired his 
salvation, and expressed his willingness that he should retain a 
place among the Saints. Elder Sidney Rigdon pleaded, concern- 
ing the document from Justin Butterfield, Esq., that he received it 
in answer to some inquiries which he had transmitted to him; that 
he received it at a time when he was sick, and unable to examine 
it; did not know that it was designed for the perusal and benefit 
of President Joseph Smith; that he had consequently, ordered it to 
be laid aside, where it remained until inquired for by Joseph Smith. 
He had never written to Missouri concerning the visit of Joseph 
Smith to Dixon, and knew of no other person having done so. 
That concerning certain rumors of belligerent operations under 
Governor Carlin's administration, he had related them, not to 
alarm or disturb any one; but that he had the rumors from good 
authorities, and supposed them well founded. That he had never 
received but one communication from John C. Bennett, and that of 
a business character, except one addressed to him conjointly with 
Elder Orson Pratt, which he handed over to President Smith. That 
he had never written any letters to John C. Bennett." 

The next day, Sunday, 8th, "Elder Rigdon resumed his plea of 



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358 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

defense. He related the circumstances of his reception in the 
city of Quincy, after his escape from Missouri — the cause of his 
delay in not going to the city of Washington, on an express to 
which he had been appointed; and closed with a moving appeal to 
President Joseph Smith, concerning their former friendship, asso- 
ciations, and sufferings; and expressed his willingness to resign 
his place, though with sorrowful and indescribable feelings. Dur- 
ing this address, the sympathies of the congregation were highly 
excited." 

Elder Almon W. Babbitt and President William Law spoke in 
defense of Sidney, Elder Babbitt stating that Esquire Johnson 
exonerated Elder Sidney Rigdon from the charges or suspicion of 
having had a treacherous correspondence with ex-Governor Carlin. 

President Joseph Smith explained the supposed treacherous 
correspondence with ex-Governor Carlin, and expressed entire 
lack of confidence in Sidney's integrity and steadfastness, judging 
from past intercourse. 

President Hyrum Smith advocated the exercise of mercy 
toward their fellows, and especially towards their aged companion 
and fellow servant in the cause of truth and righteousness, 
whereupon, on motion by William Marks, the conference voted 
that Elder Sidney Rigdon be permitted to retain his station as 
counselor to the First President, 

President Joseph Smith arose and said: "I have thrown him 
off my shoulders, and you have again put him on me; you may 
carry him, but I will not." 



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EXPERIENCES IN THE LIFE OF PRESIDENT 
WILFORD WOODRUFF. 

BY ABRAHAM 0. WOODRUFF, OF THE QUORUM OF TWELVE APOSTLES. 



THE FIRST FRUITS FOR ZION FROM THE SOUTH— IMPRES- 
SIONS OF KIRTLAND. 
H. 

On the 2nd day of September, 1836, general conference was 
held at Damon Creek, Calloway County, Kentucky, at which Apostle 
Thomas B. Marsh, who was then president of the twelve apostles, 
presided. All the branches of Tennessee and Kentucky were 
represented. In the records of the Tennessee conference, is a 
list of names of brethren who contributed to Elder Woodruff, who 
was to be released from his Southern States mission and was 
about to leave for Kirtland, the sum of $76.35. This was to sup- 
ply his necessities. He had assisted President Marsh in obtaining 
fifteen hundred dollars from the brethren in the south to buy lands 
in Missouri for The Church: and it was at this time that an addi- 
tional fifty dollars was given him by the brethren which amount 
he sent with President Marsh, who was to enter forty acres of land 
for him in Missouri. 

Elder Woodruff left on September 19, for Kirtland. He says: 

"It is a day long to be remembered by me and others, in consequence 
of the interesting scenes transpiring with the Saints of God in the 
south. Isaiah and other ancient prophets testify to ns of the great events 
of the last days; especially of the literal gathering of Israel. They say 
the Saints shall gather from the east and from the west, and that the 



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360 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

north shall give up and the south keep not back. This interesting day 
had now arrived when some of the Saints of God in the south began to 
take their families, their wagons, their oxen, their horses, their tents 
and their armor and like the children of Israel move toward Zion 
according to the commands of God." 

The company breakfasted at Brother Camp's, then repairing 
to the bank of a stream, where prayer was offered, President 
Marsh led a young man into the waters of baptism. Coming up 
out of the water, the young man was confirmed on the banks of 
the stream under the hands of Elders Marsh, Patten and Grooves. 
After that, a touching scene was enacted: "We all stood upon our 
feet," writes Elder Woodruff, "and received great blessings con- 
firmed upon our heads with uplifted hands, of the three above- 
named brethren, President Marsh being speaker." 

Bidding good-by to their friends, they "set their faces as 
a flint towards Zion." The company consisted of four families 
with the elders, as follows: Lewis Clapp and family, Albert Petty 
and family, and Benjamin Clapp and family, with Elders Boydston 
and Cathcart, the former being chosen leader. Tne company were 
principally the first fruits of Elder Woodruff's ministry. There 
were twenty-two in all, six male, and five female members with 
ten children and a servant. He expresses that solicitude for their 
welfare that is characteristic of a father for his children — the 
sentiment that was always uppermost in his heart ever after for 
the Saints of God. He makes the page of his journal fairly express 
the elation he felt, while he rode with them the first day's journey 
to the south fork of Mayfield, at seeing "this company of faithful 
Saints move forward on their journey in good spirits and with joy." 
At this place, they camped for the night, and after pitching their 
tents, he addressed the assembled pilgrims from the tent of Albert 
Petty. 

He says: "I arose to address them, and although the rain 
descended in torrents, so that we were wet through, yet my soul 
was vibrated and filled with emotions and feelings of no ordinary 
nature. I endeavored to lay before them the worth and value of 
the cause they were engaged in; and that they were the first in 
fulfilling the prophets who spake of the south keeping not back; 
and that it would be recorded in the archives of heaven that they 



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EXPERIENCES IN THE LIFE OF PREST. WOODRUFF. 361 

were the first fruits of the south who had spread their tents for 
Zion." He also instructed them in the practical affairs of how to 
travel and how to behave. As in all subsequent labors among the 
people of God, he pointed to the spiritual and the temporal in har- 
monious combination as being the proper course for the Saints to 
walk In. Elders Boydston, Cathcart and Clapp followed, speaking 
"in the spirit of God and the feelings of deepest interest." Then 
they all kneeled in prayer, "and I addressed the throne of grace 
imploring the mercy of God to rest upon the camp, that they might 
all reach Zion in peace." 

Under date of November 25, 1836, Elder Woodruff gives 
the following as his impression of Kirtland, its temple and people: 

"I took the parting hand with Elder Shirwood. I then set out in 
company with Elder Smoot, on foot in a hard snow storm for Kirtland. 
We came in sight of the temple, before we reached the village, this being 
the first sight I ever had of the house of the Lord. I exclaimed, 'I behold 
the glory of the Lord and the covering.' We soon entered the village, 
and spent one of the happiest days of my life in visiting the house of 
the Lord,!and the President's and the elders of The Church. I was truly 
rejoiced again to strike hands with President Joseph Smith, and many 
other beloved Saints of God who are rolling on his mighty work. I had 
been separated from them about two and a half years. I was filled with 
joy with the privilege of again striking hands with Elder Warren 
Parrish and also in being made acquainted with his companion, Sister 
Parrish. There is an enjoyment in meeting our brethren and compan- 
ions in tribulation that the world knows not of, because it flows from a 
celestial source. 

"After spending a short thime in conversation with friends, a more 
important scene was now to open to my view than kings ever saw or 
princes ever knew, in this generation, which was to visit the temple of 
the Lord and behold its contents. 

"Elder Smoot and myself visited each apartment of the house 
accompanied by Elder Warren Parrish. I must confess the beauties of 
the interior are indescribable. When I entered the threshold of the house 
and entered the lower room, there was a great feeling of solemnity, if 
not of awe, which immediately overwhelmed me. I felt indeed as if my 
footsteps were in the temple of the Lord. We then visited the upper 
rooms, and there viewed four Egyptian mummies: and also the Book of 
Abraham, written with his own hand. Not only the hieroglyphics, but 
also many figures that this precious treasure contains are calculated 



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362 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

to make a lasting impression upon the mind. Our visit at the temple 

ended. We next called at the bank and the printing office. 
********** 

"Two and a half years since, I left Kirtland, with my brethren in 
their poverty, to go forth to visit our brethren in tribulation in Zion. 
Then our brethren in Kirtland were poor, and despised. * * * 
How changed the scene! Now I behold, a cheerfulness beaming from 
every countenance that indicates prosperity. The noise of the ax and the 
hammer are heard, and there are walls and dwellings newly erected all 
around. • • • Qq^ fa w ^ n them, and his temple stands in 
honor of his kingdom." 



FORGIVENESS. 



To forgive a man in any circumstances costs us nothing. 
Say that he has defrauded me, injured my reputation, attempted 
my life; and suppose such an enemy in my power, what does it 
cost me to forgive him? Let us see: — To reduce him to poverty, 
would make me no richer; to destroy his peace, would not restore 
my own; to hurt him, would not heal me; or to cast a blot on his 
reputation, would restore no lustre to my name; to take his life, 
saying, "nothing smells so sweet as the dead body of an enemy," 
would not insure me against the stroke of death, nor lengthen my 
life by a single hour. 

It is a happy memory that remembers kindness and forgets 
offenses. It is far more noble to conquer one's passion, than to 
crush a foe; and sweeter than gratified revenge, are his feelings, 
who, when his enemy hungers, feeds him; when he thirsts, gives 
him drink. In so doing, man exhibits somewhat of the nature, 
and tastes something of the happiness, of God. 



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A TRIP SOUTH WITH PRESIDENT YOUNG 

IN 1870. 



BY C. R. SAVAGE. 



n. 

Leaving Beaver, our road led up a long canyon, amid pinyon 
pine and cedar, thence to Buck-board Springs where a mili- 
tary escort from Parowan awaited us. After watering and feeding 
our animals, we moved on to Paragoonah, receiving there a warm 
reception. The Sunday School children, with a brass band, were 
out in full force. By the time we reached Parowan, the procession 
was quite formidable, and thus with waving flags and joyous music, 
the tried and true leader of the "Mormon" people was welcomed to 
the pleasant city of Parowan, one of the oldest in the southern 
part of Utah, and also one of the prettiest, containing neat homes 
and well-arranged surroundings. 

Many of the old Indians were there to see "Bigam," as they 
called him; he had a dispute to settle among them, which he did 
to their satisfaction. They said he never talked "forked," always 
"straight." Many oftheNauvoo veterans were there also. Each one 
wished to go over the story of the exodus from Nauvoo, until the 
President was nearly talked to death. The house was besieged by 
visitors all day. 

Just how the President was always able to talk on matters 
that his listeners most desired to hear, I never learned, but there 
were times when he seemed to be more than usually apt, and often 
amusing when giving counsel on home topics, and exposing the 
petty tricks of some who were not honest in their dealings. A 
man with a sack of ore came to see the President. He described 



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364 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

its wonderful richness in glowing terms. The president listened 
attentively, and when the man had finished, remarked: "Brother 

if you have a good thing in view, take care of it." This 

was all the encouragement he got in his mining operations. 

Some men who delight in saying mean things about President 
Young, say that he opposed mining and the development of the 
country, and make other uncomplimentary remarks about him. This 
is a misrepresentation of him. It is, however, true that he re- 
marked: "A poor farmer makes a poor miner," meaning that if a 
man was a farmer he would better stick to his farm than run away 
to the hills and prospect. He knew that it took brains and ability 
of a high class to mine successfully. Brigham Young was right. 
As to his desire to develop the resources of the country, he always 
stood head and shoulders above all his critics. 

Leaving Parowan we went on to Cedar City, but before we 
reached it, a military escort of cavalry met us; they were all well- 
mounted and equipped. They formed into line and preceded the 
company into Cedar. I often thought, "who among the popular 
men in the States would be treated with more homage and genuine 
attention in moving from place to place than the prophet and leader 
of the unpopular Latter-day Saints F I was conceited enough to 
believe that none of the popular men of that time had as many 
genuine friends as Brigham Young. I am satisfied that hundreds 
were ready to stand between him and death, and were ready to 
sacrifice their lives to save his, if it were necessary. 

The ruins of the old smelter erected to make iron from the 
mountains of rich ore in sight of Cedar City, were shown to me; 
also an old iron bell made of the iron. The complaint made was 
that it was so magnetic they did not know how to treat it. But 
it will be done; the foundation for the great iron works yet to 
come was laid by the pioneers years ago. 

It is in such matters that the genius of a founder of nations 
is seen in the life of Brigham Young; he never stopped to ask, "Will 
it pay?* "Is it necessary?' was his query. In every city, town 
and hamlet in Utah, his creative brain proposed many industries 
that aimed to give labor,and develop resources previously unnoticed. 
Much of his talk in every place was directed to show the unrealized 
possibilities before the people, the needed improvement in their 



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A TRIP SOUTH WITH PRESIDENT YOUNG. 365 

lives and the cultivation of the better qualities of their natures. 
I never heard him take a text from the Bible except once. Brother 
Brigham did not believe in loud laughter; he seldom more than 
smiled, and rarely repeated jokes to provoke laughter. President 
Garfield once advised a noted politician never to make people laugh, 
saying that the popular appreciation of a public man was lessened 
when he sought to make them laugh rather than to think. 

The next stop was at Kannara, the highest settlement on the 
route, located on the rim of the basin— elevation nearly seven 
thousand feet — a cold and cheerless place. Near by, the water runs 
on the south to the Pacific ocean, while to the north, to the sink of 
the Sevier. Meetings were held in a log meeting house. The 
people in Kannara were pleased to look upon President Young and 
his friends. There are some wonderful rocky glens near Kannara 
and plenty of timber in the mountains. 

On March 9, we began the descent into Dixie country. One 
witnesses the strangest change in a short time, from northern to 
southern growths. The old song comes easily to mind: 

Mesquit, soap-root, prickly-pear and briars, 
Dixie is the promised land that every one desires. 

The road is a rough, rocky one along Ash Creek, and very hard 
for wagons and animals, but this road is a vast improvement upon 
the one over the Black Ridge, made famous by another old song 
which I remember in part: 

At length we reached the Black Ridge, 

My wagon it broke down; 
But I couldn't get a carpenter 

For I was twenty miles from town . 
So with an old cedar post 

I fixed an awkward slide, 
But the wagon rocked so heavily 

That Betsy couldn't ride. 

The first place reached was Belleview, then Harrisburg, near 
which place the town of Silver Reef is located. Silver is there found 
in sandstone. At that time, no such place was in existence, and I 
slept near a stone wall whose pebbles contained silver. We stayed 
.all night in Harrisburg. At one place in the Dixie country, I wit- 



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366 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

nessed another evidence of the far-seeing policy of our President. 
He happened to see some little fellows playing with round stones 
for want of marbles — I heard him say to his wife: "Look into the 
buggy, and see if there are not some marbles." Sorely enough they 
were produced, and given to the children. He also had some 
tobacco for the Indians. There seemed to be something for every 
emergency in that buggy. 

We are now in the land of craters, lava and scoria. Near each 
place inhabited by man are patches of green, but outside are sand 
and rocks, gravel and cacti. The places of settlement are narrrow 
strips of land near the beds of creeks. 

There were some pretty homes, and, considering the difficul- 
ties pertaining to new settlements, they were a marvel to me. All 
the results .visible had required excessive labor. Ditch-making, 
home-making and farming, were all that the people had time for. 
During the summer months the heat is very great; but the winters 
are delightful. Already the trees were in bloom and the patches 
of lucern green and beautiful. 

The next day we moved on to Washington, a pretty village 
near St. George, where President Young had a cotton mill. The 
caravan stopped to look it over, and see the workmen making fac- 
tory cloth from home-raised cotton, thus supplying a much-needed 
article. Yet the mill was not a dividend-paying institution. This 
did not worry the President. It was a home-made article and abso- 
lutely necessary. An immense sum of money was required to get the 
mill started. 

From Washington to St. George, our train was a triumphal 
parade. On all the knolls were Growds of boys firing little cannons 
and guns; on the road were companies of cavalry and infantry, as 
well as the Sunday School children, and bands of music. 

I was luckily quartered in the residence of Apostle Erastus 
Snow. I enjoyed the sensation of being somebody of consequence, 
if only for a short time. Stanley, the explorer, says: "It is royal 
to be envied." 

Nothing was left undone to make the company happy — the 
homes of the citizens and their contents were at our disposal. The 
town was unlocked. No king or queen, or other potentate, could 



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A TRIP SOUTH WITH PRESIDENT YOUNG. 367 

have had more genuine homage paid them than had the President 
and his friends. 

Stores were closed, business stopped, and the meetings were 
crowded. The best of music was enjoyed, and the most encouraging 
talk given by the visitors. Each speaker had his line of thought, 
each his pet subject. The President commented on topics of every- 
day interest, President Smith likewise,but with more reference to 
spiritual matters. Brigham Young, Jr.'s special points were upon 
every-day life; Lorenzo D. Young, doctrinal points; John W. Young's 
theme was architecture, with reference to the construction of 
homes, barns, schoolhouses, etc. 

Thus was furnished a program full of interest, and necessary 
to the condition of the people. 

At the time of our visit, St. George was the leading city south 
of Salt Lake City, and President Young did everything possible to 
build it up; he thought to make it his winter retreat, for spring- 
time there is earlier by a month than in our valley. Joseph E. Johnson, 
one of the most valuable and progressive citizens there, was testing all 
kinds of fruit trees. He showed me mulberry branches that had 
grown from one-half an inch to three-quarters of an inch per 
day. He had figs, almonds, pomegranates and grapes of every kind 
growing luxuriantly. 

It required gigantic efforts to open up the land for cultivation 
around St. George; the white substance known there as mineral, 
(Glauber's Salts), covered the ground and had to be washed out of 
it before anything would grow. The city water is obtained from 
a warm spring, and is healthful. Much wine was made from the 
vineyards. 

We had such a pleasant time that the trip to the desert and 
the Colorado river lost its charm; but we had to part with the 
people of St. George and the city's attractions. On Monday, March 
14, we rolled out, climbing a mountain road for over fifteen miles. 
All signs of water were lost to view, but our guide took the ani- 
mals down a steep ravine and found water in the holes in the rocks. 
Towards night, we reached a place on the Rio Virgen, once known 
as the Beaver Dam; but one of the storms that prevail there pro- 
duced a flood that completely carried away the settlement. We 
camped on the river for the night, where the village once was. 



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368 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

It was about this time that the Navajoes were on the warpath. 
Each one of as had to stand guard during the night, gun in hand, 
and watch over the camp. My turn came at midnight. The only 
sound I heard was the cry of the howling coyote — suddenly, I 
noticed a portly individual moving around; could it be one of the 
Navajoes? I summoned the intruder and found, to my surprise, 
that it was President Young hunting medicine for some one sick. 

Numbers of the friendly Pi-ede Indians came to our camp. The 
old chief, Thomas, was there. They shook hands with us, and were 
glad we had come, for they were afraid of the Navajoes; and so 
were we, but they did not know this. To my satisfaction, none of 
them appeared to disturb our peace. 

The next day we followed on down the Virgen river through 
sand and gravel, making slow progress. There was no timber in 
sight. Mesquit is the only wood that can be found in this region. 
The roots of the growth are dug from the sand dunes that sur- 
round them, and they make good firing. Yuccas and cacti of many 
kinds are found on the slopes. 

We camped on the river again, thirty-five miles from the 
Beaver Dam. There were no settlers on the river then, but we 
passed many fine tracts of land which were suitable for cultiva- 
tion. 

Our next day's travel brought us to St. Thomas, on the lower 
Muddy. The change from dreary wastes, to civilized life, was very 
acceptable. St. Thomas was a pleasant settlement of one story 
abdobe houses; the occupants were young men and their families who 
had been selected in,and sent from,SaltLake City. The houses were 
neat, plain, and comfortable. Gottonwoods were planted on the bor- 
ders of each lot. The fields around the hamlet were bright with grow- 
ing crops, and were in splendid condition. The timbers used in the 
roofs of the houses had been hauled seventy-five miles. It was nec- 
essary, in order to bring water to St. Thomas, to build a ditch eleven 
miles long. Think of the mountain of labor necessary to possess a 
home in that far-off and isolated location. Yet no one grumbled. 
I heard some complaints about the ants, and the sand storms that 
prevailed there. Then there were so many Pi-ede Indians around 
that the settlers were taxed every day to help feed them. The 
government, at that time, did nothing to help the Pi-edes. 



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A TRIP SOUTH WITH PRESIDENT YOUNG. 369 

Our meetings in St. Thomas were not as enthusiastic as in 
other places. President Young did not say much; others took up 
the time. 

In mid-summer the heat is intense; I was told that the sisters 
poured the butter from bottles, when they used it; and that the 
hens would not run on the sand because it burned their feet when 
the sun was shining. I was impressed that many of the settlers 
would rather be somewhere else, but they did not say so. Settlers 
in new places are sometimes discouraged. 

Near St. Thomas is a mountain of crystalline salt; everything 
around the place looks barren, sandy, and uninviting. The hills are 
covered with short prickly growths that are a terror to footmen. 

Our next trip was down the Virgen river, twenty-five miles, to 
the Colorado river. On the road, we passed huge cliffs of brown 
rock-salt. Very few flowers, and these of bad odor, adorn the 
sterile sand. Hieroglyphics are seen on the rocks, carved by races 
of men whose bodies are now low in the dust. There is no soil vis- 
ible; the landscape is made up of salt, sand-rock and volcanic 4 
tufa. We finally reach the big river at its junction with the Rio 
Virgen. We camped on the plateau overlooking the junction. This 
place is four hundred and fifty miles from Salt Lake City. 



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THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. 

BY DR. J. M. TANNER, PRESIDENT OP THE STATE AGRICULTURAL COL- 
LEGE, LOGAN, UTAH. 



IV. 

Last month word came to us that the British were crossing 
the Tugela. The Tugela is a river in northwestern Natal, a 
British province, and is located close to the foothills which lead up 
to a range of mountains running northeasterly through Africa, 
known as the Drakensberg. When General Buller reached this 
river he made an attempt to cross, and attacked the Boers in a 
front movement. He was hurled back with great loss, and his 
defeat created consternation throughout England. As these tactics 
proved entirely futile it was felt that another attempt must be 
made to cross the river, and at a point where an open country lies 
between the Kopjes and the river, so that a greater freedom could 
be had in manipulating the guns and marshaling the forces. The 
river runs from west to east, and along this river the army took 
up its march, some a distance of ten, others perhaps twenty miles. 
Two fords were selected for crossing, one at Potgieter's drift, and 
another at Frichard's drift. Potgieter's drift was not so favorable 
for the marshaling of troops, in consequence of the low hills that 
lie immediately to the north of the river, but twenty miles from 
Colenso is Frichard's drift, where the country to the north of the 
river is open and the road leads directly to Acton Home. Along 
this road, Buller proposed to march his army to the relief of 
Ladysmith. It was believed that this road could be commanded 
by possession of a point known as Spion Eop, the summit of which 
General Warren was instructed to reach and locate his guns so as 
to command the surrounding country. To the effort of the British 



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THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. 371 

to cross the river at this point the Boers seem to have made no 
objection, and, indeed, did not offer any great resistance to the 
occupation of Spion Eop by the English. The Boers knew, if the 
English did not, that this hill did not constitute the commanding 
position of the country. The Boers were quick to understand the 
objective point of the English, and led their enemies into another 
trap more terrible than any into which the British had yet fallen. 
The battle, therefore, of Spion Eop will be among the most notable 
of the South African war. The loss was heavy and the defeat of 
the English complete. 

The censorship is so completely under the English control that 
it is very difficult to secure any accurate information from the 
scene of war. General Buller gave out a large list of officers who 
were lost, but failed to give any accurate information of the 
number of men. From the Transvaal, however, comes the state- 
ment that in this battle fifteen hundred English, men and officers, 
were killed, and one hundred and fifty taken prisoners. If one 
thousand five hundred were killed, then the number of the wounded 
must be very large. 

On the hills to the north of Spion Eop, the Boers had 
intrenched themselves. The working of their guns seemed to have 
been complete, and has placed the Boers in the foremost rank of 
the artillery fighters of the world. General Buller simply 
announced that it was inadvisable to hold the hill; its perimeter 
was too large; there was difficulty in getting the large guns to the 
top, and no water was to be had there as they had been led to expect. 

One of the peculiarities of this war is the surprising ignor- 
ance, on the part of those conducting it, respecting the country in 
which the fighting was to be done. The knowledge of the country 
seems to have been of the most general character, and this part of 
the English preparation is, to say the least, very deficient. The 
English were forced to retreat. They crossed again to the south 
shore of the Tugela under the most disheartening circumstances. 
The Boers did not attempt to pursue their enemy and gain any 
advantages in this retreat. They perhaps realized the superior 
advantages they enjoy in their defensive position. General Buller 
seems to have found consolation in the fact that he was success- 
ful in conducting a retreat in which~"not a single man nor a pound 



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872 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

of stores was lost." As long as the Boers had the hills to fight in, 
and natural defenses to aid them in their efforts, it was not at all 
likely that they would attack the English in the open country. 
General Buller in one of his dispatches says of the retreat that 
it "is proof that the enemy has been taught to respect our soldiers' 
fighting powers." People, however, at a distance are not able to 
appreciate just what General Buller means by an observation which, 
on its face, seems so ridiculous. 

It is not known what the loss of the Boers was at Spion Eop. 
We shall have to wait, no doubt, until after peace has been declared 
before we can get any adequate idea or satisfactory information 
respecting the extent and effects of this memorable battle. 

At this date, February 9, it is said that Buller is making 
headway in his efforts to relieve the garrison at Ladysmith; that 
he has again crossed the Tugela and is crowding the Boers step by 
step in spite of the stubborn resistance which they are offering to 
the British advance. Speculation is rife. It is not easy at this 
time to say just what the actual situation is. We are told that 
Lord Roberts is in the midst of his military activities, and a general 
advance all along the line is taking place. It is not even now 
possible to say just what the number of soldiers is in the English 
army, now fighting in South Africa, but it must be something like 
(me hundred and fifty thousand. If this estimate be correct, that 
army, according to Winston Churchill, is still too small. Mr. 
Churchill, it will be remembered, was sometime ago taken a prisoner 
of war by the Boers, and for sometime remained under arrest at 
Pretoria, the capital of the Transvaal. From the capital, he made 
his escape, and has been in a position to give us some very inter- 
esting information respecting the Boers — their position, and the 
necessary effort to overcome them. Mr. Churchill says it will 
require two hundred and fifty thousand. Of course, it is possible 
for the English to raise the number, and, eventually, by a process 
of hammering and starvation, beat the Boers back from their 
strongholds. Some parts of Mr. Churchill's communications are 
extremely interesting. Among other things, he refers to the 
country as the "land of lies." This clearly indicates that the 
questions under dispute for a number of years are not by any 
means established facts. We on the outside have been misled. 



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THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. 373 

Conditions are not as represented. It it is not too much to say 
that the Boers have surprised even those who looked upon them 
most favorably. He gives us a description of these people, and 
these are his words: 

What men they were, these Boers! I have 'thought of them as I 
had seen them in the morning riding forward through the rain — thou- 
sands of independent riflemen, thinking for themselves, possessed of 
beautiful weapons, led with skill, living as they rode without commis- 
sariat, or transport or ammunition, moving like the wind and supported by 
iron constitutions and a stern, hard, Old Testament God who should 
surely smite the Amalekites and Hittites. And then, above the rain and 
storm that beat loudly on the corrugated iron, I heard the sound of a 
chant. The Boers were singing their evening psalm and the menacing 
notes — more full of indignant war than love and mercy — struck a chill 
into my heart so that I thought after all that the war was unjust, that 
the Boers were better men than we, that heaven was against us, that 
Ladysmith, Maf eking and Eimberley would fall, that the Estcourt garri- 
son would perish, that foreign powers would intervene, that we should 
lose South Africa, and that that would be the beginning of the end. So 
for the first time I despaired of the empire; nor was it till the morning 
sun — all the brighter after the rain storms, all the warmer after the 
chills — struck in through the windows that things reassumed their true 
colors and proportions. 

Of this, Mr. Stead says: "Nous verrons!" (We shall see.) "But 
unless we repent, I should back Mr. Churchill's evening meditations 
against his morning reflections." 

Something like five months of this war have passed. It would 
almost seem as if all South Africa were one Ladysmith — prisoner 
to the Boers. Whatever we may think of the Boer cause, its 
justice, the natural equity of things, it is certain that events have 
all conspired to the advantage of the Transvaalers. As an instance 
of the favorable advantage which they have enjoyed from the 
beginning, take the situation at Ladysmith. Ladysmith is located 
in the northwestern part of Natal in a mountainous country. The 
garrison selected for the British soldiers at this place was such 
that it could be hemmed in and obstructed completely in its effort 
to make any escape. Once locked up at Ladysmith, it was impos- 
sible for the English to break their way out. Ten thousand 
soldiers are now in that garrison and have been shut up ever since 



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374 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

the beginning of the war. Northwest of Ladysmith, the hills and 
country leading up to the Drakensberg mountains are of such a 
character that the Boers enjoy every advantage of fortifying 
themselves and making their defensive position almost impregna- 
ble. The first thought on the part of the English was to relieve 
Ladysmith. There the greatest part of their army was concen- 
trated; there they put forth their most heroic efforts. There are 
men who do not now hesitate .to say that this was perhaps the 
most serious blunder of the British. Rather than meet the Boers 
on such ground, it would have been cheaper to abandon Ladysmith 
entirely at the outset of the war. The contour of the country is 
somewhat peculiar. What the British wanted most of all was an 
opportunity to fight in the open country. They should have 
selected some place in which they could, with comparative safety 
and ease, have penetrated the Drakensberg mountains and have 
brought themselves from the low valley lying on the southeast of 
South Africa above the mountain tops, and thrown themselves out 
into the open country either of the Orange Free State or the 
Transvaal. After the Drakensberg mountains are crossed, the 
country is comparatively level. At any rate the opportunities of 
defense are not so favorable as they are where the British have 
now actually concentrated their forces, and it would almost seem 
that it was a mistake to undertake to do the fighting in a moun- 
tainous country. The Boers estimated that in consequence of 
their position, the relative value of the soldiers was as five to one 
in favor of the Boers. This statement early in the war was 
ridiculed, but it would seem to be now entirely correct. 

How long the Boers are prepared to withstand the siege is, of 
course, a matter of some speculation, though their friends claim 
that they have a sufficient quantity of provisions to last them for 
a period of two years. On the other hand, it is thought that the 
English will make an effort to cut off all supplies that reach the 
Transvaal through the Portugese harbor at Delagoa Bay, whence 
they are carried to Pretoria. It is difficult to see how the English 
can support their attitude towards the Germans, and even the 
Americans, in cutting off food destined for a neutral port. The 
Americans remember very distinctly the Trent affair, and how 
ready we were to give up ambassadors of the confederate states 



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THE SOUTH AFRICAN WAR. 375 

in order to reconcile the hostile spirit of England, as it was mani- 
fested at that time toward the people of the North. Sometime 
ago,France was at war with China. The English then claimed that 
rice was not a contraband of war, and it is difficult to see why 
flour should be a contraband when it is against the interest of the 
English to ship it into the country, when rice waa not, at a time 
when it was favorable to carry on the business of shipping rice to 
the Chinese. 

Perhaps one of the most striking, if not the most striking, 
features of the war has been its surprises. Indeed,this has been a 
century of surprises, at any rate in warfare. Those surprises 
began on a large scale in 1866 when the Prussians beat down with 
lightning rapidity the Austrians, and later carried their victorious 
arms to the gates of Paris. The unexpected happened. The war 
between the Japanese and Chinese gave us another surprise. We 
were surprised when we saw the Turks put under an excellent 
system of mobilization a vast modern army to beat back the inroads 
made in Thessaly by the Greeks. 

But the Boer war is perhaps the greatest surprise of all, 
greatest because the reader will remember that in 18%, in early 
January, an effort was made to overthrow the Transvaal republic. 
Preparations for that revolt consisted of five hundred men, led by 
Dr. Jameson, and a few thousand Uitlanders at Johannesburg who 
were preparing to join Dr. Jameson's troops in the great fiasco 
which was intended, or hoped, to be a successful revolution. 
When we think of a small body of five hundred men with some 
very indefinite assurances of some trifling support from the citizen 
soldiers of Johannesburg, undertaking to overthrow the republic of 
the Transvaal, and that the Dutch today are holding at bay one 
hundred and fifty thousand English soldiers, we marvel at the 
credulity of those who entered into the conspiracy resulting in the 
Jameson raid. We marvel because those people were on the spot. 
They were familiar with the Transvaal. They were supposed to 
know the Dutch people from long and familiar association, and 
yet had no better conception of the enemy they had aroused than 
to put into the field the trifling army of five hundred men. 

It will be interesting to know, when the war is over, how 
many foreigners joined the Boers, and what their nationality was. 



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376 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

If the English were boastful at the outset, the Boers were not 
entirely free from the same charge. Some Boers, who were most 
enthusiastic in their ability to combat the English army, had freely 
predicted that the English would be swept out of the country, 
even down to Table Rock at the Gape, and that the Boers would 
possess the entire land. This prediction must have been made 
with the thought that all the Boers of the Gape would join in the 
general armament against Great Britain. However boastful some 
of them may have been, it is evident that the military authorities 
of the Transvaal republic contemplate nothing further than a 
defensive warfare. Their entire preparations and all their move- 
ments indicated, so far as they were concerned, simply and purely 
a war of defense. In this, up to date, they have been most suc- 
cessful, and have covered themselves with glory. If Winston 
Churchill's estimate that it is necessary for the British to amass an 
army of 250,000 is correct, it is certain that the war will result in 
rivers of blood, and in a peace that will be less favorable to the 
English or the Uitlanders than has been heretofore imagined. I 
say it will be unfavorable to them because it is not unlikely that 
the Boers will be permitted to enjoy home-rule. If they are, it 
will not be long before they are able to outvote foreigners, 
though they may not do this in the Transvaal. They are very 
likely to receive home-rule, because the war in England will be 
looked upon with such disfavor, for some years to come, that it is 
very likely that the conservatives will be swept from power, and 
that the liberals will deal with the people of South Africa in a 
more generous spirit, because the conservative party has felt more 
strongly the resistance which the Boers offered to their efforts of 
conquest. 

As the war goes on, the interest becomes more universal. 
No one ever supposed that it would last five months. The prepar- 
ations of the Boers have been a complete surprise even to those 
who looked most favorably upon the predictions of those sturdy 
Dutch warriors. No one questions the end. If foreign interfer- 
ence is averted, the Boers must eventually succumb. But they 
have made a magnificent defense; and, in the annals of warfare 
and history, they will stand out superb warriors and patriotic 
defenders of their country. 



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"THE MANUSCRIPT FOUND." 

BY PRESIDENT JOSEPH P. SMITH. 



n. 

When I obtained Mr. Rice's verbatim copy of the "Manuscript 
Found," I had only little faith that he would receive the consent of 
either Mr. Pairchild or of his daughter and son-in-law, Mr. Whit- 
ney, to allow me to publish it. Mr. Whitney was a son of one of 
the early Galvinist missionaries who, in an early day, was sent by 
the American Missionary Board to the Sandwich Islands to convert 
the heathens. He was deeply imbued with strong prejudices 
against the Latter-day Saints, such as his pious missionary father 
possessed. His wife entertained similar bias, and I had reason to 
believe that they would do all in their power to prevent me from 
obtaining possession of the manuscript for publication, as I desired. 
Mr. Rice himself was also very determined in his spirit of opposi- 
tion to The Church, when I first met him, but this feeling gradually 
softened, and was greatly modified by my repeated interviews with 
him, and by means of a correspondence which sprang up between 
us by letter, and continued, at short intervals, up to the time of his 
last sickness. I was so strongly impressed with this idea as ex- 
pressed above, or that they would not consent for me to publish 
it, that I determined to make a copy of the manuscript while 
it was in my hands. On reaching Laie, I laid the matter before 
my fellow-missionaries and associates who unanimously concurred 
with me. We therefore set to work, and in a few days com- 
pleted an exact copy. 

Contrary, however, to my expectations, when I returned the 
original manuscript to Mr. Rice, I found his feelings considerably 
changed. He had received word from Mr. Fairchild, giving his 



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378 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

consent to my proposition of publishing the work, which had also 
caused the reconciliation of his son-in-law and daughter to the idea 
of letting me publish it. We, therefore, concluded our arrange- 
ments, and each signed the agreement, in accordance with the 
terms first mentioned by him; and so, the manuscript was 
committed into my hands. I immediately forwarded the same 
to the Deseret News in Salt Lake City, together with the 
terms of the agreement, to have the same published and issued 
in book form. After considerable delay on the part of the 
News in completing the work, the manuscript was published, 
and ready for distribution to the world. In strict accord with the 
agreement between myself and Mr. Rice, his manuscript, together 
with twenty-five copies of the printed pamphlet, were sent to 
me. Meanwhile, Mr. Rice had passed suddenly to the great be- 
yond, and I surrendered the manuscript, with the printed copies 
accompanying it, to his son-in-law, Mr. Whitney, thereby fulfilling 
to the letter the agreement which I had entered into with Mr. 
Rice. 

Thus the Spaulding Story, variously called "The Manuscript 
Found," "Manuscript Story," etc., was at length brought to light 
from its long hiding place and made public! What a disappoint- 
ment the discovery and publication of this long lost manuscript 
must have been, and is, to all those who have predicated the author- 
ship of the Book of Mormon upon it! It is now made to appear, 
in a way that can never be denied, that all such claims, statements 
and representations of authorship are false. They are brought to 
nought, and it is definitely, openly and irrevocably determined that 
such claims of authorship are without even the shadow of a 
foundation. 

It will now be interesting to review, as briefly as possible, 
some of the desperate efforts which have been made by anti- 
"Mormons" to connect the origin of the Book of Mormon with 
this now found, printed and exposed, Solomon Spaulding's manu- 
script. 

In a book entitled, "Who Wrote the Book of Mormon T by 
Robert Patterson, of Pittsburg, which is perhaps the strongest 
effort ever put forth with such end in view, we find the following 
statement: 



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"THE MANUSCRIPT FOUND." 379 

In this discussion there are manifestly but two points to be con- 
sidered. The first is to establish the fact that the historical portions of 
the Book of Mormon are certainly derived from Spaulding's Manuscript 
Found; and the second, to show, if practicable, in what way and by 
whom the plagiarism was probably effected. Of these, the first is the 
only vitally important one. If the identity can be determined, impos- 
ture will be proved, even though it may not be possible to demonstrate 
absolutely how the fraud was perpetrated. 

I have conclusively proved — the printed book itself is the 
proof, — that the first and only point is not established or sustained, 
and that the historical portions of the Book of Mormon, are not 
■derived from Spaulding's "Manuscript Found." Hence, there should 
be nothing further required in this discussion. But the author 
proceeds to quote the statements of various witnesses, to some of 
whom I desire to refer, because, notwithstanding the truth is told 
irrevocably exposing them as falsehoods, they are constantly being 
used and quoted against the divine authenticity of the Book of 
Mormon. The testimonies are taken from his book: 

John Spaulding, a brother of Solomon, visited the latter at Conneaut 
just before his removal, and states as follows: 

"He then told me he had been writing a book, which he intended to 
have printed, the avails of which he thought would enable him to pay 
all his debts. The book was entitled the 'Manuscript Found,' of which 
he read to me many passages. It was an historical romance of the first 
settlers of America, endeavoring to show that the American Indians are 
the descendants of the Jews, or the lost tribes. It gave a detailed ac- 
count of their journey from Jerusalem, by land and sea, till they arrived 
in America, under the command of Nephi and Lehi. They afterwards 
had quarrels and contentions, and separated into two distinct nations, 
one of which he denominated Nephites and the other Lamanites. Cruel 
and bloody wars ensued, in which great multitudes were slain. They 
buried their dead in large heaps, which caused the mounds so common in 
this country. * * * I have recently read the Book of Mor- 
mon, and, to my great surprise, I find nearly the same historical matter, 
names, etc., as they were in my brother's writings. I well remember 
that he wrote in the old style, and commenced about every sentence 
with 'And it came to pass/ or 'Now it came to pass/ the same as in the 
Book of Mormon, and according to the best of my recollection and belief > 
it is the same as my brother Solomon wrote, with the the exception of 
the religious matter." 



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380 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Mrs. Martha Spaulding, wife of John Spaulding, states in regard' 
to Solomon Spaulding and his writings as follows: 

"I was personally acquainted with Solomon Spaulding about twenty 
years ago. The lapse of time which has intervened prevents my recol- 
lecting but few of the incidents of his writings, but the names of Lehi 
and Nephi are yet fresh in my memory as being the principal heroes of 
his tale. They were officers of the company which first came off from 
Jerusalem. He gave a particular account of their journey by land and 
sea till they arrived in America, after which disputes arose between the 
chiefs, which caused them to separate into different bands, one of which 
was called Lamanites and the other Nephites. Between these were 
recounted tremendous battles, which frequently covered the ground with 
the slain; and tbese being buried in large heaps was the cause of the 
numerous mounds in the country. * * * I have read the 
Book of Mormon, which has brought fresh to my recollection the writ- 
ings of Solomon Spaulding; and I have no manner of doubt that the 
historical part of it is the same that I read and heard read more than 
twenty years ago. The old, obsolete style, and the phrases of 'And it 
came to pass,' are the same." 

Henry Lake, the partner of Spaulding in building the forge, writes 
from Conneaut, in September, 1833, as follows: 

"He [Spaulding] very frequently read to me from a manuscript 
which he was writing, which he entitled the 'Manuscript Found,' and 
which he represented as being found in this town. I spent many hours 
in hearing him read said writings, and became well acquainted with their 
contents. He wished me to assist him in getting his production printed, 
alleging that a book of that kind would meet With rapid sale. I 
designed doing so, but the forge not meeting our anticipations, we failed 
in business, when I declined having anything to do with the publication 
of the book. This book represented the American Indians as the 
descendants of the lost tribes, gave an account of their leaving Jerusa- 
lem, their contentions and wars, which were many and great. One time 
when he was reading to me the tragic account of Laban I pointed out 
to him what I considered an inconsistency, which he promised to cor- 
rect; but by referring to the Book of Mormon I find, to my surprise, 
that it stands there just as he read it to me then. Some months ago I 
borrowed the Golden Bible, put it into my pocket, carried it home, and 
thought no more of it. About a week after, my wife found the book in 
my coat pocket as it hung up, and commenced reading it aloud as I lay 
upon the bed. She had not read twenty minutes till I was astonished to 
find the same passages in it that Spaulding had read to me more than. 



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"THE MANUSCRIPT FOUND." 381 

-twenty years before from his 'Manuscript Found/ Since that I have 
more fully examined the said Golden Bible, and have no hesitation in 
saying that the historical part of it is principally if not wholly taken 
from the 'Manuscript Found/ I well recollect telling Mr. Spaulding 
that the so frequent use of the words 'And it came to pass/ 'Now it 
came to pass/ rendered it ridiculous." 

The author of the book in question comments on the above 
testimony as follows: 

It should be stated in explanation of the above that the Book of 
Mormon, at the time of its publication, was frequently spoken of as the 
"Golden Bible." Also that an incongruity occurs in the story of Laban, 
in the First Book of Nephi, where Nephi says they "did speak many 
hard words unto us, their younger brothers, and they did smite us even 
with a rod." Whereupon an angel appears and says, "Why do you smite 
your younger brother with a rod?" Consistency would require that the 
number, whether singular or plural should be the same in both sen- 
tences. The oversight is in itself a trifle, but it's occurrence in both 
the Spaulding Manuscript and the Book of Mormon is an unanswerable 
proof of identity. 

John N. Miller testifies as follows: 

"In the year 1811, 1 was in the employ of Henry Lake and Solomon 

Spaulding, at Conneaut, engaged in rebuilding a forge. While there I 
boarded and lodged in the family of said Spaulding for several months. 
I was soon introduced to the Manuscript of Spaulding, and perused it as 

•often as* I had leisure. He had written two or three books or pamphlets 
on different subjects, but that which more particularly drew my atten- 
tion was one which he called the *Manuscript Found.' * * * 
It purported to be the history of the first settlement of America before 
discovered by Columbus. He brought them off from Jerusalem under 
their leaders, detailing their travels by land and water, their manners, 
customs, laws, wars, etc. He said that he designed it as an historical 
novel, and that in after years it would be believed by many people as much 
as the history of England. * * * I have recently exam- 
ined the Book of Mormon and find in it the writings of Solomon Spauld- 
ing from beginning to end, but mixed up with Scripture and other 
religious matter which I did not meet with in the 'Manuscript Found.' 
Many of the passages of the Mormon book are verbatim from Spaulding, 
and others in part. The names of Nephi, Lehi, Moroni, and in fact all 
the principal names are brought fresh to my recollection by the Golden 
Bible. When Spaulding divested his history of its fabulous names by a 



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382 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

verbal explanation, he landed his people near the straits of Darien, 
which I am very confident he called Zarahemla. They were marched 
about that country for a length of time, in which wars and great blood- 
shed ensued. He brought them across North America in a north-east 
direction." 

Aaron Wright, a former neighbor of Spaulding, writes at Conneaut, 
Aug., 1833, as follows: 

"I first became acquainted with Solomon Spaulding in 1808 or 1809 
when he commenced building a forge on Conneaut Creek. When at his 
house one day he showed and read a history he was writing of the lost 
tribes of Israel, purporting that they were the first settlers of America, 
and that the Indians were their descendants, as it is given in the Book 
of Mormon, excepting the religious matter. The historical part of the 
Book of Mormon I knew to be the same as I read and heard read from 
the writings of Spaulding more than twenty years ago: the names more 
especially are the same without any alteration. He told me his object 
was to account for all the fortifications, etc., to be found in this country, 
and said that in time it would be fully believed by all except learned 
men and historians. I once anticipated reading his writings in print, 
but little expected to see them in a new Bible. * * * In 
conclusion, I will observe that the names and most of the historical part 
of the Book of Mormon were as familiar to me before I read it as most 
modern history. 

Oliver Smith, another old neighbor of Spaulding wrote at Conneaut, 
Aug., 1833: 

"When Solomon Spaulding first came to this place, he purchased a 
tract of land, surveyed it out, and commenced selling it. While engaged 
in this business he boarded at my house, in all nearly six months. All 
his leisure hours were occupied in writing an historical novel founded 
upon the first settlers of this country. He said he intended to trace 
their journey from Jerusalem, by land and sea, till their arrival in 
America; give an account of their arts, sciences, civilization, wars and 
contentions. In this way he would give a satisfactory account of all the 
old mounds so common to this country. During the time he was $t my 
house I read and heard read one hundred pages or more. Nephi and 
Lehi were by him represented as leading characters when they first 
started for America. * * * (Mr. Smith narrates his last 
interview with Spaulding, when the latter was about starting for Pitts- 
burg and solicited Smith's leniency, as one of his creditors, not to 
prevent his going. Mr. Smith then closes as follows:) This was the 



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"THE MANUSCRIPT FOUND." 883 

last I beard of Spauldingor his book until tbe Book of Mormon came into 
tbe neighborhood. When I heard the historical part of it related, I at 
once said it was the writing of old Solomon Spanlding. Soon after I 
obtained the book, and on reading it found much of it the same as 
Spanlding had written more than twenty years before." 

In another paper, I will present a few comments on these cun- 
ningly devised, and seemingly explicit statements, and briefly re- 
view some of the unscrupulous falsehoods in the testimony of these 
and other witnesses who conspired to deceive the world, and to 
destroy the Book of Mormon. 



MAKE GOOD USE OP GOD'S GIFTS TO YOU. 



Laura Bridgman, the famous deaf and blind woman, while a 
student at the Perkins Institute for the Blind, in Boston, became 
very helpful to the little blind girls who were being educated there. 
Although apparently so helpless herself that it would seem as if 
she was the one in need of help rather than t^e one to give it, 
nevertheless with her quick, active fingers she would assist many 
of them to acquire a knowledge of the intricacies of the sewing 
machine; and many a little blind girl there had to thank Laura for 
teaching her to thread a needle with the tongue. 

The latter accomplishment was acquired by Laura before self- 
threading needles, adapted to the needs of the blind, came into 
general use by them. 

Any one who is in possession of all his senses might take a 
lesson from the deeds of the patient, helpful Laura; be contented 
with his lot and never cease to thank God for the gifts which he has 
bestowed; and determine to make at least as good use of those, 
which he has in common with the deaf and blind girl, as she did of 
hers.— Sarah Wkalen. 



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ORGANIZATION. 



BY ELDER SAMUEL W. RICHARDS. 

The late organization of two new stakes of The Church in 
Salt Lake County, has given opportunity for thought relative to 
the benefits and propriety of such action. 

From the time the great Creator said to him by whom and 
for whom all things were made: "See! yonder is matter unorgan- 
ized, go ye down and organize it into an earth," etc., there can be 
no question as to the virtue and necessity of organization: the 
bringing together and harmonizing material to act in unison for 
the accomplishment of certain ends. 

The result of organization of proper material in that case 
was an earth, or world, endowed with the energies of life, and 
capable of providing for the wants and necessities of an innumer- 
able race of humanity, and other life, which were to come and 
dwell upon it for their development preparatory to a higher sphere. 
Organization has been a prominent feature from the first of human 
existence, developed in various forms, such as family, society, 
communities, tribes, nations, kingdoms, etc., each having separate 
and distinct features of government for their regulation and 
preservation. 

The necessity of organization is apparent in the fact that 
every individual organism is first formed before life enters into or 
takes possession of it; as in the human body the spirit, or power 
of life, takes possession of and controls every portion of the 
structure organized for it. Every member of the body responds, 
without hesitancy, to the dictates of the spirit within, whether it 
be the eyes to see, the tongue to speak, the hands to work, or the 



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ORGANIZATION. 38 

feet to walk. All are operated upon by the one spirty that is 
within, to the realization of the object and purpose of human life 
and action, by virtue of which it becomes a living soul. 

This pattern of individual organization, as arranged by the 
great Creator and Organizer in the beginning, is the only one safe 
to follow, in all social development. Every member of the organ- 
ization, for whatever purpose it may have been created, should be 
subject to one spirit in all things relating to the development 
thereof, and the realization of the objects to be attained by the 
organization. No opposition, contention or strife can be admis- 
sible any more than one member of the body can be supposed to 
war with another member without injury to, if not possibly 
destroying, the whole body. The necessary union can only be 
realized by the Spirit of God which is -one Spirit operating upon, 
in and through, the spirits of all who are embodied or included in 
the organization for the welfare of which they are associated 
together. 

In any organization which brings into exercise the powers of 
the Priesthood, as in that of the stake, both order and duty are cal- 
culated to effect the harmony required. Each one in office, if needing 
assistance, is permitted to call upon some member of the lower 
office to aid him in the discharge of duty. This renders it neces- 
sary for every officer to have some knowledge of duties pertaining 
to the higher office, to be properly qualified to assist in performing 
them. The whole catalogue of official duty is linked together by 
the lesser being qualified at any time to assist the higher; thus 
seeing eye to eye and working in perfect harmony, which is abso- 
lutely necessary in all things pertaining to the Kingdom of God. 

This linking together of the powers on earth is by virtue of 
an eternal principle, and reaches out to all eternal conditions of 
immortal life. 

It binds earth to heaven, time to eternity, and will, to all who 
live in the law, bind man to his Father — God! and all such shall 
be sons of God, and reign with him for ever and ever in immor- 
tality, and in the midst of eternal lives. 



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EDITOR'S TABLE. 



TALKS TO THE YOUNG MEN— HINTS ON PRESIDING. 

BY THE SENIOR EDITOR. 



Speaking on "Deference for Sacred Places," in a recent talk, it 
was stated that those who preside over religions meetings should 
insist upon receiving from the audience, and from each individual 
thereof, that regard and deference which are due to the places 
and their positions. That these are not always obtained is due to 
two glaring faults: the thoughtlessness or bad manners of the 
audience, and the disability of the person presiding. Disability 
may be the wrong word; it would, perhaps, be better to say ignor- 
ance, or a lack of the proper knowledge of the requirements and 
importance of his own position. It is frequently the case that 
men who lead, are not good followers; that men who make rules, 
themselves break them. It was said of Alexander HI, Czar of 
Russia, that he could and did abide by all the laws and regulations 
that he exacted of his court. This matter of living up to the laws 
of good order and conduct should be a primal qualification in a 
presiding officer. In his, more than in any other position, is the 
old saying applicable: "Rule thyself first; then others." 

So in a presiding officer, let it be an apostle or a seventy, the 
president of a quorum or of an improvement association, a stake 
president or the bishop of a ward; compliance with the rules of 
decorum and good order must first by them be strictly observed 
before they can reasonably expect results from the people. 

If you preside, act as you would have your audience individu- 
ally deport themselves. 



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EDITORS TABLE. 387 

A few of the requirements of presiding officers may be named: 
officers should be present on time, prompt in opening, agreeable, 
firm and considerate, orderly and expeditions. 

Nothing is so productive of negligence and lack of regard on 
the part of the people as a tardy officer — as if no person's time 
were of value but his. Then some officers — and this does not 
apply alone to presidents of the Mutual Improvement Associations: 
it embraces bishops and other leading men, — are always tardy with 
their work. Consultations that should have been held with their 
counselors days or hours before, are ill-manneredly held on the stand 
before the waiting congregation. Is it any wonder that there is 
running in and out, and confusion in endless train? Sometimes, in 
meeting, these private consultations are deferred until the sacra- 
ment is being administered. It would be better to adjourn the 
meeting until the presiding officer is ready. 

Presidents of Mutual Improvement Associations, who are in 
the habit of holding private conversations before their waiting 
audiences, may learn how disagreeable such action is to their 
members, by observing what effect bishop's private council meetings 
have upon a congregation partaking of the sacrament. The solem- 
nity of the sacred ordinance is crushed beneath the debris of 
thought and action entirely foreign to its holy purpose. How can 
such officers ask men and women to pay proper respect to either 
the ordinance or the place? Advising together is very essential, 
but presiding officers must learn that in meeting is neither the 
time nor the place to hold such consultations. 

If advising together should not interfere with the prompt 
opening, neither should a lack of familiarity with the course of 
procedure be permitted to hinder. When it is time for opening, 
it is not time to consult with the choir leader, who may have for- 
gotten his music, or his organist, or his hymn book, or his choir. 
Neither is it then time to consult the janitor about the lights, or 
the forgotten oil, or the un trimmed lamp, or the dead incandescent. 
All these things should have been arranged beforehand to insure 
prompt opening. Add to these and similar arrangements, the 
possession of an agreeable temper, with a heart full of humility 
and the spirit of God, a firmness of purpose modified by a consider- 
ate feeling of respect for the rights of every person (not forget* 



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888 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

ting his own), and a presiding officer can not fail to impress the 
people with respect for his position. 

When such respect has been formed, the solution of the 
problem of how to prevent noise and confusion, and of how to 
create and maintain deference for place and position, will have 
been solved. 



THE "INSPIRED TRANSLATION.* 



In a recent number of the Era, Elder F. W. Crockett discussed 
"The Mission and Necessity of the Holy Ghost," and to substantiate 
a portion of his argument, with the correctness of which there is 
no controversy, he uses Paul's words, (Hebrews 6: 1.) "Therefore 
leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto 
perfection," etc. 

Charles L. Walker, writing from St. George, remarks that 
this passage, as here quoted, is rather a stumbling block than a 
faith-promoter to some young men. "It is argued," says he, "and 
rightly too: 'How can we leave the principles of Christ and yet 
obtain salvation, seeing that it takes all the principles of Christ to 
insure salvation and exaltation in the kingdom of God? For the 
benefit of some of the young men, I wish to refer to a matter that 
will throw a gleam of light on the passage referred to, and render 
it more congenial to the minds of Latter-day Saints who strongly 
believe in revelation and inspiration, as these proceed from God's 
servants in authority. I heard the blessed Patriarch Hyrum Smith 
make the following statement, in Nauvoo, at a meeting. He said, 
referring to said scripture passage: 'It is a wrong translation, 
and should read: Having the principles of the doctrine of Christ, 
let us go on to perfection, etc.' It will thus be seen that this 
inspired rendering of the verse by our lamented patriarch sheds a 
beautiful light on this passage heretofore shrouded in mystery and 
doubt." 



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EDITORS TABLE. 389 

We give Elder Walker's testimony as above, because it is cor- 
roborative of the sentiment of the Prophet Joseph as expressed in 
what is known as the "inspired translation" of the Bible, in which 
the verse referred to reads as follows: 

Therefore, not leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let 
us go on to perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance 
from dead works, and of faith toward God. 

While on this point, a word may be profitably said on the 
method of "translation" adopted by the Prophet Joseph. It should 
be remembered that rather than a translation it was a revision; 
but it can scarcely be called a revision either, and ought rather to 
be named a partial topical explanation of the scriptures. The 
method adopted was this: The Prophet had a large German Bible 
upon the margins of which he made the corrections as he was 
inspired while studying certain topics of the scriptures. One sub- 
ject at a time was taken, and every reference to that subject was 
looked over, and where needed, corrected. But only a very small 
number of all the subjects were ever thus considered. Some 
most excellent corrections were made, but perhaps there were a 
dozen or more subjects or principles in certain chapters where 
one only was corrected. Hence it is that while one topic, as in 
the chapter referred to in Hebrews, has been explained, and much 
light thrown upon it, it does not follow and is not true that the 
Prophet either "revised" or "translated" the whole chapter or 
considered every subject therein. And this may be said of nearly 
all the chapters in the scriptures. But he finished whatever sub- 
ject he took up; and this interpretation must be placed upon the 
expression, "finished the translation of the scriptures," found in 
the history of Joseph Smith. 



ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPT OP THE BOOK OP MORMON. 



As confirming the statement made by President Joseph F. 
Smith in the November, 1899, number of the Era, that the orig- 



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890 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

inal manuscript of the Book of Mormon was deposited in the south- 
east corner of the Nauvoo House by the Prophet Joseph, on 
October 2, 1841, and was never at any time in the possession of 
David Whitmer, the following evidence will be of interest: J. S. 
Black, of Hinckley, Millard County, writes to the editor of the 
Era: 

"With elders Andrew Jenson and Edward Stevenson, I made 
a trip to the Eastern States, in 1889. We called at Richmond, 
Missouri, and were shown the manuscript of the Book of Mormon 
in the possession of the Whitmers. We then went to the Statefof 
New York, and called on Mr. Gilbert, at Palmyra, the printer of 
the first copies of the Book of Mormon. From certain marks 
which he described, familiar to Brother Jenson, we were satisfied 
that what we had seen at the Whitmers was the printer's copy. 
Before leaving Salt Lake City, Apostle F. D. Richards showed us 
a part of what he said was the original manuscript which had 
been deposited in the Nauvoo House. Upon our arrival in Nauvoo 
Mr. L. G. Bidaman, the husband of Emma Smith, gave us the 
remainder of the manuscript in his possession, of which I have 
quite a roll. When I returned home, I exhibited my manuscript, so 
obtained, to Lewis Barney, my brother-in-law, and one of the 
pioneers, who said: 1 stood near the Prophet Joseph, in Nauvoo, 
and saw him deposit the manuscript and other articles, and heard 
him say that it was the original manuscript of the Book of 
Mormon/ " 



NOTES. 



Don't wait for great opportunities; seize common occasions and 
make them great. — Orison S. Marden. 

Literature, medicine, law and other occupations are cramped and 
hindered for want of men to do the work, not for the work to do. If 
you wish to test the truth of this statement, hunt up a first-class editor, 



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NOTES. 391 

reporter, business manager, foreman of a machine shop, mechanic, or 
an artist in any branch of industry, and try to hire him. You will find 
him already hired. If you need idlers, shirkers, half-instructed, comfort- 
seeking editors, lawyers, doctors and mechanics, apply elsewhere. They 
are plentiful. — Mark Twain. 

There is a thought that came to my mind while reading Milton's 
'Taradise Lost" which impresses me as being good. The proceedings of 
God towards Satan and Adam show to us that he punishes the disobedient 
by banishing them from his presence. We may still enjoy the constant 
presence of our Father, through his Spirit, by obeying his commands. 
But if we disobey his commands, disregard the requirements that invite 
the presence of the Holy Spirit, we too are banished from his presence, 
i. e. the Comforter leaves us. — W. Hosier. 

While at work in the field one day, and speaking to my sons on 
tithing, an old gentleman came up to us. 

"Brother John Zimmerman," I said to him, '1 have often told my 
boys that you paid tithing before you were a member of The Church T 

"Yes," he answered, '1 paid tithing ten years before I was baptized." 

A person once asked him how it was he paid tithing when he did 
not belong to The Church. His answer was that he paid tithing and when 
his children were sick, he sent for the elders, and saved doctors' bills. 
All of Brother Zimmerman's family are faithful members of The Church. 
— W. W. Taylor. 

"I may here impart the secret of what is called good and bad luck," 
said Addison. "There are men who, supposing Providence to have an 
implacable spite against them, bemoan in the poverty of old age the 
misfortunes of their lives. Luck forever runs against them, and for 
others. One with a good profession lost his luck in the river, where he 
idled away his time a-fishing. Another with a good trade perpetually 
burnt up his luck by his hot temper, which provoked all his employees to 
leave him. Another with a lucrative business lost his luck by amazing 
diligence at everything but his own business. Another who steadily 
followed his trade, as steadily followed the bottle. Another who was 
honest and constant in his work, erred by his perpetual misjudgment, — 
he lacked discretion. Hundreds lose their luck by indorsing, by sanguine 
expectations, by trusting fraudulent men, and by dishonest gains. A 
man never has good luck who has a bad wife. I never knew an early- 
rising, hard-working, prudent man, careful of his earnings and strictly 



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392 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

honest, who complained of his bad luck. A good character, good habits, 
and iron industry are impregnable to the assaults of ill luck that fools 
are dreaming of. But when I see a tatterdemalion creeping out of a 
grocery late in the forenoon, with his hands stuck into his pockets, the 
rim of his hat turned up, and the crown knocked in, I know he has had 
bad luck, — for the worst of all luck is to be a sluggard, a knave, or a 
tippler." 

The cynic is one who never sees a good quality in a man and never 
fails to see a bad one. He is the human owl, vigilant in darkness and 
blind to light; mousing for vermin and never seeing noble game. 

The cynic puts all human actions into only two classes, openly bad 
and secretly bad; he holds that no man does a good thing except for 
profit; his insinuations and inuendoes fall indiscriminately upon every 
lovely thing like frost upon the flowers. If Mr. A is pronounced a re- 
ligious man he will reply, "Yes, on Sundays." Mr. B has just joined the 
church. "Certainly, the elections are coming on." The minister of the 
gospel is an example "of diligence. "Tie his trade." Thus his eye 
strains out every good quality and takes in only the bad. To him relig- 
ion is hypocrisy, honesty only a preparation for fraud, virtue only a 
want of opportunity. The live long day he will coolly sit with sneering 
lip, transfixing every character that is presented. 

It is impossible to indulge in such habitual severity of opinion 
against our fellow-men without injuring the tenderness and delicacy of 
our own feelings. A man will be what his most cherished feelings are. 
If he encourage a noble generosity, every feeling will be enriched by it; 
if he nurse bitter and envenomed thoughts, his own spirit will absorb 
the poison, and he will crawl among men like a burnished adder whose 
life is mischief and whose errand is death. 

He who hunts for flowers will find flowers, but he who hunts for 
weeds may find weeds. Let it be remembered that he who is not himself 
morally diseased will have no relish for disease in others. Reject then 
the morbid ambition of the cynic, or cease to call yourself a man. — 
Henry Ward Beecher. 



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OUR WORK. 



ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS. 

ORDER OF ORDAINING AN ELDER. 

What is the regular order of The Church in the presentation and 
ordination of a person to the office of Elder? — H. B. Coles, Point Look- 
out, Utah. 

The person is first selected by the bishopric of the ward in which 
he is a resident, then presented to a regular meeting of such ward and 
there, by the congregation, sustained as worthy. He receives a recom- 
mend to this effect from the ward clerk. Then follows his presentation, 
by the president of the stake, to a regular stake priesthood meeting, 
where, being sustained, he obtains from the clerk, a certificate to this 
effect, which is by him presented to the elders' quorum of his ward. The 
quorum having accepted him, he is then ordained an Elder by the presi- 
dency of that quorum. 

FORM OF THE LORD'S PRAYER. 

What is the proper form of the Lord's prayer as used in The Church t 
—W. MacFarlane, St. John, Tooele Co., Utah. 

The Church authorities have never adopted any form, but for the 
sake of uniformity in reciting, the Sunday School authorities have 
adopted the prayer as found in Matthew, 6: 9-13. The Improvement 
Associations have decided upon no form, the members using both forma 
of the New Testament. 

WHO FIXES THE TITHING PRICES? 

Should a bishop allow market prices for produce, or is he allowed to 



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394 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

put his own price on the tithing paid to him. — J. S. Gibbon*, Coalviile f 
Utah. 

The answer is found in paragraph six of "Instructions to Bishops 
and Stake Tithing Clerks," issued by the First Presidency of The Church 
and W. B. Preston, under date of December 1, 1899: 

"The bishop is the proper person to fix the value of all goods and 
tithes received in his ward, which should be credited at a fair cash 
market price at the time it is received. This will insure an equality of 
credit for tithing." 

Should any question arise as to values, then let the owner sell his 
property, and pay over the cash to the bishop. 

NUMBER OF GOSPEL DISPENSATIONS. 

How many Gospel dispensations have there been, including this 
one? — A. G. Sedgwick, Fairview, Wyoming. 

A dispensation^ described as a time when the heavens are opened 
to man and the Holy Priesthood is bestowed upon him with all its powers 
for the salvation of all who will obey the gospel. There have been very 
many dispensations, for whenever God has revealed himself, it may be 
called a dispensation. The principal dispensations, however, were those 
of Adam, Enoch, Noah, the Brother of Jared, Abraham, Jacob, Moses, 
Lehi, Jesus Christ, and the Dispensation of the Fullness of Times, in 
which we live. (See Jaques' Catechism.) 

CONCERNING ZION. 

Explain the following questions in Manual Lesson XIV: 8. Where 
is the city of Zion to be? 10. Where is the Temple site? 

8. By reference to the Doctrine and Covenants, Section 57: 1-3, it 
appears that the whole land of Missouri is called the land of Zion, and 
that the city of Zion is to be built somewhere in the land of Zion. The 
exact spot has not yet been designated. 

10. The temple site is westward upon a lot not far from the Court 
House, in Independence, Jackson County, Missouri, which is the center 
place of the land of Zion. The first log for a house, and as a foundation 
for Zion in Eaw County, which was laid twelve miles west of Independ- 
ence, was simply a beginning, and was not intended to be the spot where 
the City of Zion was to be located. A distinction should be kept in 
mind concerning the terms: Zion, meaning the whole land of Missouri, 
and perhaps the whole of western America; the City of Zion, not yet 



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OUR WORK. 395 

located, but to be built in the land of Zion; and the Center Place of 
Zion, which is at Independence. 



WALTER M. GIBSON. 



In an article on "Religion in Samoa," on page 178, in the present 
Tolume of the Era, it is stated that Walter M. Gibson ignored the re- 
quest of President Brigham Young to return home with other elders 
who were laboring in foreign lands. This request was made of the 
elders in 1857, upon the approach of Johnston's Army. The statement 
concerning Gibson is wrong in the one particular as to the time. He 
left Utah for the Sandwich Islands in 1861. It was as late as the early 
part of April, 1864, that Elders Ezra T. Benson, Lorenzo Snow, Joseph 
F. Smith, Alma L. Smith and W. W. Cluff visited Gibson on the island 
of Lanai, andlaf ter a conference, excommunicated him. This was done, 
as stated, because of his mismanagement of the affairs of The Church. 
The Era has been promised an interesting sketch of this schemer Gibson, 
and Jiis effort to establish himself on the islands, by Assistant Church 
Historian Andrew Jenson, which will appear in due time. 



THE POWDER AND THE BULLET. 



Has it ever occurred to you that we need more energy in our work? 
When an officer says that the boys are indifferent, that nothing can be 
done to arouse interest, or to get them to work or to study; that the 
Improvement Fund is lagging, and as to getting subscribers for the 
Era, that is quite out of the question; what is wrong? These are but 
small though very essential incidents of the" main work, but they indi- 
cate the tendency. There is little movement, or spirit, to break the dull 
monotony — there is an everlasting lack of energy which is the powder 
of success, and the stuff that wins. 

It was that peculiar old philosopher, Josh Billings, who said: "Many 
men fail to reach the mark because the powder in them is not propor- 
tioned to the bullet." An improvement association may be called a 



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396 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

heavy bullet. It requires considerable powder to push it. It is a 
mighty battle field where all the vim of enthusiasm may well find room 
for profitable action. If the three thousand officers, or more, would 
practice shooting this big bullet of improvement, the energy gathered 
in such effort would aid them later in life in achieving success in other 
ways. 

Orison Swett Harden, the author of several excellent works on suc- 
cess, talks pointedly to young men on this subject of vim, and energy. 
His words are very appropriate for our work: 

"Nothing else, excepting honesty, is so much in demand in these days 
as 'vim.' Everybody believes in it; everywhere we hear; 'Give us a man. 
who can do something; a man who has push; a man with some iron in 
his blood.' Ability is worthless without the power to put it into action. 
Resolutions, however good, are useless without the energy necessary to 
carry them out. Push clears the track; people get out of the way of 
an energetic man. Even small ability with great energy will accomplish 
more than the greatest ability without energy. If fired from a gun with 
sufficient velocity, a tallow candle can be shot through an inch board. 

"On every hand, we see fine young men and women failing, their 
ability going to waste, standing in equilibrium, for the lack of 'force/ 
If we could only shake them up, put a little powder into them, and set 
them going, they might amount to something, but without this they are 
failures. They seem to have every other quality except the power of 
pushing their way in the world, without which almost all their ability i» 
wasted. The finest engine ever made would be absolutely useless with- 
out power to propel it, and drag the load to its destination. 

"The world admires energetic men. Blow them this way and that* 
and they only bend; they never break. Put obstacles in their way, and 
they surmount them. It is almost impossible to keep such men down. 
Trip one up, and instantly he is on his feet again; bury him in the mud, 
and almost instantly he is up and at it again. Such men as he build 
cities, establish schools and hospitals, whiten the ocean with sails, and 
blacken the air with the smoke of their industry. 

"The pathway of life is strewn with wrecks of those who have failed 
because they lacked this propelling power. The moment they strike an 
obstacle, they stop; they have no power to climb or overcome. The 
genius of achievement seems to have been left out of their make-up; 
their blood lacks the iron of energy, the force of accomplishment." 



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EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 

3Y THOMAS HULL, SECRETARY OF THE GENERAL BOARD OF Y. M. M. I. A. 



January 20th, 1900: Horace S. Ensign was installed as leader of 
the Tabernacle Choir in the absence of Evan Stephens in Europe and 
the east. * * * Th e proposition to borrow $20,000 to keep 
the Salt Lake City schools open to the close of the school year, was voted 
4own, at an election, by a vote of 1,410 against, and 350 for. * * * 
Captain J. F. Mills was acquitted of the killing of J. C. O'Melveney. 
The jury agreed in six minutes after reaching its room. * * * 
D. C. Dunbar was chosen president and J. H. Parry secretary of the 
Anti-Vaccination League. * * * The seventh annual meet- 
ing of the Utah Press Association met in Salt Lake City. M. F. Murray 
of Ephraim, was chosen president. * * * The attack for 
the relief of Ladysmith was begun by Gen. Warren under General 
Buller. 

21st: The Jordan Stake of Zion, with about 7,000 members, was 
completely organized: 0. P. Miller, stake president, Hyrum Goff, James 
Jensen, counselors; Elisha Brown, stake superintendent Young Men's 
Mutual Improvement Associations, and Solomon E. Smith and James B. 
Jensen, counselors. 

23d: Congressman B. H. Roberts makes a strong plea in his own 
behalf and his case is thoroughly discussed in the House. * * 
The movement for the relief of Ladysmith is suddenly stopped, 

24th: Commissioner Evans sent a statement to the Senate showing 
the number of pensioners on the rolls on account of the wars of the 
United States: 

"On account of the Revolutionary war, four widows and seven 
-daughters. 

"War of 1812, one survivor, 1,998 widows. 

"Indian wars, 1832 to 1842, 1,656 survivors and 3,889 widows. 

"Mexican war, 9,204 survivors and 8,175 widows. 



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398 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

"Granted since 1861 under general law, 331,555 invalids, and 
92,901 widows and other dependents; under law of 1890, invalids, 420,- 
912; widows and dependents, 130,224." 

25th: By a vote of 268 to 50, Congressman B. H. Roberts of Utah, 
was excluded from the House of Representatives and the seat from Utah 
declared vacant. * * * It is reported that General Warren 
has captured Spionkop with heavy losses. 

27th: An order of the western railroads effective Feb. 1, abolishes 
all commissions paid to local ticket agents. The roads will save millions, 
and the agents will lose. * * * The Granite Stake of Zion, 
Salt Lake County, was organized: Frank Y. Taylor, president and James 
R. Miller and Edwin Bennion counselors; stake superintendent Young 
Men's Mutual Improvement Associations, William C. Winder, with Uriah 
Miller and Joseph Musser, counselors. * * * The Salt Lake 
City schools were closed, pending an appeal to the Supreme Court of a 
decision of Judge Cherry ordering the issuance of a writ of mandamus 
compelling the Board to admit unvaccinated children. * * * 
Captain J. F. Mills forgave his wife, who with her husband and two 
children left for San Francisco. * * * Governor Wells 
issued a proclamation calling a special election to be held on Monday, 
2nd day of April, to elect a successor to Hon. B. H. Roberts. 

28th: At the Battle of Spionkop on the 25th, the British, instead 
of gaining a victory, sustained a loss of 1,500 soldiers from Gen. War- 
ren's force. The London Times says that the catastrophe is perhaps 
"without a parallel except in the surrender of Yorktown." Gen. Butter's 
army is withdrawing south of the Tugela. 

30th: The small pox quarantine in Ogden is completely lifted. 
* * * William Goebel, the Democratic contestant for Gov- 
ernor of Kentucky, who was declared Governor by the Kentucky Con- 
test Board, was shot by an assassin. Harland Whittaker, a farmer 
from Butler County, the home of Governor Taylor, is in jail charged 
with the crime. * * * Q e0m g # Wallace, pioneer of 1847, 
and once President of the Salt Lake Stake, died at Granger. * * * 
The January mining dividend of Utah amounted to $254,900. 

31st: It is announced that England suffered a loss of 2,000 at 
Spionkop and with General Buller's operations north of the Tugela. The 
battle at Spionkop was the most furious conflict in British military his- 
tory. * * * Governor Goebel takes the oath of office as 
Governor of Kentucky; and Governor Taylor proclaims Kentucky in a 
state of insurrection and adjourns the legislature to meet in London, Ky. 

February 1st' The Board of Health decides that Salt Lake school* 



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EVENTS OF THE MONTH. 399 

may safely open. * * * The strength of the British Army 
in South Africa is 145,700. * * * Mrs. Catherine Salisbury, 
sister of the Prophet Joseph Smith, born at Lebanon, N. H., 1812, died 
at her home in Fountain Green, Illinois. 

3rd: Hon. B. H. Robert arrived on the afternoon train from Wash- 
ington. » ♦ » William Goebel, Kentucky's wounded Dem- 
ocratic Governor, dies from the effects of his wounds at 6:45 p. m. 

4th: A fire visited St. Louis, destroying property valued at 
$1,500,000. * * * General Buller re-crosses the Tugela 
and is marching on Ladysmith. 

5th: Hon. B. H. Roberts, by his attorney, pleads not guilty to a 
charge of unlawful cohabitation. # * * <phe bodies of 
Harry A. and John G. Young and Charles Parsons arrived from Manila. 
* * * T. R. Cutler and others purchase one-fourth interest in 
Bear River Canal from David Evans, who formerly held a half interest. 

6th: The Salt Lake Valley Railway Company filed articles of in- 
corporation to build an electric railway between Salt Lake City and 
Ogden. * * * The text of the treaty was made known 
between the United States and Great Britain to facilitate the building 
of the Isthmian Canal and to remove any objections in the Clayton- 
Bulwer treaty of 1850. * * * William H. Taft of Ohio, 
was named by President McKinley as President of the new Philippine 
Commission. 

9th: The third attempt of General Buller to relieve Ladysmith 
ends in defeat * * * Major-General Henry W. Lawton 
was buried today in the National Cemetery, Arlington, Washington D. C. 

11th: Impressive services in memory of the Utah heroes of 
Manila: Dr. Harry A. Young, Corp. John G. Young, W. I. Goodman and 
Charles Parsons, were held in the Salt Lake Tabernacle. Speeches of 
tribute were made by Governor Wells, Judge Le Grand Young, Elders Jos. 
E. Taylor, S. W. Stewart, Dr. Joseph T. Kingsbury, and Dr. James E. 
Talmage. Beautiful music and exquisite floral decorations were offered. 
The bodies afterward lay in state in the City and County building. 

12th: Salt Lake sectarian ministers issue a statement supporting 
a proposed amendment to the Constitution prohibiting polygamy. 

13th: With appropriate ceremonies the bodies of Dr. Harry A. 
Young, Sergt. Ford Fisher, Corp. John G. Young and Privates W. I. 
Goodman and Charles Parsons, five members of Utah's famous artillery 
who met death in the Philippines, were buried with full military honors, 
Sergt. Ford Fisher's body being interred at Mt. Olivet and the others in 
the Salt Lake City cemetery. 



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400 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

14th: W. J. Bateman succeeds N. W. Clayton as manager of the 
Salt Lake and Los Angeles Company * * * Charles E. 
Macrum former Consul at Pretoria gives a statement of his reasons for 
leaving his post. It was to rightly inform the Government of existing 
conditions, and because his mail had been tampered with by the English 
censor. * * * General Roberts enters the Orange Free 
State with an army of nearly 50,000 men, and the British for the first 
time since the war began are inside the Boer frontier. 

15th: Secretary Joseph Chamberlain announced in the House of 
Commons that if the native Zulu territory was invaded by the Boers, 
the natives "will be encouraged and assisted in every way in defending 
themselves." Such action would be a terrible calamity, and would 
mean a savage warfare that would turn South Africa into a hell 
on earth. 

16th: Kimberley is relieved by General French, and General 
Cronje's forces are retreating. In their hasty departure the Boers lost 
large supplies and much ammunition. 

17th: The House Committee on Election submitted a joint resolu- 
tion providing that neither polygamy nor polygamous association shall 
exist or be lawful in the United States nor in any place within its juris- 
diction » * * General Buller renewed fighting on the 
Tugela. The Boers are retiring. 

19th: General Buller has broken the Boer line of fortresses and 
captured the Burghers' position at Monte Chris to. The campaign of 
General Roberts is proving successful * « * ^he case of 
John H. Benbroke, charged with the murder of Burton C. Morris, was 
taken up in Judge Hiles' court. 

20th: It is announced that the Deseret Telegraph Company's lines 
have been purchased by the Western Union # * * Richard 
Mackintosh, a widely known mining man and capitalist died in Salt Lake 
City * * * The Boers are leaving all positions held by 
them on British territory and are concentrating for the defense of 
their own. 



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IMPROVEMENT ERA. 



Vol. m. APRIL, 1900. No. 6. 



THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN- 

THE ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN VIEW COMPARED WITH THAT 
OP THE LATTER-DAY SAINTS. 

BY PROP. J. H. PAUL, PRESIDENT OP L. D. S. COLLEGE, SALT LAKE CITY. 



I. 

The Christian churches believe that the Kingdom of Heaven 
was set up on earth by Christ and the apostles, being identical with 
the church of those days; that it is a spiritual kingdom, not a 
visible one, except in so far as the outward church or churches 
may represent it; that it has been on the earth ever since the day 
of Christ; and that it is even now gradually filling the whole earth. 
A good exposition of the general Christian belief on this point is 
given by the Rev. Robert Jamieson, D. D. of Glasgow, in his com- 
mentary on Psalm 110, which is a sequel to the second psalm, and 
represents the kingdom of the Messiah. The grandeur of the 
theme, the dignity of the language, and the fact that this psalm 
(110) is six times quoted in the New Testament, and every time 
with a reference to Christ, show its Messianic character almost as 
plainly as do the words themselves: 

The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I mak 
thine enemies my footstool. The Lord shall send the rod of thy strength 



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402 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

out of Zion: rale thou in the midst of thine enemies. Thy people shall 
be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holiness from the 
womb of the morning: thou hast the dew of thy youth. The Lord hath 
sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest forever after the order of 
Melchizedek. The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in 
the day of his wrath. He shall judge among the heathen, he shall fill 
the places with the dead bodies; he shall wound the heads over many 
countries. He shall drink of the brook in the way: therefore shall he 
lift up the head. (Psalm 1 10.) 

THE ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN VIEW. 

'The Psalm, which begins in the abrupt style of a lyric, intro- 
duces the reader all at once, in imagination, into the court of 
heaven, when the triumphant Savior on his ascension day enters; 
amid the applause and acclamations of countless multitudes of 
blessed spirits, and far above the most exalted of them, at an 
immense distance, is seen seated on his celestial throne, Jehovah, 
the Lord of all. The Savior, having completed his work on earth, 
has just returned, and as he passes through the happy throng, to 
take, as might be expected, a place with the highest order of 
angels, the voice of Jehovah is heard calling him to sit at his right 
hand. * * * The rod of Christ's strength is the Gos- 
pel, which is described as 'powerful' (Heb. 4: 12), and it was to be 
sent out of Zion— i. e„ the Gospel, by which a rebellious world is 
to be subdued to God and governed by Christ, and should issue 
from Jerusalem, where the hill of Zion stood. (Ps. 14: 7.) And 
the fact corresponded with these predictions; for the apostles, as 
enjoined by the last commands of their Lord, tarried in Jerusalem 
for the promised descent of the Spirit, and after Pentecost began 
to preach the Gospel in that city, which thus became the center 
from which the light of divine truth, that was to diffuse itself 
eventually over the whole world, should emanate. * * * 
Christ actually did rule in the midst of his enemies; for so rapid 
was the propagation of Christianity that, in spite of the combined 
opposition of emperors, philosophers, priests and the countless 
devotees of idolatry, the religion of Christ went on conquering 
and to conquer, till it not only acquired the ascendant but became 
the established faith of the Roman empire. Christ's rule over his 
enemies was exercised in two ways: some who were implacable and 



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THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN. 403 

malignant foes, he overthrew and crashed, such as Herod; while 
others, who constituted a mighty multitude, were converted into 
friends, as Paul. * * * Thy people/ i . e., his soldiers 
were more than willing. * * * Hence the Gospel is 
called the day of his power. * * * Under this bold 
and warlike imagery, the Psalmist describes the moral victories 
which the Prince of Peace accomplishes in the world." 

To the objection of De Wette that this interpretation "can- 
not be of much account, since the Messiah is [in this psalm] 
throughout represented as a theocratic ruler— nay even as a war- 
rior," Mr. Jamieson concedes that, "it is not enough to say that in 
abundance of other passages, the kingdom of the Messiah is repre- 
sented as one of righteousness and peace; and that all these 
descriptions are to be understood of purely spiritual victories, con- 
veyed in warlike imagery. The true answer is this: God has, 
from the beginning, carried forward his kingdom in a two-fold 
line of administration — the providential or outward line, and the 
spiritual or inward. To the outward or providential line belong 
all those mighty movements which have accompanied the progress 
of God's church along her course to the present hour." - 

The saying of Christ, 'The kingdom of God is within you." 
(Luke 17: 21), which is mainly relied upon to prove the correct- 
ness of the Christian tradition, is not at all conclusive after we 
discover that the word translated here "within" is the same word 
that is elsewhere translated "among," as where John says, 'There 
standeth one among you whom you know not" The Revised Ver- 
sion gives the alternative reading, "The Kingdom of God is in the 
midst of you." 

The Kingdom was the theme of the prophets, and the hope of 
John the Baptist (Matt.ll :l-6), and the apostles (Acts 1 : 6,7), none of 
whom supposed they were as yet in the Kingdom nor the Kingdom in 
them. Paul and the others always looked forward to a Kingdom 
yet to be. 

That which I believe to be the scriptural view, representing 
the general belief of the Latter-day Saints as to the Kingdom, is 
summarized in what follows. Owing to the length of the article 
som& desirable quotations are omitted and no comments beyond 
the headings are made upon the texts quoted. 



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404 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

VIEW OF THE LATTER-DAY SAINTS. 

I. The Lord claims paramount authority over the earth; he 
has appointed a king over it, and will certainly establish his 
kingdom. 

Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion. I will declare 
the decree. The Lord said onto me, Thou art my son; this day have I 
begotten thee. (Psalm 2.) 

I have found David, my servant; with my holy oil have I anointed 
him. (Psalm 89.) 

The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand until I make 
thine enemies thy footstool. The Lord shall send the rod of thy strength 
out of Zion: rule thou in the midst of thine enemies. (Psalm 110.) 

Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye which have 
followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit in the 
throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the 
twelve tribes of Israel. (Matthew 19: 28.) 

II. It will be an actual, visible, earthly kingdom, not a so- 
called spiritual one. 

Behold a king shall reign in righteousness, and princes shall rule in 
judgment. * * * And my people shall dwell in a peaceable habita- 
tion, and in sure dwellings, and in quiet resting places. (Isaiah 32: 1, 18.) 

And they shall build houses and inhabit them; and they shall plant 
vineyards and eat the fruit' of them. (Isaiah 65: 21.) 

III. It is to be set up on the earth in a definite place. 

And it shall come to pass in the last days that the mountain of the 
Lord's house shall be established in the top of the mountains, and shall 
be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall flow unto it. And many 
people shall go and say, come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of 
the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his 
ways, and we will walk in his paths; for out of Zion shall go forth the 
law and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. (Isaiah 2: 2, 3.) 

IV. And at a certain appointed time. 

There is a God in heaven that revealeth secrets, and maketh known 
* * * what shall come to pass in the latter days. * * * And in 
the days of these kings [the nations of modern Europe] shall the God of 
heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed; but it shall 
break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand 
forever. (Daniel 2: 44.) 



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THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN. 405 

V. Christ's kingdom will begin in a desert place, which is to 
become fruitful. 

The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them, and 
the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose. * * * And the 
parched ground shall become a pool, and the thirsty land springs of 
water. (Isaiah 85.) „ 

I will open rivers in high places and fountains in the midst of the 
valleys. * * * I will set in the desert the fir tree and the pine and 
the box tree together. (Isaiah 41: 18, 19.) 

Instead of the thorn shall come up the fir tree, and instead of the 
brier shall come up the myrtle tree. (Isaiah 55: 13.) 

VI. Its citizens shall be a people who have been despised and 
downtrodden; but they shall be made great and powerful. 

In that time shall the present be brought unto the Lord of hosts of 
a people scattered and peeled, and from a people terrible from their be- 
ginning hitherto; a nation meted out and trodden underfoot, whose land 
the rivers have spoiled, to the place of the name of the Lord of hosts, 
the mount Zion. (Isaiah 18: 7.) 

A little one shall become a thousand and a small one a strong nation. 
(Isaiah 60: 22.) 

And strangers shall stand and feed your flocks, and the sons of the 
alien shall be your ploughmen and your vine-dressers. But ye shall be 
named priests of the Lord: men shall call you the ministers of our God. 
(Isaiah 61: 5, 6.) 

And all thy children shall be taught of the Lord; and great shall be 
the peace of thy children. No weapon that is formed against thee shall 
prosper; and every tongue that shall rise against thee in judgment thou 
shalt condemn. (Isaiah 54: 13-17.) 

VII. His people shall be unpopular, and shall endure reproach 
and persecution, but shall be known by their fruits. 

Think not that I am come to send peace on the earth: I came 
not to send peace but a sword. For I am come to set a man at vari- 
ance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the 
daughter-in-law against the mother-in-law. And a man's foes shall be 
they of his own household. (Matthew 10: 34-36.) 

Yea, and all that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecu- 
tion. (II. Timothy 3: 12.) 

In this the children of God are manifest, and the children of the 



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406 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

devil: whosoever doeth not righteousness is not of God, neither he that 
loveth not his brother. (John 3: 10.) 

Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them. (Matthew 7: 20.) 

VIII. This kingdom will encounter many enemies and much 
opposition; but the opposition is vain, absurd, and irrational. 

Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? The 
kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, 
against the Lord, and against his anointed, saying, Let us break their 
bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us. He that sitteth in 
the heavens shall laugh; the Lord shall have them in derision. * * * 
Be wise now therefore, ye[kings: be instructed, ye judges of the earth. 
(Psalm 2.) 

IX. The enemies of this kingdom, after being warned, are to 
be overthrown. 

Then shall he speak unto them in his wrath, and vex them in his sore 
displeasure. * * * Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou 
shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel. (Psalm 2.) 

The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of 
his wrath. He shall judge among the heathen, he shall fill the places 
with the dead bodies; he shall wound the heads over many countries. 
(Psalm 110.) 

X. In the overthrow of God's enemies, his people are to be 
the instruments. 

Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties 
of holiness from the womb of the morning; thou hast the dew of thy 
youth. (Psalm 110.) 

Let the saints be joyful in glory: let them sing aloud upon their 
beds. Let the high praises of God be in their mouth, and a two-edged 
sword in their hand; to execute vengeance upon the heathen, and punish- 
ments upon the people; to bind their kings with chains, and their nobles 
with fetters of iron; to execute upon them the judgment written: this 
honor have all his saints. (Psalm 149.) 

(To be concluded in May number.) 



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A RIDE ON THE LOCOMOTIVE OF THE 
"EMPIRE STATE EXPRESS." 

BY GEORGE E. HILL. 



Congress having adjourned for the holiday season, I betook 
myself to the great city of New York, both for the purpose of 
"seeing the sights," and visiting relatives. I landed in the Metrop- 
olis on the day before Christmas, and spent nearly all of the fore- 
part of the week visiting the points of interest in and about the 
city, whose names are legion. 

The mfost exciting and interesting feature of my stay in 
the "big" town was a ride on the engine which pulls the ''Empire 
State Express" from Albany, the State Capital, to New York City, 
a distance of one hundred and forty-three miles, over the New 
York Central and Hudson River Railroad, without a stop. I fully 
realized what the coal dust and other inconveniences attendant 
upon such an undertaking would be, still, I decided to accept the 
invitation to ride. This road extends north from New York to 
Albany and Buffalo, and is recognized as the best equipped rail- 
road in the East. The trains depart from the Grand Central 
Passenger Station, the only one in the city, and which is centrally 
located on Forty-second Street, and Fourth Avenue. It has 
recently been rebuilt, and is now one of the largest and finest 
passenger stations in the world. All the trains of the above named 
company arrive and depart from this depot. There are on an 
average, three hundred and twenty regular passenger trains arriv- 
ing and departing from this station each business day of the year, 
and during the busy season many of these trains are in two sec- 
tions. During the past year, there were nearly fourteen million 



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408 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

passengers in and out of this depot— an average of more than 
thirty-eight thousand per day. An idea of the through train ser- 
vice of the New York Central to the North and West may be 
obtained from the fact that there are twelve trains per day to 
Buffalo, nine to Niagara Falls, eight to Chicago, six to Cleveland, 
five to Detroit, two to Indianapolis and St. Louis, three to Cincinnati, 
two to Toronto, four to Montreal, three to the Thousand Islands, 
two to Adirondack Mountains, eight to Saratoga, and, in addition, 
numerous express trains to local points on the line. All this in 
addition to the freight traffic. 

At 10:30 o'clock on the morning of December 30, 1899, we 
boarded engine No. 872 which has drive wheels six feet six inches 
in diameter, with cylinder stroke of two feet. At a given signal, 
we began to speed northward. On leaving the passenger station, 
the road, which is four-tracked, tunnels under the city for two 
miles, and is then built upon an elevated structure for several 
miles further before reaching the outskirts of the city. From 
the depot to the city limits, on the north, the distance is fourteen 
miles. In traversing this space, the ringing of the locomotive 
bell and the blowing of the whistle, are forbidden by city ordi- 
nance. The use of coal is forbidden in any of the engines while 
traveling over this distance, as the emission of black smoke is 
prohibited within the city limits; coke is used instead of coal to 
generate steam. The road runs close alongside the bank of the 
broad and beautiful Hudson River all the way from New York to 
Albany. This river is four miles across at its widest point, and, dur- 
ing the boating season, literally swarms with all kinds of water 
craft; but at this time of year it is frozen over. To get off Manhattan 
Island, on which New York City is situated, this road passes over 
the Harlem-River draw bridge, the largest swinging bridge in the 
world. Among the points of interest along the west shore of the 
Hudson are the following: the Highlands; the Palisades; West 
Point Military Academy; Newburg; Washington's headquarters 
during the Revolutionary war, where the building he occupied is 
still standing with its contents the same as used by Lafayette and 
Washington; the Pokeepsie bridge across the Hudson, two miles 
long and two hundred feet above the water; and the Catskill 
mountains, the summer resort for New Yorkers; and a number of 



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"EMPIRE STATE EXPRESS." 409 

towns and cities. On the east bank, we passed through Yonkers, 
about thirty-five thousand population; Tarry town, twenty thousand; 
Sing Sing, where the State penitentiary is located, containing 
between twelve and fourteen hundred prisoners, the town having 
about twelve thousand inhabitants; Peekskill, twenty thousand; 
Cold Springs, five thousand; Fishkill, twelve thousand; Rhinebeck, 
eight thousand; city of Hudson, thirty-five thousand; and Albany 
about fifty thousand. The large and magnificent summer resi- 
dences of the Rockefellers, Helen Gould, Vanderbilts, et al, New 
York's millionaires are also situated along the bluffs forming the 
east banks of this noted river. The most noted residence is that 
of Washington Irving, built in 1656, which is still intact. 

About one-half of the distance from New York to Albany the 
road consists of four tracks, and the balance of the way there 
are only two. We made the run going up, in less than four and a 
half hours, arriving at the State Capital at 2:25 p.m. The 
"Empire State Express" is not due in Albany from the West till 
7 p.m., which necessitated our stopping over there four hours, and 
during this time, I visited the State Capitol building, which is an 
elaborate structure, having cost several millions of dollars. Await- 
ing the time of departure, number 872 was run into the round- 
house, examined and cleaned, making it ready for the unparalleled 
trip down again. Promptly at 7 p.m., the engine was attached to 
the "fastest train in the world," and we pulled out upon the (to 
me) thrilling and eventful trip. As soon as we were across the 
bridge spanning the Hudson, and out of the yards, the throttle 
was thrown open, and we began to bound forward, faster and 
faster by every turn of the ponderous wheels, until it seemed to 
me that we were not gliding along over the earth, but were flying 
through space. Buildings and other objects swept by us in an 
almost unrecognizable mass. If a derailment should occur, there 
would be absolutely no hope for the human beings thus being 
hurled along at such tremendous speed. A "slow-down" was 
made three times during the run, in order to scoop water, and 
once in passing through a town, which were the only restrictions 
placed upon the regular momentum maintained through the jour- 
ney. In doing this, of course several minutes each time were lost, 
which made necessary an extra effort to regain lost time. During 



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410 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

some of these spurts, a speed of a mile in forty-five seconds was 
made, which is fast running, especially for a "tender-foot" on an 
engine. We fairly flew through the towns and cities named 
above — through the railroad yards, over switches, and between 
cars and buildings, around curves, and through tunnels, (of which 
there are some twelve along the route), making no allowances 
whatever for such things, the great desire being to reach the 
Metropolis by 10 o'clock, schedule time. This nerve-trying speed 
was kept up the whole distance, and we rolled into the Grand 
Central Station one minute ahead of time. The train consists 
of about seven coaches, and is the pride and boast of New York. 
No other railroad in the world operates a train this distance 
without stopping, and especially at the speed of the "Empire 
State Express." The average speed maintained throughout the 
trip was about forty-eight miles per hour. This continued between 
Salt Lake City and New York would enable one to make the jour- 
ney in about fifty-three hours — a trifle over two days. This, how- 
ever, will not be accomplished until western railroading is more 
perfect than at present. 

This leads to a description of the system employed on the 
New York Central. As before stated, the road is a double-tracked 
one. Trains going north keep on the right track, and those com- 
ing down, run on the left, an arrangement similar to that adopted on 
the double-tracked street car service in our city. Telegraphing 
is not used in managing the running of the trains; but in lieu 
thereof what is known as the "block system" is in vogue. This con- 
sists of small towers erected along the side of the tracks at conven- 
ient distances — about every mile and a half apart. A watchman is 
placed in the top of each one of these block houses, and by means 
of levers he controls an arm which projects out from a pole set 
alongside the railroad. These cross-arms are of different colors, 
each of which has a significant meaning to the engineer. If the 
blue is up, the train going under it must slow down and be under 
full control before the next signal post is reached, and if the red 
arm signal is here up, the train cannot pass this point until it 
drops— denoting that the train ahead had passed the next signal 
up the track. This method prevents the trains from getting any 
nearer together than a mile or mile and a half, and thus obviates 



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"EMPIRE STATE EXPRESS." 411 

collisions — rear-end collisions, which only can occur on these 
roads. At night the same system is successfully operated by 
different colored lights, and hence, as the only obstructions on the 
track can come from trains running in the same direction ahead, 
an engineer, can by noticing the signals, always tell if the road* is 
clear to a certain point With the "Empire State Express" every- 
thing must be out of the way fifteen minutes before it is due. 
This system avoids the possibility of misinterpreting telegraphic 
orders and the like, which usually causes the most disastrous 
wrecks, resulting in gre&t loss of life and property. 

As stated, we slowed up three times to scoop water. This is 
accomplished by a tank some twelve hundred feet long and about 
twenty inches wide, it being situated in the centre of the track 
and filled with water. When water is needed, and while the engine 
is passing over one of these troughs, a scoop, slanting in the 
direction the train is going, is lowered from the tender, and the 
speed of the train forces the water up this scoop-pipe and drops 
it over into the tank. From three thousand five hundred to four 
thousand gallons are thus taken up in about one-half of a minute, 
and the train speeds on its way. 

The tender once loaded with coal lasts the entire trip down 
with the "Empire Express," and in making the round trip, about 
three hundred miles in all, seven tons of coal are used. The fire- 
man is kept busy feeding the furnace which eats up the large 
lumps of coal as if they were of some immaterial substance. The 
same engine makes the trip every day — that is, the company gets 
about a three-hundred-mile trip each day out of their engines; 
but there are two sets of engineers and firemen, who take turn 
about every other day. On coming down, as going up, the bell 
must not be rung, nor the whistle blown, while traversing the dis- 
tance of fifteen or twenty miles in entering New York, thereby 
not disturbing the nerves of the citizens living along the line. 
In conclusion, I will say that there is perhaps nothing more excit- 
ing and thrilling than a ride on a real, live (?), bounding, struggling, 
snorting locomotive, and especially the one that pulls the fastest 
and most famous train in all the world — 'The Empire State 
Express." 



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FOR THE SALVATION OF SOULS. 

A STORY IN TWO PARTS. 



BY NEPHI ANDERSON, AUTHOR OP "ADDED UPON," "A YOUNG FOLKS' 



HISTORY OF THE CHURCH," ETC. 



Part Second. 

No power or influence can or ought to be maintained by virtue of 
the Priesthood, only by persuasion, by long suffering, by gentleness, and 
by love unfeigned; 

By kindness and pure knowledge, which shall greatly enlarge the 
soul without hypocrisy and without guile. 

Reproving betimes with sharpness, when moved upon by the Holy 
Ghost, and then showing forth afterwards an increase of love towards 
him whom thou hast reproved, lest he esteem thee to be his enemy; 

That he may know that thy faithfulness is stronger than the cords 
of death. — Doe. and Cov. See. 121. 

The stake superintendency and aids of the Young Men's 
Mutual Improvement Associations met each week in an upper room 
at the home of the superintendent. There they talked over the 
affairs of the associations and planned for their best interests. 
Their meetings began with the singing of a hymn, then they drew 
their chairs in a circle and by them knelt and offered up their 
prayers to God. Reports of visits to associations were given, sug- 
gestions offered, and then the next week's lesson was recited from 
the manual. Sometimes there were special meetings, as was the 
case the evening when the missionary representing the General 



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FOR THE SALVATION OF SOULS. 413 

Board laid before the officers his instructions to them regarding 
the system of local missionary work. 

That evening the superintendent spoke earnestly of the work 
of improvement among the young men of Zion. "Right in our 
own fair city the enemy of righteousness has planted another 
stronghold in the shape of a saloon, whereby to bring our young 
to destruction. I tell you, brethren, our responsibility is great, 
and we have plenty of work before us. I believe this system of 
quiet, private missionary work will result in much good. Let us 
take hold with a will, put our hearts into it as much as we did 
when doing missionary work in the world, and God will bless us 
and give us souls for our reward." 

At the next regular meeting it was decided that each of the 
stake officers be given the name of a young man that needed labor- 
ing with. Seven names were written on seven slips of paper and 
then distributed to the best advantage. The name on one of the 
slips they all shrank from. 

"Brethren," said the superintendent, "we all appreciate the 
difficulty of this brother's case. I have been thinking which of 
us would likely have the most influence over him and have con- 
cluded that Brother Acton should take this name." 

So William Acton put the slip of paper in his pocket, and said 
he would do his best. Written on that paper was the name of 
Harrison Ware. 

Prom that evening Will Acton began to study Harrison Ware. 
He knew he had no easy task, so he prayed much for assistance. 
Harrison was perhaps five years older than Will. They were not 
very intimate, as they lived in different wards, so Will went out 
of his way to and fro from his work to step into Harrison's grocery 
store to purchase some article and have a chat with him. 

By careful inquiry Will learned fairly well Brother Ware's 
spiritual condition. He had nearly ceased going to meetings. 
During the year past, he had two credit marks on the records of 
the Seventies' quorum. He had never joined the Mutual, though 
he had visited the meetings a number of times shortly after the 
missionaries had visited him last year. Then Will tried to ascer- 
tain where Harrison's interest lay, and that was no hard task. 
Harrison Ware was aspiring to be a leading politician in his ward. 



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414 IMPROVEMENT ERA 

He would rather talk politics than sell groceries. Will studied 
him along this line, and had many chats with him upon political 
principles and party candidates. In time, the missionary concluded 
that the strong hand of party power had Brother Ware in its grasp, 
and was fast squeezing out of him all interest for anything else. 
Even his religion, for which he had sacrificed much, gave way to 
the demands of this partisanship. 

One evening. Will saw Brother Ware's oldest son, a lad of 
about fifteen, enter the corner saloon. The boy did not stay long, 
but it was enough to give the missionary a chance. Next day 
Will called and asked if he could have a talk with Brother Ware. 

"Certainly, come right in, Brother Acton," and he led the way 
into the office. 

"What I wanted to tell you was that I saw your boy George 
go into the saloon last night. I thought as a parent you would 
like to know." 

"George is a little wild I know, but I had no idea that he fre- 
quented the saloon. I am much obliged to you, Brother Acton, 
for letting me know. I will speak to him about it." 

"How is it, does he attend the Mutual Improvement meet- 
ings?' 

"Not as he ought to. I can't get him interested, and then, 
there's Bishop Wild's boys, you know. They lead him off and you 
can't expect — " 

"But, dear brother, don't you think a little example from his 
father in that line would helpr 

The grocer laughed. "Well, perhaps it would; but, you see, 
I haven't the time. Besides, the president of our association is 
a little cranky and — " 

"Look here, Brother Ware, we're all 'cranky' on some things, 
even the best of us are." 

"Yes; you're right there. The best of us are. I suppose you 
heard President Blank's sermon at the Tabernacle last Sunday T 

"Yes; and I saw you there. What did you think of itr 

"It was all bosh, mere bosh. Why, he himself doesn't prac- 
tice that doctrine; and I actually heard of an apostle the other 
day—" 

"Well, HI have to be going," interrupted Will, and he left the 



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FOR THE SALVATION OF SOULS. 415 

store. A certain oppressive feeling always came over him after 
listening to such fault-finding. It made him miserable, and he did 
not enjoy the experience. Had he not been on a mission, he cer- 
tainly would have kept outside the circle of such an influence. 

'Tve underrated my task," thought Will, as he walked home. 
"Brother Ware is already far in the dark. When a man finds fault 
with every officer of The Church from the teacher on his block up, 
then T pity him. There certainly can't be much sunshine in his 
own life. Poor Brother Ware, what can I do to help him?" 

Harrison Ware did not respond to the invitations to attend 
the association meetings. Will thought he became more bitter at 
every talk he had with him. In their meetings some of the officers 
reported some glowing successes, but Will's was not encouraging. 
He had a mind to give up, but his brethren would hot hear of it. 
'The harder the battle, the greater the prize," they said. 

One day, Will Acton brought with him an interesting account of 
some missionary experiences in the Eastern States. Brother Ware 
received Will coldly, bordering on rudeness; but the missionary 
was not to be daunted. He got out his paper and showed him the 
article. 

"You spent over two years in that locality, didn't you?" 

"Yes." 

"I thought you would be interested in the account." 

"Well, Pm not very;" and he went on arranging some goods 
on the shelf. 

They were alone in the store, and Will began reading the arti- 
cle aloud. The merchant listened, and presently came and sat on 
the counter. As the reading proceeded, Will could see the interest 
brighten in the listener's face. The missionary had found a tender 
spot upon which he could make an impression, and the discovery 
gave him renewed courage. He left Brother Ware looking over 
the paper the second time. 

A few days after, as Will called at the grocery store, he was 
greatly surprised to see the blinds down, and a strange name in the 
window as assignee. Harrison Ware had failed. A great pity 
welled up in his heart. He thought of Brother Ware's three boys 
and their neglected condition. (Brother Ware's wife had died 
four years ago.) The grocer had lately been seen visiting the 



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416 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

establishment where the beautiful bottles were displayed. And 
now he had failed in his business. He was going fast down the 
hill, and the efforts of the missionary seemed to have no effect. 
Will tried to find the merchant, but seemingly he tried to avoid 
everybody as much as possible. 

Some days after the assignment Will called at Harrison's 
house and found his rooms vacated. The neighbors said they had 
all moved to Salt Lake City. 

That same evening at the officers' meeting, the name of Har- 
rison Ware was given up; but as Will Acton was walking home, a 
passage of scripture came to him so suddenly that it somewhat 
startled him: 

How think ye? If a man have an hundred sheep, and one of them be 
gone astray, doth he not leave the ninety and nine, and goeth into the 
mountains, and seeketh that which is gone astray? 

And if so be that he find it, verily I say unto you, he rejoiceth more 
of that sheep, than of the ninety and nine which went not astray. 

It was enough for Will Acton. Within a few days, the April 
conference would convene in Salt Lake, and Will got a week off 
and attended. 

It took two days of search and inquiry to locate him. Then 
he found the small family in a little, old, adobe house not far from 
the railroad station. The father was not at home, but the oldest 
boy had taken charge of affairs and had tried to arrange the 
meagre household belongings as comfortably as he could. The 
children seemed pleased with a face they had seen at home. 

It was in the evening, and the father soon came in. Of course 
he was surprised to see his visitor. Harrison showed signs of the 
ordeal through which he was passing, and Will noted the haggard 
expression in his face. Will accepted the invitation to share the 
simple evening meal, and then when the boys had gone to bed the 
missionary began his work in earnest. 

Will led Harrison into telling him about his troubles. Brother 
Ware was not blind to the continued interest his friend took in 
him. Will could see that Harrison was a struggling man. He felt 
that the crisis in the man's life had arrived, and that the powers 
of good and evil were battling for the possession of a soul. Har- 



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FOB THE SALVATION OF SOULS. 417 

rison would make some most bitter accusations, then he would 
melt into a mildness bordering on tears, only to work himself up 
again into a passion against his brethren. 

Elder Acton talked quietly. He felt the Spirit of God rest- 
ing upon him and it gave him power oyer this man. 

"Brother Ware," he said, "your father left his native land for 
the GospePs sake. Your mother suffered in the early persecutions 
for the same cause. I know their one great aim in passing through 
these trials was that their children might be firmly established in 
Zion and in the faith of Christ. Would you be willing that they 
should come tonight, hear what you have said and feel of the 
spirit you have manifested? 

"Never mind answering, Brother Ware. I want to bring you 
back to your early days. Do you believe that when a servant of 
God took you down into the waters of baptism and there immersed 
you for the remission of your sins, that that was an ordinance of 
any consequence? Do you think that when the hands of the elders 
were placed upon your head that you received the Holy Ghost?" 

"I know it." 

"Do you believe that the Gospel is the power of God unto 
salvation?" 

"I have never denied the Gospel, and I hope I never shall. 
The Gospel is true enough, but — " 

"But, dear brother, you stultify yourself. You say the Gos- 
pel is true, yet claim that its ministers are evil-designing men. 
You claim a church can exist pure whose every department is con- 
trolled by wrong-tloers. You do not doubt the validity of your 
baptism, or of that of your children's, yet you can not trust those 
same men with any portion of earthly authority. You call in the 
Priesthood to administer to you and your family, to call down 
heaven's blessings upon you, and you do not question their right, 
' their authority; yet you cannot trust these men in a petty matter 
of worldly moment." 

Harrison had slowly dropped his head, and now sat looking at 
the table. 

"You have a wife in the other world. You love her. You 
were bound to her for all time and eternity, and it is among your 
fondest hopes that some day you will clasp that wife again to 



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418 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

your bosom; that you will call her wife, and she will call you hus- 
band. What would you think should I tell you that the whole 
thing is a delusion and a snare, and that he who performed that 
ceremony, claiming power from on high, was a cheat and a rogue? 
Brother Ware, you would trust these men you have so bitterly 
railed against tonight and many other times, with the most sacred 
desires of your heart, trust them to bring to you the great- 
est gift God can bestow upon man, trust them to perform for you 
ordinances that will insure your eternal salvation and happiness 
in the worlds to come — yet, dear brother, you will not grant them 
the common privilege which every American citizen claims of 
expressing his opinion on a political question — you will not trust 
them in the most insignificant of perishable worldly affairs." 

Harrison did not answer, but tears stood in the man's eyes. 

"You, Brother Ware, have been upon a mission as I have also. 
You have exercised the God-given powers of the Priesthood, and 
you have rejoiced in it. You know it is true. You, no doubt, by 
that same divine authority brought souls into the fold of Christ 
who are now blessing your name and memory for those kind deeds. 
Oh, those were sweet moments, Brother Ware. Those were 
blessed days, employed in the service of the Master for the salva- 
tion of souls. The memory of those mission years comes to us 
now as a holy benediction, as a calm, soothing sweetness distill- 
ing into our troubled souls." 

The two men, as with the same impulse, slipped quietly onto 
their knees. Will Acton prayed aloud. When he had finished, he 
looked at his brother who did not move, neither arose from his 
position, and Will again bowed his face into his hands to pray, this 
time inaudibly. 

A strange feeling had come over him. From the joy of con- 
version, he had relapsed into a feeling that his brother would not 
be completely won by his labors alone. At this critical moment, he 
felt the need of other help, and this help should come from his 
brother's missionary experience, some fellow missionary perhaps, 
who would rivet together firmly the past to the present. All this 
flashed through his mind in an instant, and when he prayed again 
it was that God would send him this assistance. 

A light tap came at the door as the two men arose. 



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FOR THE SALVATION OF SOULS. 419 

"Come in," said Harrison after a short pause. 

A young woman came in with a tray on which steamed three 
bowls of soup. At the sight of the two men she paused at the 
door. 

"I — I beg your pardon/' she said. "I expected to find the 
three boys here, and I brought them some soup." 

She placed the tray on the table and looked at Harrison 
Ware. 

•'Brother Ware P she said. "Brother Ware, is that you? I 
didn't know you lived here. Surely, you are Elder Harrison Ware?" 

'That is my name; and you — to be sure, you are Sister Mar- 
garet Lee. And how are you? You have changed some, but I 
would know you. Well, well, and what a surprise P 

The two shook hands warmly. Will backed out of the way 
and stood looking at them. Then he knew his prayer was answered 
that his re-enforcement had come, and that he could even at that 
moment retire from the field assured of victory. 

Will was introduced, and as he looked into the clear eye and 
open countenance of the young woman, he saw character written 
there. Another little prayer went up from Will's heart, a prayer 
of thanksgiving and gratitude. The three sat around the table 
and talked of the past and a new light came into Harrison's face 
as he recalled his missionary experiences. 

Will let the others do most of the talking. He listened and 
enjoyed their conversation. Margaret said she lived with a family 
a few doors away. She had seen the three boys in the yard a 
number of times, and had pitied their apparently homeless condi- 
tion. Then Harrison had difficulty in speaking, and there came a 
pause in the conversation, during which Will took the three bowls 
from the table and put them on the stove. Then when they were 
sufficiently warm, he placed a bowl before each of them. 

"The boys have gone to bed, Sister Lee, and it won't do to 
have the soup spoil. Help yourselves." 

They all laughed again, and began sipping the warm liquid. 

'This reminds me," said Harrison, "of a Christmas back in the 
missionary field. Don't you remember, Sister Lee?" 

0, yes, she remembered. 

"You see," continued Brother Ware, turning to Will, "Sister 



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420 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

Lee is famous for making good soup, and she became such an 
expert at it that she actually served it once for our Christmas 
dinner. Think of it, the broth from a knuckle bone for a Christmas 
dinner — nothing but the broth, remember." 

"Brother Ware, we had bread and butter with it. Tell the 
straight of it, if you please: and if I remember rightly, you were 
greatly pleased with that dinner." 

"I think it was the best meal I ever ate; and look here, here's 
a coincidence. There were just three of us sitting around a table 
something like this one. Yes, and we had three bowls — 

One for me, and one for you, 
And one for old Sister Hennesey. 

It ought to be Christmas 'now." 

"It is Christmas now," exclaimed Will Acton, as he gave the 
table a tap with his spoon." 

"How do you make that out?" 

"Today is the real Christmas, or rather the anniversary of 
the birth of Christ. Today is the Sixth of April, which is the 
birthday of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ." 

Will arose in making his little speech* The others arose 
also; and while they stood there looking at each other, Harrison 
Ware said: 

"You are right. Today is the real Christmas; and doubly real 
it is to me, for today has Christ again been born to me. Again 
has his regenerating power been exercised in my behalf. I see the 
brink whereon I stood, the depth and awful darkness into which I 
was going. 0, God, be praised for your love, brother, your patience 
and long-suffering; and for you, dear sister, that have come 
again into my life with your smile and your sunshine from heaven. 
I am so weak. You must both help me. You must not desert 
me. 0, God, forgive my sins and help me to overcome them. 
Bless my brother, bless my sister, bless us all in the name of Jesus. 
Amen." 

And the other two said fervently, "Amen." 



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COLLECTION OF ANECDOTES. 



THERE IS A LIFE BEYOND. 

BY SAMUEL L. ADAMS. 



The object I have in presenting the following narrative to the 
readers of the Era is to add one more testimony, to the many 
which God has revealed, that there is a resurrection and a life beyond. 
The Lord God appeared to Adam, in Eden; to Abraham, on the 
plains of Manure; to Moses; and at the baptism of Christ, let his 
approving voice attest the divinity of the Savior. Moses and Elias 
appeared on the Mount of Transfiguration; and we read of proph- 
ets standing in the presence of John on the Isle of Patmos. The 
angel Moroni appeared in this generation; and, further, the Father 
and the Son appeared to the Prophet Joseph Smith, showing that 
they still live, yesterday, today and forever! 

Time after time, the angel appeared until the plates containing 
the record of the Book of Mormon had been translated and brought 
forth, and shown to the natural eyes of the witnesses. Then there 
was the vision in the Kirtland Temple, followed later, and to this 
day, by consoling manifestations to thousands of the children of 
God who have bowed in obedience to his commands — such as 
tongues, interpretations, prophecy, visions, healings, ministering of 
angels, — all for the comfort of the Saints, and to establish them 
in the truth. 

I will now relate what occurred in the year 1865, as I recently 
wrote in a letter to my grandson, Walter Adams, now on a mission 
in Germany: 

"Dear Grandson: — In June, 1865, an epidemic of diphtheria 



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422 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

raged in St. George. Two of our children, John H. and Minerva 
Adams were attacked, and died within twenty-four hours. Our 
home was filled with gloom. One of the most devoted mothers 
mourned as only mothers can, and, like Rachel of old, would not be 
comforted. Days and nights passed without sleep or comfort, and 
the marks of suffering began visibly to affect her mind. The 
neighbors remarked how miserable was her life. Our neighbor, 
Apostle Erastus Snow, came to our home occasionally to speak a 
word of comfort and try to change the trend of despair. Seeing 
the condition of things, he said: 

" 'Sister Emma, you must desist from this course, or these 
little children will soon have no mother. Since the Lord has seen 
proper to deprive you of the company of two, would it not be 
wiser and better on your part to make the best, trying to care for 
the remaining ones?' 

"With this, she burst forth in tears and said, '0, that God 
would only lighten my heart with the knowledge of where my 
children are; or if any one has care of them! To me, they are 
gone, I see them in my mind in a fathomless abyss, from whence 
they may never return to me? 

"She then sank in despair; whereupon the apostle made the 
following prophetic utterance: 

" 'Sister Emma, I wish you to desist from encouraging these 
despondent feelings, and rely upon God, the Father; and if you 
will do so, God our Father shall give you a witness of where your 
children are and by whom taken care of.' 

"This promise was made in the name of the Lord, and while 
I was present, and was afterwards made use of by me to inspire 
her in the belief of its fulfillment, when moments of despair came 
over her. Four or five weeks passed; her nerves had quieted 
down to a great extent, and she continued in the blessed task of 
caring for the little ones left her. 

"It was a day late in July or early in August. The sun had 
set. The mother said to her eldest daughter, twelve or thirteen 
years of age: 

" 'Elenor, go to the bed-room and get me Ettie's night-dress.' 
The girl obeyed, starting through the dining room from the east 
portico where her mother sat. 



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COLLECTION OF ANECDOTES. 423 

"No sooner had the child pushed open the bed-room door than 
she stood transfixed, gazing upon one of the loveliest sights ever 
beheld by mortal eyes. It was a lady dressed in white, with dark 
folds of hair hanging over her shoulders. She had a pleasant, 
happy countenance, which smiled upon the girl, and she bore two 
children in her arms. Fear fled from the little girl, who continued 
to look until her mind was satisfied. She identified two of the 
children; she had nursed and cared for one of them nearly two 
years, but he was standing, holding to the skirts of the young 
lady — that was John— -the other which she recognized was on the 
left arm, and this one she had nursed for a few months only — this 
was Minerva. But there was still another little girl which she 
describes as a little one twelve or thirteen months old, her age and 
face she could not comprehend while she stood there trying to 
discover who it was. The vision presently passed away. 

"Returning to her mother in a very excited condition, she 
exclaimed: 'Mother, I know you will not believe me! I cannot 
tell what has happened!' She continued in this way until about 
nine o'clock next morning, when, to our great joy, she related the 
foregoing facts. When she had spoken of John and Minerva, she 
asked, 'Who was the little girl that appeared to be twelve or 
thirteen months old?' We then told her it was her twin sister 
who died at the age of thirteen months. She described her dress, 
even mentioning the narrow satin ribbon tied to her little shoes, 
so that mother could not fail to know that it was her darling 
Emma. 

"The foregoing was no dream; it was an open vision given to 
one whose young mind was not capable of concocting stories of 
that kind. Besides, she had never seen the young lady who thus 
appeared bef or her, but she told her story of description so plainly 
that her mother knew who she was. 

"To complete the foregoing, my wife had a dream some nights 
afterwards. She awoke me saying: 'My mother has just left me. 
My dream is so real that I feel she was in the room with me. 0, 
she has given me so much comfort! I asked her if she knew 
where my children were, and she replied, 'Yes, Ellen Emma has 
charge of your children. You know she is one of your faith, and 
that people are all happy together.' 'Well, mother, can't you go 



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424 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

and mingle with Ellen Emma and our people? I asked. She replied, 
'Not yet; the Lord will open a way during your life time, by which 
I can be admitted to that class of people, for I believe as they do, 
and wish to be one of them." 

'Thus ended the vision and also the dream which brought 
peace, joy and comfort to our home in those days of bereavement, 
trial and distress. Now, Walter, the yonng lady was your grand- 
ma's niece, through whom your grandma received the Gospel, and 
she was laid away just as your Aunt Elenor described her. May 
God grant you a confirming testimony of the foregoing, is the 
prayer of your grandsire, 

"Samuel L. Adams" 



MEMORIES OP THE PAST— REFLECTIONS ON THE FALL OF 

NAUVOO. 

BY HON. JESSE N. SMITH. 



Some years ago, when crossing the Atlantic, the writer met 
with an incident which awakened what to him were interesting 
reflections. The ocean voyage had produced the usual effect upon 
the passengers; being brought face to face with the grand and awe- 
inspiring ocean, all were more or less lifted out of the narrow 
grooves of creed and party. Each must feel his insignificance, 
and also his dependence upon the care and providence of the great 
Creator. 

We had on board a young Illinoisan who seemed to conceal his 
identity, while his avowed object in going abroad was to help to 
free Ireland from her connection with the government of Great 
Britain. He was in short a Fenian. Thoughts of Robert Emraett 
immediately occurred to me, as this man was handsome and well- 
spoken. One morning he singled me out on the deck and asked 
the favor of some conversation. Withdrawing a little apart he 
said: "How do you 'Mormons' feel toward us Illinoisans for driv- 
ing you out of our state in 1846 V Though taken somewhat by 
surprise, the question opened a subject of great interest to me. I 



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COLLECTION OF ANECDOTES. 425 

replied that I could not undertake to answer for the "Mormon" 
people, but speaking for myself, I felt that a grievous wrong was 
committed, a wrong so great that I could not describe its scope or 
consequences, a wrong for which no reparation had ever been pro- 
posed or attemped, so great as to be beyond the power of man to 
condone or palliate, and must therefore be left in the hands of 
God. 

He distinctly disclaimed all responsibility in the matter, urging 
for himself that at that time he was so young that he could have 
no lot nor part in such proceedings, and making the same claim for 
those then in power throughout the state, and maintaining the 
Ingersoll doctrine, that the children are not responsibe for the sins 
of their fathers; this, so far as the moral responsibility was con- 
cerned. But he did not deny that the state was responsible to the 
"Mormons" for pecuniary damages. 

The conversation ended, but in reflecting upon the subject, I 
could see no sufficient reason for discarding the scriptural doctrine 
that God will remember the sins of the Fathers against the 
children unto the third and fourth generations of them that hate 
him. Of one thing I was fully assured, the good actions of par- 
ents descend upon their children like a benediction. 

Mr. Gushing had just negotiated the Alabama Claims Treaty 
by which Great Britain paid to citizens of the United States, fifteen 
millions of dollars in damages done to merchants and others who 
lost ships on the high seas through the depredations of the 
Alabama and other confederate cruisers. But Mr. Gushing was 
pleading the cause of the rich who Ho doubt furnished money to 
help the case along. Whoever interested himself for the poor 
and the unpopular? The mind reverts to the good Savior of the 
world, who raised up from death the son of the widow of Nain and 
sent him home to help his mother. But who of the great and 
noble of earth have interested themselves for the suffering Latter- 
day Saints? One only, so far as I call to mind, the manly, the 
noble Thomas L. Kane, whose description of the exodus from 
Nauvoo will remain a lasting monument to his memory. Where 
were the other great men, statesmen and philanthropists? The 
tender-hearted Lincoln who lived in Springfield, Illinois, in the 
immediate neighborhood where Brockman's mob forces were mus- 



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426 IMPROVEMENT ERA. 

tered, organized, armed and equipped for their expedition — why 
was Lincoln's voice not heard in opposition to these outrageous 
and lawless proceedings? 

My mother, with her two children left the doomed city of 
Nauvoo a few months before the final tragedy, but we were not 
so far away but we could hear the cannon shots during the three 
days of the final struggle. Shortly after, there came a trusted 
man with a team from Council Bluffs to take us on. 

We divided our scanty belongings once more, (they had been 
divided before,) taking only the things most needed; we gladly 
turned our faces westward, to follow the Twelve into the wilder- 
ness, "seeking the phantom of another home." 

We soon joined the fugitives from the battle, for whom teams 
had also come from the Bluffs. They were all more or less enfeebled 
through want and exposure; many had ague, and some of the 
men were suffering with gunshot-wounds received in the battle; 
they had no medicines, no comforts for the sick. In the solemn 
stillness of the night, I heard a man very earnestly pray for death; 
his wife succumbed but a few days before, and he was very weak. 
His prayer was not immediately answered, he lived to be very 
useful and to raise an honorable family in the valley. They related 
the miracle of the quails which came in great numbers to their 
starving camp, and were picked up living by old and young. I 
listened closely to their recital of the incidents of the battle, of 
the good conduct of Esquire Wells, the bravery of William Cutler, 
John Gheen and Charles Lambert, and the heroism of Captain 
Anderson, who fell. 



A BROTHER'S DEFINITION OP GROSS DARKNESS. 

BY C. L. WALKER. 



During the early 40*8 Apostle Parley P. Pratt deemed it wis- 
dom to inaugurate some out-door or street preaching in a rather 
aristocratic and populous district of the Manchester Conference. 



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COLLECTION OF ANECDOTES. 427 

If I remember rightly, Brother Peter S was appointed to hold 

meetings in this district! Brother S was zealous for the 

spread of the Gospel, though but a novice in Biblical lore, and by 
trade a salesman in a small-ware shop where spool-thread, cotton 
balls, buttons, etc., were sold by the gross or otherwise. On a 

bright Sunday morning in June Brother S , armed with his 

Bible and hymn book, sallied out to fill his first appointment on 
Oxford Road, in sight of All Saints Church. He got along fairly 
well with the opening exercises; then came the trying ordeal of 
preaching to the motley crowd that had gathered around him dur- 
ing the singing. With a deep sense of humility before God, he 
opened his pocket Bible and took for his text Isaiah 60: 2, laying 
particular stress and emphasis upon the sentence, "darkness shall 
cover the earth, and gross darkness the people." He had hardly 
closed his Bible when a pompous local preacher interrupted him, 
and in a sarcastic manner, said: "Can the deluded 'Mormon' 
tell us what gross darkness means?' 

Brother S was nonplused for a moment; then like a flash, 

his business transactions over the counter came to his aid: "Yes," 

replied Brother S , "anybody knows that a gross is twelve 

dozen; therefore gross darkness means that the minds of the peo- 
ple are one hundred and forty-four times darker than the earth." 

Shouts of laughter and jeers went forth from the crowd at 
the expense of the local divine, who hastily disentangled himself 
from the by-standers, humiliated and crestfallen, beating a hasty 
retreat down Oxford Road, a much wiser man as to what gross 
darkness meant, at least from the standpoint of Brother S . 



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BE NOT DISCOURAGED. 

BY PRESIDENT W. W. CLUFP, OP THE SUMMIT STAKE OF ZION. 



When young Elders are sent on missions and meet with oppo- 
sition, prejudice and indifference, so general in the world, they 
often feel more or less discouraged. They often travel days and 
weeks without apparently having made a single convert; are 
refused a night's lodging, or even a meal of victuals, and are pos- 
sibly reviled and threatened with violence. Under these circum- 
stances, they are sometimes inclined to feel that their labors are in 
vain. They should remember, however, that Christ met with simi- 
lar difficulties and discouragements, yet he said to his disciples: 
"I say unto you, that likewise joy shall be in heaven over one sin- 
ner that repenteth, more than over ninety and nine just persons, 
which need no repentance. Likewise I say unto you, there is joy 
in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner that repent- 
eth"; and his apostle, James, admonishes the Saints: "Let him know, 
that he which converteth the sinner from the error of his way 
sh